gaba agents


Summary: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

Top Publications

  1. Scimemi A, Semyanov A, Sperk G, Kullmann D, Walker M. Multiple and plastic receptors mediate tonic GABAA receptor currents in the hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10016-24 pubmed
    ..The relative contribution of these components changes after the induction of epilepsy, implying an adaptive plasticity of the tonic current in the presence of spontaneous seizures. ..
  2. Pavlov I, Savtchenko L, Kullmann D, Semyanov A, Walker M. Outwardly rectifying tonically active GABAA receptors in pyramidal cells modulate neuronal offset, not gain. J Neurosci. 2009;29:15341-50 pubmed publisher
  3. Shaygannejad V, Janghorbani M, Ghorbani A, Ashtary F, Zakizade N, Nasr V. Comparison of the effect of topiramate and sodium valporate in migraine prevention: a randomized blinded crossover study. Headache. 2006;46:642-8 pubmed
    ..This effect of topiramate and sodium valporate has previously been shown to reduce migraine headache, and we postulate that treatment with topiramate and sodium valporate may have a similar benefit. ..
  4. Shahien R, Saleh S, Bowirrat A. Intravenous sodium valproate aborts migraine headaches rapidly. Acta Neurol Scand. 2011;123:257-65 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). No serious adverse events were reported. Intravenous Sodium Valproate (iVPA) seems to be safe and rapidly effective for intractable migraine attack. Randomized, double-blinded, controlled studies are warranted. ..
  5. Erdemoglu A, Ozbakir S. Valproic acid in prophylaxis of refractory migraine. Acta Neurol Scand. 2000;102:354-8 pubmed
    ..The mean average dosage of valproic acid was 1,250 mg daily. Most of the side effects are mild and tolerable. These results suggest that valproic acid is effective and safe in the treatment of refractory migraine headache. ..
  6. Richer M, David M, Villeneuve L, Trieu P, Ethier N, Pétrin D, et al. GABA-B(1) receptors are coupled to the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway in the absence of GABA-B(2) subunits. J Mol Neurosci. 2009;38:67-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our observations show that GABA-B(1A) receptors are able to activate the ERK1/2 pathway despite the absence of surface targetting partner GABA-B(2) in both HEK 293 cells and the DI-TNC1 cell line. ..
  7. Yamantürk Celik P, Unlucerci Y, Sevgi S, Bekpinar S, Eroglu L. Nitrergic, glutamatergic and gabaergic systems in lithium toxicity. J Toxicol Sci. 2012;37:1017-23 pubmed
    ..The inhibition of glutamate metabolism may arise from this interaction and the involvement of GABA-ergic system should be further investigated in this toxicity. ..
  8. Lorincz M, Crunelli V, Hughes S. Cellular dynamics of cholinergically induced alpha (8-13 Hz) rhythms in sensory thalamic nuclei in vitro. J Neurosci. 2008;28:660-71 pubmed publisher
  9. Brooks P, Peever J. Glycinergic and GABA(A)-mediated inhibition of somatic motoneurons does not mediate rapid eye movement sleep motor atonia. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3535-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data refute the prevailing hypothesis that REM atonia is caused by glycinergic inhibition. The inhibitory mechanism mediating REM atonia therefore requires reevaluation. ..

More Information

Publications112 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kaur K, Baur R, Sigel E. Unanticipated structural and functional properties of delta-subunit-containing GABAA receptors. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:7889-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that the delta-subunit can contribute to the formation of an agonist site in alpha(1)-beta(3)-alpha(1)/beta(3)-delta receptors. ..
  2. Storer K, Reeke G. ?-Aminobutyric acid receptor type A receptor potentiation reduces firing of neuronal assemblies in a computational cortical model. Anesthesiology. 2012;117:780-90 pubmed
    ..GABAA facilitation both directly and indirectly inhibits the ability of neurons to form groups spontaneously. A lack of group formation is consistent with some theories of anesthetic-induced loss of memory formation and consciousness. ..
  3. Gareri P, Lacava R, Cotroneo A, Bambara V, Marigliano N, Castagna A, et al. Valproate-induced delirium in a demented patient. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;49 Suppl 1:113-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Tueting P, Davis J, Veldic M, Pibiri F, Kadriu B, Guidotti A, et al. L-methionine decreases dendritic spine density in mouse frontal cortex. Neuroreport. 2010;21:543-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Mazade R, Eggers E. Light adaptation alters the source of inhibition to the mouse retinal OFF pathway. J Neurophysiol. 2013;110:2113-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger GABAergic input could reflect an adjustment of OFF bipolar cell spatial inhibition, which may be one mechanism that contributes to retinal spatial sensitivity in the light. ..
  6. Howland R. Pharmacotherapy for insomnia. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2005;43:13-6 pubmed
  7. Qi S, Liu Y, Wang W, Wang M, Zhang G. Neuroprotection of ethanol against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced brain injury through GABA receptor activation. Brain Res. 2009;1276:151-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show a novel potential mechanism underlying ethanol protective effects. ..
  8. Lillis K, Kramer M, Mertz J, Staley K, White J. Pyramidal cells accumulate chloride at seizure onset. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;47:358-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results support a model in which pre-ictal GABA(A) receptor-mediated chloride influx shifts E(GABA) to produce a positive feedback loop that contributes to the initiation of seizure activity. ..
  9. Sato I, Arima H, Ozaki N, Watanabe M, Goto M, Hayashi M, et al. Insulin inhibits neuropeptide Y gene expression in the arcuate nucleus through GABAergic systems. J Neurosci. 2005;25:8657-64 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that insulin inhibits NPY gene expression in the arcuate nucleus through GABAergic systems. ..
  10. Engin E, Treit D. The effects of intra-cerebral drug infusions on animals' unconditioned fear reactions: a systematic review. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1399-419 pubmed publisher
  11. Kumar A, Goyal R, Prakash A. Possible GABAergic mechanism in the protective effect of allopregnenolone against immobilization stress. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;602:343-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0 mg/kg) and potentiated by muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) pretreatments (P<0.05). Present study suggests that allopregnenolone's protective effect could be due its interaction with gamma-amino butyric acid receptor complex. ..
  12. Tzovaras G, Tsiaoussis J, Athanasakis E, Zoras O, Xynos E, Chrysos E. Effect of sodium valproate on esophageal motility in healthy subjects and patients with gastroesophageal reflux. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2004;39:521-6 pubmed
    ..01). Sodium valproate increases normal and reduced tonic activity of the human LES and reduces the number of reflux episodes in health and GERD. This action could be attributed to a central GABAergic mechanism. ..
  13. Saliba R, Michels G, Jacob T, Pangalos M, Moss S. Activity-dependent ubiquitination of GABA(A) receptors regulates their accumulation at synaptic sites. J Neurosci. 2007;27:13341-51 pubmed
  14. Brickley S, Mody I. Extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors: their function in the CNS and implications for disease. Neuron. 2012;73:23-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Extrasynaptic GABA(A)Rs may therefore present a therapeutic target for treatment of these diseases, with the potential to enhance cognition and aid poststroke functional recovery. ..
  15. Lewelt A, Krosschell K, Scott C, Sakonju A, Kissel J, Crawford T, et al. Compound muscle action potential and motor function in children with spinal muscular atrophy. Muscle Nerve. 2010;42:703-8 pubmed publisher
    ..CMAP correlates well with motor function and has potential value as a relevant surrogate for disease status. ..
  16. Lopes A, Ganzer L, Borges A, Kochenborger L, Januário A, Faria M, et al. Effects of GABA ligands injected into the nucleus accumbens shell on fear/anxiety-like and feeding behaviours in food-deprived rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;101:41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that emotional changes evoked by pharmacological manipulation of the GABA neurotransmission in the AcbSh are not linked with changes in food intake. ..
  17. Kangarlu Haghighi K, Oryan S, Nasehi M, Zarrindast M. The effect of BLA GABA(A) receptors in anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit induced by ACPA. EXCLI J. 2015;14:613-26 pubmed publisher
    ..All previous GABA agents did not have any effects on anxiety-like behaviors...
  18. Li C, Yan Y, Cheng J, Xiao G, Gu J, Zhang L, et al. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Causes Reduced Exploratory Behavior in Mice Under Approach-Avoidance Conflict. Neurosci Bull. 2016;32:127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggested that TLR4 is crucial for positive motivational behavior under approach-avoidance conflict. TLR4-dependent activation of neurons in the NAcSh may contribute to this phenomenon. ..
  19. Peixoto M, Araujo N, Silva R, Castro J, Fukushiro D, Faria R, et al. Effects of gabaergic drugs on reserpine-induced oral dyskinesia. Behav Brain Res. 2005;160:51-9 pubmed
    ..These results reinforce the involvement of GABAergic hypofunction in the expression of oral dyskinesias, and support the potential therapeutic use of THIP and baclofen in the treatment of oral dyskinesias. ..
  20. Kolozsi E, MacKenzie R, Roullet F, deCatanzaro D, Foster J. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid leads to reduced expression of synaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin 3 in mice. Neuroscience. 2009;163:1201-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This lowered expression may be linked to autistic-like behavioral phenotype observed in the VPA mice. ..
  21. Xia J, Xiong J, Wang H, Duan S, Ye J, Hu Z. Presynaptic inhibition of GABAergic synaptic transmission by adenosine in mouse hypothalamic hypocretin neurons. Neuroscience. 2012;201:46-56 pubmed publisher
  22. Alexeev M, Grosenbaugh D, Mott D, Fisher J. The natural products magnolol and honokiol are positive allosteric modulators of both synaptic and extra-synaptic GABA(A) receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62:2507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, significant side-effects and risk of drug interactions would also be expected. ..
  23. Verrotti A, Greco R, Spalice A, Chiarelli F, Iannetti P. Pharmacotherapy of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. Pediatr Neurol. 2006;34:1-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of available oral and parenteral drugs for treatment of spasticity in cerebral palsy and to outline indications and contraindications. ..
  24. Tosco P, Lolli M. Hydroxy-1,2,5-oxadiazolyl moiety as bioisoster of the carboxy function. A computational study on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) related compounds. J Mol Model. 2008;14:279-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Figure 4-(omega-aminoalkyl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole-3-ol analogues of GABA. ..
  25. Suñol C, Babot Z, Cristofol R, Sonnewald U, Waagepetersen H, Schousboe A. A possible role of the non-GAT1 GABA transporters in transfer of GABA from GABAergic to glutamatergic neurons in mouse cerebellar neuronal cultures. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:1384-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitory action of beta-alanine and high concentrations of nipecotic acid and guvacine on GABA transport strongly suggests that also GAT2 or GAT3 (HUGO nomenclature) could play a role. ..
  26. Zahm D. Pharmacotherapeutic approach to the treatment of addiction: persistent challenges. Mo Med. 2010;107:276-80 pubmed
    ..It is noted further that relapse remains the most persistent challenge in the treatment of addictions. ..
  27. Caputo F, Francini S, Brambilla R, Vigna Taglianti F, Stoppo M, Del Re A, et al. Sodium oxybate in maintaining alcohol abstinence in alcoholic patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21:450-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, alcoholics with co-morbid borderline disorders appear to be at high risk of developing craving for and abuse of the drug; therefore, SMO may not be indicated in these patients...
  28. Allen N, Rossi D, Attwell D. Sequential release of GABA by exocytosis and reversed uptake leads to neuronal swelling in simulated ischemia of hippocampal slices. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3837-49 pubmed
    ..These data show that ischemia releases GABA initially by exocytosis and then by reversal of GAT-1 transporters and that the resulting Cl- influx through GABA(A) receptor channels causes potentially neurotoxic cell swelling. ..
  29. Sofuoglu M, Poling J, Gonzalez G, Gonsai K, Kosten T. Cocaine withdrawal symptoms predict medication response in cocaine users. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2006;32:617-27 pubmed
    ..This hypothesis needs to be tested in prospective clinical trials. ..
  30. Li P, Shu H, Wang C, Mennerick S, Zorumski C, Covey D, et al. Neurosteroid migration to intracellular compartments reduces steroid concentration in the membrane and diminishes GABA-A receptor potentiation. J Physiol. 2007;584:789-800 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that previous studies overestimate the minimum concentration of steroid capable of potentiating GABA actions at GABA-A receptors. The results have implications for the physiological role of endogenous neurosteroids. ..
  31. Irwin R, Allen C. GABAergic signaling induces divergent neuronal Ca2+ responses in the suprachiasmatic nucleus network. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;30:1462-75 pubmed publisher
  32. Zeilhofer H, Benke D, Yevenes G. Chronic pain states: pharmacological strategies to restore diminished inhibitory spinal pain control. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012;52:111-33 pubmed publisher
  33. Patterson M, Balough B. Review of pharmacological therapy for tinnitus. Int Tinnitus J. 2006;12:149-59 pubmed
    ..This review reveals no compelling evidence suggesting the efficacy of any pharmacological agent in the treatment of tinnitus. Analysis of prior investigations provides insight to appropriate methods for future work, which are outlined. ..
  34. Krishnan B, Centeno M, Pollandt S, Fu Y, Genzer K, Liu J, et al. Dopamine receptor mechanisms mediate corticotropin-releasing factor-induced long-term potentiation in the rat amygdala following cocaine withdrawal. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:1027-42 pubmed publisher
    ..CRF interactions with the DA system in the amygdala may represent a fundamental neurochemical and cellular mechanism linking stress to cocaine-induced neuronal plasticity...
  35. Al Wadei H, Plummer H, Ullah M, Unger B, Brody J, Schuller H. Social stress promotes and ?-aminobutyric acid inhibits tumor growth in mouse models of non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012;5:189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with GABA reversed the effects of stress. Our findings suggest that social stress stimulates NSCLC by increasing nAChR-mediated stress neurotransmitter signaling and that GABA is a promising novel agent for NSCLC intervention. ..
  36. Tannenbaum P, Tye S, Stevens J, Gotter A, Fox S, Savitz A, et al. Inhibition of Orexin Signaling Promotes Sleep Yet Preserves Salient Arousability in Monkeys. Sleep. 2016;39:603-12 pubmed publisher
  37. Soragna A, Bossi E, Giovannardi S, Pisani R, Peres A. Relations between substrate affinities and charge equilibration rates in the rat GABA cotransporter GAT1. J Physiol. 2005;562:333-45 pubmed
    ..Together these observations suggest a kinetic basis for GABA affinity with higher turnover rates resulting in lower affinity, and indicate that an efficient uptake requires a compromise between these two parameters. ..
  38. Rodriguez Arias M, Aguilar M, Manzanedo C, Minarro J. Preclinical evidence of new opioid modulators for the treatment of addiction. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2010;19:977-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence, new options are emerging and different pharmacological strategies are now being tested. ..
  39. Filip M, Frankowska M, Gołda A, Zaniewska M, Vetulani J, Przegalinski E. Various GABA-mimetic drugs differently affect cocaine-evoked hyperlocomotion and sensitization. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;541:163-70 pubmed
    ..The finding that vigabatrin protected against the development and the expression of cocaine sensitization further supports its therapeutic potential in the treatment of cocaine dependence. ..
  40. Dunlop B, Papp L, Garlow S, Weiss P, Knight B, Ninan P. Tiagabine for social anxiety disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007;22:241-4 pubmed
    ..Results of this pilot study suggest that tiagabine may be an option for the treatment of patients with SAD. Larger, controlled studies are required to fully elucidate the potential of tiagabine for the treatment of SAD. ..
  41. Kidambi S, Yarmush J, Fong W, Kamath S, SchianodiCola J, Nahmias Y. Propofol induces ERK-dependant expression of c-Fos and Egr-1 in neuronal cells. Neuroreport. 2009;20:657-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that clinically relevant concentrations of propofol induce c-Fos and Egr-1 expression through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediated and gamma-aminobutyric acid-A independent pathway. ..
  42. Starer J, Chang G. Hyperammoneic encephalopathy, valproic acid, and benzodiazepine withdrawal: a case series. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2010;36:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..This underscores the need for a better evidence base regarding the prevention of seizures during acute benzodiazepine detoxification, particularly in terms of indications, safety, and efficacy. ..
  43. Tujioka K, Ohsumi M, Sakamoto K, Thanapreedawat P, Akao M, Kim M, et al. Effect of dietary ?-aminobutyric acid on the brain protein synthesis rate in hypophysectomized aged rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2011;57:285-91 pubmed
    ..The RNA activity is at least partly related to the fractional rate of brain protein synthesis. ..
  44. Wu X, Chen P, Dallas S, Wilson B, Block M, Wang C, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors up-regulate astrocyte GDNF and BDNF gene transcription and protect dopaminergic neurons. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;11:1123-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that astrocytes may be a critical neuroprotective mechanism of HDAC inhibitors, revealing a novel target for the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  45. Escalera G, Ferrer I, Marina L, Sala P, Salomons G, Jakobs C, et al. [Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: decrease in 4-OH-butyric acid levels with low doses of vigabatrin]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2010;72:128-32 pubmed publisher
    ..After 1 year of treatment with low-doses of vigabatrin of the older patient, a decrease in gamma-hydroxybutyric acid plasma levels and a slow clinical improvement were observed. ..
  46. Englbrecht J, Pogatzki Zahn E. [Pain management after ambulatory surgery in Germany]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2010;45:44-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In Germany, these techniques are not frequently used but need to be considered in the future to optimize postoperative pain management after ambulatory surgery. ..
  47. Leniger T, Pageler L, Stude P, Diener H, Limmroth V. Comparison of intravenous valproate with intravenous lysine-acetylsalicylic acid in acute migraine attacks. Headache. 2005;45:42-6 pubmed
    ..Both drugs were effective in acute migraine attacks with a trend in favor of iLAS. As both drugs were well tolerated, further studies with higher doses of iVPA for the treatment of acute migraine attacks are recommended. ..
  48. Thase M. Bipolar depression: diagnostic and treatment considerations. Dev Psychopathol. 2006;18:1213-30 pubmed
    ..Studies of adults indicate that several forms of focused psychotherapy may improve longer term outcomes. ..
  49. Rissman R, Mobley W. Implications for treatment: GABAA receptors in aging, Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. J Neurochem. 2011;117:613-22 pubmed publisher
    ..When developing AD therapeutics that modulate GABA it is important to consider how E/I balance impacts AD pathogenesis and the relationship between seizure activity and cognitive decline...
  50. Chirumbolo S. Plant-derived extracts in the neuroscience of anxiety on animal models: biases and comments. Int J Neurosci. 2012;122:177-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Biases about several aspects related with experimental setting, animal selection, environments, operators and investigators, selection and performance of behavioral tests, controls, results managing, and statistics are here discussed...
  51. Geurts F, De Schutter E, Dieudonné S. Unraveling the cerebellar cortex: cytology and cellular physiology of large-sized interneurons in the granular layer. Cerebellum. 2003;2:290-9 pubmed
  52. Canas N, Pereira I, Ribeiro J, Sebastião A. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor facilitates glutamate and inhibits GABA release from hippocampal synaptosomes through different mechanisms. Brain Res. 2004;1016:72-8 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that BDNF influences in an opposite way, through distinct mechanisms, the release of glutamate and the release of GABA from hippocampal synaptosomes. ..
  53. Kendell S, Krystal J, Sanacora G. GABA and glutamate systems as therapeutic targets in depression and mood disorders. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2005;9:153-68 pubmed
  54. Zwanzger P, Rupprecht R. Selective GABAergic treatment for panic? Investigations in experimental panic induction and panic disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2005;30:167-75 pubmed
  55. Brichta L, Holker I, Haug K, Klockgether T, Wirth B. In vivo activation of SMN in spinal muscular atrophy carriers and patients treated with valproate. Ann Neurol. 2006;59:970-5 pubmed
    ..We provide first proof of the in vivo activation of a causative gene by valproic acid in an inherited disease and discuss strategies of monitoring drug response in patients. ..
  56. Blumenfeld A, Schim J, Chippendale T. Botulinum toxin type A and divalproex sodium for prophylactic treatment of episodic or chronic migraine. Headache. 2008;48:210-20 pubmed
    ..04) and discontinued because of adverse events (DVPX 27.6% vs BoNTA 3.3%, P = .012). Both BoNTA and DVPX significantly reduced disability associated with migraine; BoNTA had a favorable tolerability profile compared with DVPX. ..
  57. Rehni A, Singh I, Kumar M. Tramadol-induced seizurogenic effect: a possible role of opioid-dependent gamma-aminobutyric acid inhibitory pathway. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008;103:262-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is suggested that tramadol exerts a seizurogenic effect on mice possibly via an opioid-dependent gamma-aminobutyric acid inhibitory pathway. ..
  58. Mastrangelo M, Mariani R, Spalice A, Rocchi V, Iannetti P. Stupor and fast activity on electroencephalography in a child treated with valproate. Pediatr Neurol. 2009;41:53-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The action of valproate in GABA metabolism and in GABA neuronal networks could produce a similar result through a hyperrecruitment of GABA-mediated postsynaptic transmission. ..
  59. Boschen M. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of pregabalin in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Can J Psychiatry. 2011;56:558-66 pubmed
    ..239 on somatic anxiety symptoms. Pregabalin is an efficacious therapy for GAD, although effect sizes are smaller than those from earlier studies. Limitations and future research directions are discussed. ..
  60. Guo L, Yeh M, Cuzon Carlson V, Johnson Venkatesh E, Yeh H. Nerve growth factor in the hippocamposeptal system: evidence for activity-dependent anterograde delivery and modulation of synaptic activity. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7701-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results advocate a novel anterograde, TrkA-mediated NGF signaling in the CNS. ..
  61. Kochar D, Rawat N, Agrawal R, Vyas A, Beniwal R, Kochar S, et al. Sodium valproate for painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. QJM. 2004;97:33-8 pubmed
    ..Sodium valproate is well-tolerated, and provides significant subjective improvement in painful diabetic neuropathy. ..
  62. Fregosi R, Luo Z, Iizuka M. GABAA receptors mediate postnatal depression of respiratory frequency by barbiturates. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2004;140:219-30 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of GABAA receptors slowed respiratory rhythm from the first postnatal day, with no change in efficacy over the first 3 days of life. ..
  63. Glauser T. Behavioral and psychiatric adverse events associated with antiepileptic drugs commonly used in pediatric patients. J Child Neurol. 2004;19 Suppl 1:S25-38 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the overwhelming body of data on the behavioral effects of phenobarbital should convince clinicians that, whenever possible, it should not be used as the initial-or even the second-monotherapy in children with epilepsy. ..
  64. Abdou A, Higashiguchi S, Horie K, Kim M, Hatta H, Yokogoshi H. Relaxation and immunity enhancement effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration in humans. Biofactors. 2006;26:201-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, GABA administration could enhance immunity under stress conditions. ..
  65. Karila L, Gorelick D, Weinstein A, Noble F, Benyamina A, Coscas S, et al. New treatments for cocaine dependence: a focused review. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;11:425-38 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological agents such as GABA agents (topiramate, tiagabine, baclofen and vigabatrin) and agonist replacement agents (modafinil, disulfiram, ..
  66. Magnusson A, Park T, Pecka M, Grothe B, Koch U. Retrograde GABA signaling adjusts sound localization by balancing excitation and inhibition in the brainstem. Neuron. 2008;59:125-37 pubmed publisher
  67. Xu C, Zhao M, Poo M, Zhang X. GABA(B) receptor activation mediates frequency-dependent plasticity of developing GABAergic synapses. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:1410-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with our finding that activation of GABA(B)Rs is frequency dependent, these results indicate that postsynaptic GABA(B)R activation mediates frequency-dependent potentiation of developing GABAergic synapses. ..
  68. Janszky J. [Role of zonisamid in treating epilepsy, Parkinson disorders and other neurological diseases]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009;62:383-9 pubmed
    ..A peculiar benefit of the ZNS is that parallel to its positive effect on motor impairment it also reduces severity of dyskinesias. ZNS may be effective in bipolar disorder, obesity, eating disorders, and migraine prophylaxis. ..
  69. Tanchuck M, Cozzoli D, He I, Kaufman K, Snelling C, Crabbe J, et al. Local changes in neurosteroid levels in the substantia nigra reticulata and the ventral tegmental area alter chronic ethanol withdrawal severity in male withdrawal seizure-prone mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37:784-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, EtOH withdrawal reduced sensitivity of GABAA Rs to GABAergic neurosteroids in 2 neuroanatomical substrates within the basal ganglia in WSP-1 male mice. ..
  70. Sallam M, El Gowilly S, Abdel Galil A, El Mas M. Central GABAA receptors are involved in inflammatory and cardiovascular consequences of endotoxemia in conscious rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2016;389:279-88 pubmed publisher
    ..c. tiagabine (GABA reuptake inhibitor) or vigabatrin (GABA transaminase inhibitor). These data suggest a major role for central GABAA receptors in the inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of endotoxemia. ..
  71. Goel R, Kumar V, Mahajan M. Quinazolines revisited: search for novel anxiolytic and GABAergic agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005;15:2145-8 pubmed
    ..A systematic approach through computer assisted design to identify novel quinazolines having anxiolytic and GABAergic activity has been reported. ..
  72. Thakur V, Rupar C, Ramsay D, Singh R, Fraser D. Fatal cerebral edema from late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in a juvenile male patient receiving valproic acid. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2006;7:273-6 pubmed
    ..Valproic acid exacerbates acute elevations in ammonia and may contribute synergistically with ammonia to cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. ..
  73. Deng S, Chen S, Lu J, Wang Z, Nikolic D, van Breemen R, et al. GABAergic phthalide dimers from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. Phytochem Anal. 2006;17:398-405 pubmed
    ..Both dimers 1 and 2 were found to be active in an in vitro GABAa receptor-binding assay with IC50 values of 29 and 24 microM, respectively. ..
  74. Marcade M, Bourdin J, Loiseau N, Peillon H, Rayer A, Drouin D, et al. Etazolate, a neuroprotective drug linking GABA(A) receptor pharmacology to amyloid precursor protein processing. J Neurochem. 2008;106:392-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore indicate a relationship between GABA(A) receptor signalling, the alpha-secretase pathway and neuroprotection, documenting a new therapeutic approach for AD treatment. ..
  75. Goffin D, Aarum J, Schroeder J, Jovanovic J, Chuang T. D1-like dopamine receptors regulate GABAA receptor function to modulate hippocampal neural progenitor cell proliferation. J Neurochem. 2008;107:964-75 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, in conditions where NP cell proliferation is under the tonic suppression of GABA, agonists which act through D1-like dopamine receptors may increase the proliferation of neural progenitors. ..
  76. Sánchez Mejorada E, Sánchez Mondragon G, Pineda J, Gonzalez M, Barral J. N-type calcium channels mediate a GABA(B) presynaptic modulation in the corticostriatal synapse in turtle's paleostriatum augmentatum. Synapse. 2009;63:855-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that N and P/Q channels participate in the neurotransmitter release, whereas only N-type Ca2+ channels are involved in the presynaptic modulation of GABA(B) in the corticostriatal synapse of the turtle. ..
  77. Liu B, Ohishi K, Yamamura K, Suzuki K, Monma F, Ino K, et al. A potential activity of valproic acid in the stimulation of interleukin-3-mediated megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis. Exp Hematol. 2010;38:685-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a novel role for VPA in enhancing the potential of IL-3 to stimulate megakaryopoiesis as well as erythropoiesis and suggest a new therapeutic approach of epigenetic therapy for hematological disease. ..
  78. Dobashi T, Tanabe S, Jin H, Nishino T, Aoe T. Valproate attenuates the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance. Neurosci Lett. 2010;485:125-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the modulation of GSK3? activity by valproate may be useful and may play a role in the prevention of morphine tolerance. ..
  79. Stone T, Lui C, Addae J. Effects of ethylenediamine--a putative GABA-releasing agent--on rat hippocampal slices and neocortical activity in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;650:568-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The results emphasise the complex pharmacology of simple amines in bicarbonate-containing solutions. ..
  80. McClendon E, Chen K, Gong X, Sharifnia E, Hagen M, Cai V, et al. Prenatal cerebral ischemia triggers dysmaturation of caudate projection neurons. Ann Neurol. 2014;75:508-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These global disturbances in dendritic maturation and glutamatergic synaptic transmission suggest a new mechanism for long-term motor and behavioral disabilities in preterm survivors via widespread disruption of neuronal connectivity. ..
  81. Weaver D. "Organic" pseudoseizures as an unrecognized side-effect of anticonvulsant therapy. Seizure. 2004;13:467-9 pubmed
    ..The term "organic pseudoseizures" is used to denote this group of medication related behavioural alterations. ..
  82. Roberge C, Beaudet M, Anderson A. GABA(A)/central benzodiazepine receptor and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands as inducers of phenobarbital-inducible CYP2B and CYP3A. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004;68:1383-9 pubmed
    ..However the EC(50) values found for the agents tested encourage further investigation on the possible involvement of the GABA(A) receptor in PB induction. ..
  83. Umeda K, Suemaru K, Todo N, Egashira N, Mishima K, Iwasaki K, et al. Effects of mood stabilizers on the disruption of prepulse inhibition induced by apomorphine or dizocilpine in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;553:157-62 pubmed
    ..3 mg/kg, s.c.), lithium carbonate exacerbated the dizocilpine-induced disruption. These results suggest that valproate, carbamazepine and lithium carbonate reverse the disruption of prepulse inhibition through the dopaminergic system. ..
  84. Hatam M, Kharazmi F, Nasimi A. Vasopressin and sympathetic systems mediate the cardiovascular effects of the GABAergic system in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Neurosci Res. 2009;65:347-52 pubmed publisher
  85. Dufour Rainfray D, Vourc H P, le Guisquet A, Garreau L, Ternant D, Bodard S, et al. Behavior and serotonergic disorders in rats exposed prenatally to valproate: a model for autism. Neurosci Lett. 2010;470:55-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Early embryonic exposure to VPA in rats provides a good model for several specific aspects of autism and should help to continue to explore pathophysiological hypotheses. ..
  86. De Chiara V, Angelucci F, Rossi S, Musella A, Cavasinni F, Cantarella C, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor controls cannabinoid CB1 receptor function in the striatum. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8127-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study identifies a novel mechanism of CB(1)R regulation mediated by BDNF and cholesterol metabolism and provides some evidence that DA D(2)R-dependent modulation of striatal CB(1)R activity is mediated by this neurotrophin. ..
  87. Marco S, Protti D, Solomon S. Excitatory and inhibitory contributions to receptive fields of alpha-like retinal ganglion cells in mouse. J Neurophysiol. 2013;110:1426-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations therefore reveal functional diversity in the inhibitory inputs to OFF ganglion cells and suggest that in addition to enhancing operational range these inputs help shape the spatial receptive fields of ganglion cells. ..
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  89. Campos R, Carillo B, Oliveira Sales E, Silva A, Silva N, Futuro Neto H, et al. Role of the caudal pressor area in the regulation of sympathetic vasomotor tone. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2008;41:557-62 pubmed
    ..In this brief review, we will address the importance of the ventrolateral medulla neurons for the generation of resting sympathetic tone related to arterial blood pressure control focusing on two regions, the RVLM and the CPA. ..
  90. Kantrowitz J, Citrome L, Javitt D. GABA(B) receptors, schizophrenia and sleep dysfunction: a review of the relationship and its potential clinical and therapeutic implications. CNS Drugs. 2009;23:681-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study is needed. ..
  91. Stephens G. G-protein-coupled-receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition in the cerebellum. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009;30:421-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, I focus on inhibitory synapses between interneurons and Purkinje cells, which are subject to strong, identifiable regulation by endogenous GPCR agonists, to consider mechanisms of GPCR-mediated presynaptic inhibition. ..
  92. Bhat R, Axtell R, Mitra A, Miranda M, Lock C, Tsien R, et al. Inhibitory role for GABA in autoimmune inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2580-5 pubmed publisher
    ..GABAergic agents act directly on APCs, decreasing MAPK signals and diminishing subsequent adaptive inflammatory responses to myelin proteins. ..