cholinergic agonists


Summary: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.

Top Publications

  1. Szabó G, Holderith N, Gulyás A, Freund T, Hajos N. Distinct synaptic properties of perisomatic inhibitory cell types and their different modulation by cholinergic receptor activation in the CA3 region of the mouse hippocampus. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:2234-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that not only are the basic synaptic properties of perisomatic inhibitory cells distinct, but acetylcholine can differentially control the impact of perisomatic inhibition from different sources...
  2. Bruchfeld A, Goldstein R, Chavan S, Patel N, Rosas Ballina M, Kohn N, et al. Whole blood cytokine attenuation by cholinergic agonists ex vivo and relationship to vagus nerve activity in rheumatoid arthritis. J Intern Med. 2010;268:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we addressed the hypothesis that inflammatory cells from RA patients can respond to cholinergic agonists with reduced cytokine production in the setting of reduced vagus nerve activity...
  3. Tan J, Deng Z, Liu S, Wang J, Huang C. TGF-beta2 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: expression and secretion regulated by cholinergic signals in vitro. Curr Eye Res. 2010;35:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the (i) effect(s) of cholinergics on the expression and secretion of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(2) in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and (ii) mechanism of action of atropine in the treatment of myopia...
  4. Gulledge A, Bucci D, Zhang S, Matsui M, Yeh H. M1 receptors mediate cholinergic modulation of excitability in neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9888-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that M1 receptors facilitate cue detection behaviors and are both necessary and sufficient for most direct effects of ACh on pyramidal neuron excitability. ..
  5. Thangjam G, Agarwal P, Balapure A, Rao S, Kondaiah P. Regulation of extracellular matrix genes by arecoline in primary gingival fibroblasts requires epithelial factors. J Periodontal Res. 2009;44:736-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data highlight the importance of arecolineinduced epithelial changes in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. ..
  6. Fenik V, Kubin L. Differential localization of carbachol- and bicuculline-sensitive pontine sites for eliciting REM sleep-like effects in anesthetized rats. J Sleep Res. 2009;18:99-112 pubmed publisher
  7. Disney A, Aoki C, Hawken M. Cholinergic suppression of visual responses in primate V1 is mediated by GABAergic inhibition. J Neurophysiol. 2012;108:1907-23 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand the local circuit action of ACh, we iontophoresed cholinergic agonists into the primate primary visual cortex (V1) while presenting optimal visual stimuli...
  8. de Jongh R, van Koeveringe G, van Kerrebroeck P, Markerink van Ittersum M, de Vente J, Gillespie J. Damage to the bladder neck alters autonomous activity and its sensitivity to cholinergic agonists. BJU Int. 2007;100:919-29 pubmed
    ..In turn this contributes to the increased sensations of urge associated with bladder dysfunction. The cholinergic regulation of this altered 'pacemaker' might be the target for one of the therapeutic actions of anticholinergic drugs. ..
  9. Khurana S, Chacon I, Xie G, Yamada M, Wess J, Raufman J, et al. Vasodilatory effects of cholinergic agonists are greatly diminished in aorta from M3R-/- mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;493:127-32 pubmed

More Information


  1. Mann E, Suckling J, Hajos N, Greenfield S, Paulsen O. Perisomatic feedback inhibition underlies cholinergically induced fast network oscillations in the rat hippocampus in vitro. Neuron. 2005;45:105-17 pubmed
    ..AMPA receptor-mediated recurrent excitation was necessary for the synchronization of interneuronal discharge, which strongly supports a synaptic feedback model for the generation of hippocampal gamma oscillations. ..
  2. Renuka T, Savitha B, Paulose C. Muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor binding alterations in pancreas during pancreatic regeneration of young rats. Endocr Res. 2005;31:259-70 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the increased muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor subtypes stimulate insulin secretion and islet cell proliferation during the regeneration of pancreas. ..
  3. Lauand F, Ruginsk S, Rodrigues H, Reis W, de Castro M, Elias L, et al. Glucocorticoid modulation of atrial natriuretic peptide, oxytocin, vasopressin and Fos expression in response to osmotic, angiotensinergic and cholinergic stimulation. Neuroscience. 2007;147:247-57 pubmed
    ..The present data also suggest that these responses are modulated by glucocorticoids...
  4. Reboreda A, Raouf R, Alonso A, Séguéla P. Development of cholinergic modulation and graded persistent activity in layer v of medial entorhinal cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:3937-47 pubmed
    ..All these data suggest that the implementation of mnemonic properties in mEC principal neurons matches the ontogenic development of afferent cholinergic circuits and their signaling components...
  5. Rukhadze I, Fenik V, Branconi J, Kubin L. Fos expression in pontomedullary catecholaminergic cells following rapid eye movement sleep-like episodes elicited by pontine carbachol in urethane-anesthetized rats. Neuroscience. 2008;152:208-22 pubmed
    ..transmission in brain somato- and viscerosensory, somatomotor, and cardiorespiratory pathways...
  6. Carr D, Surmeier D. M1 muscarinic receptor modulation of Kir2 channels enhances temporal summation of excitatory synaptic potentials in prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:3432-8 pubmed
    ..As a consequence of this dual modulation, the responses to a single, isolated afferent volley was reduced, but the response to a high-frequency afferent burst was potentiated...
  7. Nguyen V, Arredondo J, Chernyavsky A, Pittelkow M, Kitajima Y, Grando S. Pemphigus vulgaris acantholysis ameliorated by cholinergic agonists. Arch Dermatol. 2004;140:327-34 pubmed
    ..Conclusion Elucidation of the cholinergic control of keratinocyte adhesion merits further consideration because of a potential for the development of novel antiacantholytic therapies using cholinergic drugs. ..
  8. Lee K, Jun J, Chang I, Suh S, So I, Kim K. TRPC4 is an essential component of the nonselective cation channel activated by muscarinic stimulation in mouse visceral smooth muscle cells. Mol Cells. 2005;20:435-41 pubmed
    ..4+/-10.4 pA (n=8) at -60 mV. However, slow waves were still present in the knockout mice. Our data suggest that TRPC4 is an essential component of the NSCC activated by muscarinic stimulation in the murine stomach. ..
  9. Fenik V, Davies R, Kubin L. Noradrenergic, serotonergic and GABAergic antagonists injected together into the XII nucleus abolish the REM sleep-like depression of hypoglossal motoneuronal activity. J Sleep Res. 2005;14:419-29 pubmed
    ..We conclude that antagonism of alpha-adrenergic, serotonergic, and GABA(A) receptors are sufficient to abolish the REM sleep-like atonia of XII motoneurons. ..
  10. Zhu M, Chae M, Kim H, Lee Y, Kim M, Jin N, et al. Desensitization of canonical transient receptor potential channel 5 by protein kinase C. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;289:C591-600 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the desensitization of TRPC5 occurs via PKC phosphorylation and suggest that threonine at residue 972 of mouse TRPC5 might be required for its phosphorylation by PKC. ..
  11. Cashin A, Petersson E, Lester H, Dougherty D. Using physical chemistry to differentiate nicotinic from cholinergic agonists at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:350-6 pubmed
    ..These studies illustrate the subtleties and complexities of the interactions between drugs and membrane receptors and establish a paradigm for obtaining detailed structural information. ..
  12. Kubin L, Fenik V. Pontine cholinergic mechanisms and their impact on respiratory regulation. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2004;143:235-49 pubmed
    ..Carbachol models help elucidate the neural basis of respiratory disorders associated with central cholinergic activation. ..
  13. Fenik V, Davies R, Kubin L. Combined antagonism of aminergic excitatory and amino acid inhibitory receptors in the XII nucleus abolishes REM sleep-like depression of hypoglossal motoneuronal activity. Arch Ital Biol. 2004;142:237-49 pubmed
  14. Elvander E, Schött P, Sandin J, Bjelke B, Kehr J, Yoshitake T, et al. Intraseptal muscarinic ligands and galanin: influence on hippocampal acetylcholine and cognition. Neuroscience. 2004;126:541-57 pubmed
    ..In summary, a limited range of cholinergic muscarinic transmission may contribute to optimal hippocampal function, a finding that has important implications for therapeutic approaches in the treatment of disorders of memory function. ..
  15. Yeboah M, Xue X, Duan B, Ochani M, Tracey K, Susin M, et al. Cholinergic agonists attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Kidney Int. 2008;74:62-9 pubmed publisher
    ..protein expression and leukocyte infiltration of the kidney were markedly reduced following treatment with cholinergic agonists. We found functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were present on rat proximal tubule epithelial cells...
  16. Matthiesen S, Bahulayan A, Holz O, Racké K. MAPK pathway mediates muscarinic receptor-induced human lung fibroblast proliferation. Life Sci. 2007;80:2259-62 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that prevention of cholinergic driven fibroblast proliferation by prolonged blockade of airway muscarinic receptors may contribute to the reported long term beneficial effects of anticholinergics. ..
  17. Hajos N, Palhalmi J, Mann E, Németh B, Paulsen O, Freund T. Spike timing of distinct types of GABAergic interneuron during hippocampal gamma oscillations in vitro. J Neurosci. 2004;24:9127-37 pubmed
  18. Bachmann O, Reichelt D, Tuo B, Manns M, Seidler U. Carbachol increases Na+-HCO3- cotransport activity in murine colonic crypts in a M3-, Ca2+/calmodulin-, and PKC-dependent manner. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291:G650-7 pubmed
  19. Rodriguez R, Kallenbach U, Singer W, Munk M. Short- and long-term effects of cholinergic modulation on gamma oscillations and response synchronization in the visual cortex. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10369-78 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate further that coapplication of cholinergic agonists with synchrony-inducing light stimuli causes a lasting increase in the probability that the stimulated ..
  20. Li Y, Gamper N, Hilgemann D, Shapiro M. Regulation of Kv7 (KCNQ) K+ channel open probability by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. J Neurosci. 2005;25:9825-35 pubmed
    ..Divergent apparent affinities of Kv7.2-7.4 channels for PIP2 may underlie their highly differential maximal Po observed in cell-attached patches. ..
  21. Phatarpekar P, Durdan S, Copeland C, Crittenden E, Neece J, Garcia D. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptors in retinal pigment epithelium: role in light-adaptive pigment movements. J Neurochem. 2005;95:1504-20 pubmed
    ..Taken together, pharmacological and molecular evidence suggest that activation of an odd subtype of muscarinic receptor, possibly M5, on fish retinal pigment epithelium induces pigment granule dispersion. ..
  22. Levy R, Reyes A, Aoki C. Nicotinic and muscarinic reduction of unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials in sensory cortex; dual intracellular recording in vitro. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95:2155-66 pubmed
    ..As a result of NMDA receptor dependence, nicotinic EPSP reduction may serve to reduce the local spread of cortical excitation during heightened sensory activity. ..
  23. Hanganu I, Staiger J, Ben Ari Y, Khazipov R. Cholinergic modulation of spindle bursts in the neonatal rat visual cortex in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007;27:5694-705 pubmed
    ..Thus, the cholinergic input facilitates the neonatal V1 spindle bursts and may prime the developing cortex to operate specifically on relevant early (retinal waves) and later (visual input) stimuli. ..
  24. Kim M, Kim B, Lee J, Kwon S, Yeon D, Yang D, et al. Involvement of calmodulin and myosin light chain kinase in activation of mTRPC5 expressed in HEK cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290:C1031-40 pubmed
    ..Application of both Rho kinase inhibitor and MLCK inhibitor inhibited GTPgammaS-induced currents. We conclude that CaM and MLCK modulates the activation process of mTRPC5. ..
  25. Zhang L, Liu Y, Chen X. Carbachol induces burst firing of dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area by promoting calcium entry through L-type channels in the rat. J Physiol. 2005;568:469-81 pubmed
    ..This could establish the L-type channel as a target for modulating the function of the central dopamine system in disease conditions. ..
  26. Cosen Binker L, Morris G, Vanner S, Gaisano H. Munc18/SNARE proteins' regulation of exocytosis in guinea pig duodenal Brunner's gland acini. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:2314-22 pubmed
  27. Kebig A, Kostenis E, Mohr K, Mohr Andrä M. An optical dynamic mass redistribution assay reveals biased signaling of dualsteric GPCR activators. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2009;29:140-5 pubmed publisher
  28. Donnellan F, Keating N, Geoghegan P, Murray F, Harvey B, Keely S. JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase limits calcium-dependent chloride secretion across colonic epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These data further our understanding of mechanisms regulating epithelial secretion and underscore the potential for exploitation of MAPK-dependent signaling in treatment of intestinal transport disorders. ..
  29. Tanahashi Y, Unno T, Matsuyama H, Ishii T, Yamada M, Wess J, et al. Multiple muscarinic pathways mediate the suppression of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in mouse intestinal smooth muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;158:1874-83 pubmed
    ..In addition, another pathway that requires both M2/G(i/o) and M3/G(q/11) systems may be operative in inducing a sustained I(Ca) suppression. ..
  30. McLeod D, Parsons G, Gunther R, Quail A, Cottee D, White S. Differential effects of inhaled methacholine on circumferential wall and vascular smooth muscle of third-generation airways in awake sheep. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012;113:1233-42 pubmed publisher
  31. Newey C, Martin J. Increase in sensitivity of the baroreceptor reflex following microinjection of carbachol into the posterior hypothalamic nucleus of awake rats. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 2016;36:3-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, microinjection of a high dose of CCh (11 nmol) into the PHN alters the sensitivity of the baroreceptor reflex by increasing peripheral levels of AVP. ..
  32. Sapronov N, Nezhinskaya G, Vladykin A. Effects of cholinergic agonists and antagonists under conditions of spleen denervation in rats with endotoxic shock. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2010;149:598-600 pubmed
  33. Sparks D, Chapman C. Cholinergic receptor activation induces a relative facilitation of synaptic responses in the entorhinal cortex during theta- and gamma-frequency stimulation of parasubicular inputs. Neuroscience. 2013;230:72-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These mechanisms likely contribute to the maintenance of effective synaptic communication within parasubicular inputs to the entorhinal cortex during cholinergically induced rhythmic states. ..
  34. Sanchez Catalan M, Kaufling J, Georges F, Veinante P, Barrot M. The antero-posterior heterogeneity of the ventral tegmental area. Neuroscience. 2014;282:198-216 pubmed publisher
    ..and can be seen in response to ethanol, acetaldehyde, salsolinol, opioids including morphine, cholinergic agonists including nicotine, cocaine, cannabinoids and after local manipulation of GABA and serotonin receptors...
  35. Schuler V, Suter K, Fürer K, Eberli D, Horst M, Betschart C, et al. Bryophyllum pinnatum inhibits detrusor contractility in porcine bladder strips--a pharmacological study towards a new treatment option of overactive bladder. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:947-51 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effect was lower than that of the reference substance oxybutynin. It is important to continue in vitro experiments as well as clinical studies with BPJ that might offer a new treatment option for patients with OAB. ..
  36. Pafundo D, Miyamae T, Lewis D, Gonzalez Burgos G. Cholinergic modulation of neuronal excitability and recurrent excitation-inhibition in prefrontal cortex circuits: implications for gamma oscillations. J Physiol. 2013;591:4725-48 pubmed publisher
  37. Kezunovic N, Urbano F, Simon C, Hyde J, Smith K, Garcia Rill E. Mechanism behind gamma band activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:404-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that voltage-dependent P/Q- and, to a lesser extent, N-type calcium channels mediate gamma oscillations in PPN. ..
  38. Afzal A, Ajmal K, Shakir S, Khan B, Ara I. Paroxetine: An update of response on intestinal motility. J Pak Med Assoc. 2016;66:240-2 pubmed
    ..Inability of paroxetine to enhance the serotonergic transmission in vitro causes a decrease in its qualitative response. ..
  39. Zhu H, Bhattacharyya B, Lin H, Gomez C. Skeletal muscle IP3R1 receptors amplify physiological and pathological synaptic calcium signals. J Neurosci. 2011;31:15269-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, blockade or genetic silencing of muscle IP(3)R(1) may be an effective and well tolerated therapeutic strategy in SCS and other conditions of excitotoxicity or Ca(2+) overload. ..
  40. Giordano G, Guizzetti M, Dao K, MATTISON H, Costa L. Ethanol impairs muscarinic receptor-induced neuritogenesis in rat hippocampal slices: Role of astrocytes and extracellular matrix proteins. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;82:1792-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By decreasing fibronectin and laminin levels ethanol prevents carbachol-induced neuritogenesis. These findings highlight the importance of glial-neuronal interactions as important targets in the developmental neurotoxicity of alcohol. ..
  41. Murakami M, Wei M, Ding W, Zhang Q. Effects of Chinese herbs on salivary fluid secretion by isolated and perfused rat submandibular glands. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:3908-15 pubmed
    ..The present findings lead to the conclusion that various CHs have different promotional effects directly on the salivary gland. ..
  42. Sarker R, Valkhoff V, Zachos N, Lin R, Cha B, Chen T, et al. NHERF1 and NHERF2 are necessary for multiple but usually separate aspects of basal and acute regulation of NHE3 activity. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;300:C771-82 pubmed publisher
    ..cAMP-dependent inhibition of NHE3 activity requires either NHERF1 or NHERF2. Stimulation of NHE3 activity by EGF is NHERF1 dependent. ..
  43. de Oliveira R, de Oliveira R, Zanandréa P, Paschoalin Maurin T, Coimbra N. Acetylcholine-mediated neurotransmission within the nucleus raphe magnus exerts a key role in the organization of both interictal and postictal antinociception. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;22:178-85 pubmed publisher
  44. Dheerendra P, Lynch N, Crutwell J, Cunningham M, Smulders T. In-vitro characterization of gamma oscillations in the hippocampal formation of the domestic chick. Eur J Neurosci. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that similar micro-circuitry may exist in the avian and mammalian hippocampal formation, and this is likely to relate to the shared function of the two structures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
  45. Bernal J, Mulet J, Castillo M, Criado M, Sala F, Sala S. Single-channel study of the binding-gating coupling in the slowly desensitizing chimeric alpha7-5HT3A receptor. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:1045-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutated receptor has reduced opening rate constants, beta, and increased closing rate constants, alpha. ..
  46. Kawai H, Raftery M. Kinetics of agonist-induced intrinsic fluorescence changes in the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor. J Biochem. 2010;147:743-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the intrinsic fluorescence changes of the receptor describe a process(es) toward a fast desensitization state prior to the formation of the high affinity state. ..
  47. Tachow A, Thoungseabyoun W, Phuapittayalert L, Petcharat K, Sakagami H, Kondo H, et al. Co-localization of endogenous Arf6 and its activator EFA6D in the granular convoluted tubule cells of mouse submandibular glands under normal conditions and when stimulated by isoproterenol, noradrenaline and carbachol. Arch Oral Biol. 2017;82:153-159 pubmed publisher
    ..EFA6D in the mouse submandibular gland (SMG) under normal conditions and when stimulated by adrenergic or cholinergic agonists. SMGs of male adult mice were utilized for immunoblotting and immuno-light and -electron microscopic ..
  48. Zhao J, Chen P, Gregersen H. Stress-strain analysis of jejunal contractility in response to flow and ramp distension in type 2 diabetic GK rats: effect of carbachol stimulation. J Biomech. 2013;46:2469-76 pubmed publisher
    ..05) and between before and after carbachol application (P>0.05). In GK diabetic rats, the jejunal contractility was hypersensitive to flow and distension stimulation after carbachol application. ..
  49. Jha A, Auerbach A. Acetylcholine receptor channels activated by a single agonist molecule. Biophys J. 2010;98:1840-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5 x 10(-7). Gating changes the stability of the ligand-protein complex by approximately 5.2 kcal/mol for ACh and approximately 3.3 kcal/mol for choline. ..
  50. Sha L, Linden D, Farrugia G, Szurszewski J. Hydrogen sulfide selectively potentiates central preganglionic fast nicotinic synaptic input in mouse superior mesenteric ganglion. J Neurosci. 2013;33:12638-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show for the first time that the facilitatory effect of endogenous H2S in the mouse SMG is pathway specific. ..
  51. Isaac J, Buchanan K, Muller R, Mellor J. Hippocampal place cell firing patterns can induce long-term synaptic plasticity in vitro. J Neurosci. 2009;29:6840-50 pubmed publisher
  52. Bertolini A. Drug-induced activation of the nervous control of inflammation: a novel possibility for the treatment of hypoxic damage. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;679:1-8 pubmed publisher
  53. Ozgur A, Onol F, Ercan F, Tarcan T. Prophylactic role of oral L-arginine on histological and contractile changes in a rat chronic bladder injury model. Urol Int. 2008;81:347-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may indicate the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway as a possible therapeutic target in various bladder diseases associated with urothelial damage. ..
  54. Seo J, Koo N, Choi W, Kang J, Min J, Jo S, et al. Sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling in human submandibular cells. J Dent Res. 2010;89:1148-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that S1P triggers Ca(2+) signaling and the apoptotic pathway in normal submandibular gland cells, which suggests in turn that S1P affects the progression of Sjögren's syndrome. ..
  55. Sekido N, Jyoraku A, Okada H, Wakamatsu D, Matsuya H, Nishiyama H. A novel animal model of underactive bladder: analysis of lower urinary tract function in a rat lumbar canal stenosis model. Neurourol Urodyn. 2012;31:1190-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It was reported that a rat lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LCS) model created by cauda equina compression manifested intermittent claudication and allodynia. In this study, we examined the lower urinary tract function of the rat LCS model...
  56. Liu C, Su D. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?7 subunit: a novel therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. Front Med. 2012;6:35-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, the role of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway during septic shock, hypertension, and myocardial infarction is reviewed, and its possible clinical implications in cardiovascular diseases are discussed. ..
  57. Cho K, Jang J, Jang H, Kim M, Yoon S, Fukuda T, et al. Subtype-specific dendritic Ca(2+) dynamics of inhibitory interneurons in the rat visual cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:840-53 pubmed publisher
  58. Kazmierska P, Konopacki J. Development of NMDA-induced theta rhythm in hippocampal formation slices. Brain Res Bull. 2013;98:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In light of the obtained results we conclude that besides the cholinergic and GABAergic input, NMDA glutamatergic drive is also important for the appearance of theta oscillations in HPC in vitro. ..
  59. Lin S, Maj M, Bezakova G, Magyar J, Brenner H, Ruegg M. Muscle-wide secretion of a miniaturized form of neural agrin rescues focal neuromuscular innervation in agrin mutant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11406-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, they suggest a novel local function of ACh in stabilizing postsynaptic structures. ..
  60. Roustit M, Cracowski J. Non-invasive assessment of skin microvascular function in humans: an insight into methods. Microcirculation. 2012;19:47-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The influence of the skin site, recording conditions, and the way of expressing data are also reviewed. Finally, we focus on promising tools such as laser speckle contrast imaging...
  61. Evins A, Goff D. Varenicline treatment for smokers with schizophrenia: a case series. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:1016 pubmed
  62. Dasgupta R, Chatterji U, Nag T, Chaudhuri Sengupta S, Nag D, Maiti B. Ultrastructural and hormonal modulations of the thyroid gland following arecoline treatment in albino mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;319:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Arecoline action is mediated probably via muscarinic cholinergic receptor-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in mice. ..
  63. Yao X, Song F, Chen F, Zhang Y, Gu J, Liu S, et al. Amino acids within loops D, E and F of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta subunits influence neonicotinoid selectivity. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;38:834-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This study contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying selectivity of neonicotinoids against insects over vertebrates. ..
  64. Solov ev V, Gengin M. [Effect of arecholine and atropine administration on the carboxypeptidase H and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride-inhibited carboxypeptidase activities in the rat nervous tissue]. Biomed Khim. 2008;54:201-9 pubmed
  65. Christou H, Reslan O, Mam V, Tanbe A, Vitali S, Touma M, et al. Improved pulmonary vascular reactivity and decreased hypertrophic remodeling during nonhypercapnic acidosis in experimental pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;302:L875-90 pubmed publisher
  66. Rapti G, Richmond J, Bessereau J. A single immunoglobulin-domain protein required for clustering acetylcholine receptors in C. elegans. EMBO J. 2011;30:706-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These results add a novel paradigm for the immunoglobulin super-family as OIG-4 is a secreted protein required for clustering ionotropic receptors independently of synapse formation. ..
  67. Drews U, Renz M, Busch C, Reisenauer C. Ex vivo pharmacology of surgical samples of the uterosacral ligament. Part II: Effects of oxytocin and relaxin on arteries and vascular plexus. Neurourol Urodyn. 2012;31:1300-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the USL the smooth muscle extends into the adventitial layer of blood vessels and forms a functional unit with the vascular plexus, which is regulated by relaxin and oxytocin. ..
  68. von Engelhardt J, Khrulev S, Eliava M, Wahlster S, Monyer H. 5-HT(3A) receptor-bearing white matter interstitial GABAergic interneurons are functionally integrated into cortical and subcortical networks. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16844-54 pubmed publisher
  69. Soder R, Petkov G. Large conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channel activation with NS1619 decreases myogenic and neurogenic contractions of rat detrusor smooth muscle. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;670:252-9 pubmed publisher
  70. De Angelis F, Marinelli S, Fioretti B, Catacuzzeno L, Franciolini F, Pavone F, et al. M2 receptors exert analgesic action on DRG sensory neurons by negatively modulating VR1 activity. J Cell Physiol. 2014;229:783-90 pubmed publisher
  71. Lu C, Yanagawa Y, Henderson Z. Properties of gamma frequency oscillatory activity induced in hippocampal slices from the adult GAD67-GFP (Deltaneo) mouse. Brain Res. 2010;1323:65-73 pubmed publisher
  72. Wang C, Lin H, Liang H, Jan T. Areca nut extracts enhance the development of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells with the characteristics of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in antigen-stimulated mice. J Oral Pathol Med. 2011;40:769-77 pubmed publisher
  73. Hidayat Santoso A, Liang W. Bladder contractility is mediated by different K+ channels in the urothelium and detrusor smooth muscle. J Pharmacol Sci. 2011;115:127-34 pubmed
    ..Contractile mediatory function of these channels, specific to the UE or DSM, may be potential drug targets in the management of bladder disorders. ..
  74. Voss L, Brock M, Carlsson C, Steyn Ross A, Steyn Ross M, Sleigh J. Investigating paradoxical hysteresis effects in the mouse neocortical slice model. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;675:26-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vitro cortical slice manifests pathway-dependent "neural inertia" and may be a valuable model for future investigations into the mechanisms of neural inertia in the cerebral cortex. ..
  75. Huang Q, Babu G, Periasamy M, Eddinger T. SMB myosin heavy chain knockout enhances tonic contraction and reduces the rate of force generation in ileum and stomach antrum. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;304:C194-206 pubmed publisher
  76. Zhao C, Qi J, Liu X, Chen H, Li J, Liu Y, et al. Refractoriness of the sheep superior vena cava myocardial sleeve. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008;233:1441-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between the distinct refractoriness in SVC and atrial fibrillation originating from the region deserves further investigation. ..
  77. Park H, Betzenhauser M, Zhang Y, Yule D. Regulation of Ca²? release through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors by adenine nucleotides in parotid acinar cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;302:G97-G104 pubmed publisher
    ..Adenine nucleotide modulation of InsP(3)R in parotid acinar cells likely contributes to the properties of Ca(2+) signals in physiological and pathological conditions. ..
  78. Carrillo C, Cavia M, Alonso Torre S. Oleic acid inhibits store-operated calcium entry in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51:677-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we suggest a physiological pathway for the beneficial effect of oleic acid in colon carcinoma cells. ..
  79. Brudzynski S, Iku A, Harness Neé Savoy A. Activity of cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus during emission of 22kHz vocalization in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2011;225:276-83 pubmed publisher