cholinergic agents


Summary: Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.

Top Publications

  1. Lara A, Damasceno D, Pires R, Gros R, Gomes E, Gavioli M, et al. Dysautonomia due to reduced cholinergic neurotransmission causes cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1746-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide direct evidence that decreased cholinergic neurotransmission and underlying autonomic imbalance cause plastic alterations that contribute to heart dysfunction. ..
  2. Kehagia A, Barker R, Robbins T. Neuropsychological and clinical heterogeneity of cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:1200-1213 pubmed publisher
    ..Remediation and management prospects for these cognitive deficits are based on neuropharmacological and cognitive rehabilitation approaches. ..
  3. Fernandez de Sevilla D, Nunez A, Borde M, Malinow R, Buño W. Cholinergic-mediated IP3-receptor activation induces long-lasting synaptic enhancement in CA1 pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1469-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Ca2+ released from postsynaptic endoplasmic reticulum stores is the critical event in the induction of this unique form of long-lasting synaptic enhancement. ..
  4. Bhattacharyya A, Bießmann F, Veit J, Kretz R, Rainer G. Functional and laminar dissociations between muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic neuromodulation in the tree shrew primary visual cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:1270-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest close homology between cholinergic mechanisms in tree shrew and primate visual cortices...
  5. Pavlov V, Tracey K. Controlling inflammation: the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006;34:1037-40 pubmed
  6. Jonasson Z, Cahill J, Tobey R, Baxter M. Sexually dimorphic effects of hippocampal cholinergic deafferentation in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:3041-53 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate a sexually dimorphic function associated with MS/VDB-hippocampal cholinergic inputs. In female rats, these neurons appear to support sex-specific spatial learning processes. ..
  7. Mihovilovic M, Butterworth Robinette J. Thymic epithelial cell line expresses transcripts encoding alpha-3, alpha-5 and beta-4 subunits of acetylcholine receptors, responds to cholinergic agents and expresses choline acetyl transferase. An in vitro system to investigate thymic cholinergic . J Neuroimmunol. 2001;117:58-67 pubmed
    ..Taken together these findings indicate that TE750 cells in culture represent a suitable in vitro system for the analysis of cholinergic mechanisms operational in the thymic epithelium. ..
  8. Bazalakova M, Wright J, Schneble E, McDonald M, Heilman C, Levey A, et al. Deficits in acetylcholine homeostasis, receptors and behaviors in choline transporter heterozygous mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2007;6:411-24 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest that CHT hemizygosity results in adequate baseline ACh stores, sufficient to sustain many phenotypes, but normal sensitivities to physical and/or pharmacological challenge require full cholinergic signaling capacity...
  9. Schnoll R, Lerman C. Current and emerging pharmacotherapies for treating tobacco dependence. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2006;11:429-44 pubmed

More Information


  1. Kuczewski N, Aztiria E, Leanza G, Domenici L. Selective cholinergic immunolesioning affects synaptic plasticity in developing visual cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:1807-14 pubmed
  2. Kirby B, Rawlins J. The role of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic projection in T-maze rewarded alternation. Behav Brain Res. 2003;143:41-8 pubmed
  3. De Jesus Moreno Moreno M. Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Ther. 2003;25:178-93 pubmed
    ..The results of this study suggest the clinical usefulness and tolerability of CA in the treatment of the cognitive symptoms of dementia disorders of the Alzheimer type. ..
  4. Ferguson S, Bazalakova M, Savchenko V, Tapia J, Wright J, Blakely R. Lethal impairment of cholinergic neurotransmission in hemicholinium-3-sensitive choline transporter knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8762-7 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that CHT is an essential and regulated presynaptic component of cholinergic signaling and indicate that CHT warrants consideration as a candidate gene for disorders characterized by cholinergic hypofunction...
  5. Gentry C, Wilkins L, Lukas R. Effects of prolonged nicotinic ligand exposure on function of heterologously expressed, human alpha4beta2- and alpha4beta4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;304:206-16 pubmed
    ..These studies illustrate persistent inactivation of human alpha4beta2- or alpha4beta4-nAChR induced by prolonged exposure to nicotine and show that other ligands induce nAChR persistent inactivation in a subtype-specific manner. ..
  6. Birthelmer A, Ehret A, Amtage F, Forster S, Lehmann O, Jeltsch H, et al. Neurotransmitter release and its presynaptic modulation in the rat hippocampus after selective damage to cholinergic or/and serotonergic afferents. Brain Res Bull. 2003;59:371-81 pubmed
    ..presynaptic modulatory mechanisms involving auto- and heteroreceptors may be conserved on fibres spared by the lesions. ..
  7. Gulledge A, Park S, Kawaguchi Y, Stuart G. Heterogeneity of phasic cholinergic signaling in neocortical neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:2215-29 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that phasic cholinergic input can directly inhibit projection neurons throughout the cortex while sculpting intracortical processing, especially in superficial layers. ..
  8. Griffin S, van Reekum R, Masanic C. A review of cholinergic agents in the treatment of neurobehavioral deficits following traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2003;15:17-26 pubmed
    ..sequelae of TBI, as well as a critical review of the preliminary evidence supporting the efficacy of cholinergic agents in TBI...
  9. Lucas Meunier E, Fossier P, Baux G, Amar M. Cholinergic modulation of the cortical neuronal network. Pflugers Arch. 2003;446:17-29 pubmed
    ..In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on central cholinergic systems (projections and receptors) and then aim to focus on the implications for ACh in the modulation of cortical neuronal activity. ..
  10. Bueno L. Motility and allergy. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2005;56:99-107; discussion 107-10 pubmed
  11. Roman G, Kalaria R. Vascular determinants of cholinergic deficits in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Neurobiol Aging. 2006;27:1769-85 pubmed
    ..We postulate that vascular pathology likely plays a common role in initiating cholinergic neuronal abnormalities in VaD and AD. ..
  12. Winters B, Dunnett S. Selective lesioning of the cholinergic septo-hippocampal pathway does not disrupt spatial short-term memory: a comparison with the effects of fimbria-fornix lesions. Behav Neurosci. 2004;118:546-62 pubmed
  13. Plazas P, De Rosa M, Gómez Casati M, Verbitsky M, Weisstaub N, Katz E, et al. Key roles of hydrophobic rings of TM2 in gating of the alpha9alpha10 nicotinic cholinergic receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;145:963-74 pubmed
    ..These differences might be originated from slight differential intramolecular rearrangements during gating for the different receptors and might lead each nAChR to be in tune with their physiological roles. ..
  14. Prasad K, Cole W, Prasad K. Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: role of multiple antioxidants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and cholinergic agents alone or in combination in prevention and treatment. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21:506-22 pubmed
    ..In addition, agents, which can prevent formation of plaques or dissolve these plaques may further enhance the efficacy of our proposed treatment strategy. ..
  15. Maelicke A. Allosteric modulation of nicotinic receptors as a treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000;11 Suppl 1:11-8 pubmed
    ..Galantamine's modulatory effects on nAChR may influence transcriptional regulation, resulting in an increased synthesis of nAChR. This may account for galantamine's sustained efficacy. ..
  16. Pinthong M, Black S, Ribeiro F, Pholpramool C, Ferguson S, Rylett R. Activity and subcellular trafficking of the sodium-coupled choline transporter CHT is regulated acutely by peroxynitrite. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;73:801-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, the inhibitory effect of SIN-1 on choline uptake activity and HC-3 binding was related to enhanced internalization of CHT proteins from the plasma membrane to subcellular organelles. ..
  17. Arce M, Rodríguez Franco M, González Muñoz G, Perez C, Lopez B, Villarroya M, et al. Neuroprotective and cholinergic properties of multifunctional glutamic acid derivatives for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. J Med Chem. 2009;52:7249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..They also display neuroprotective properties against mitochondrial free radicals, show low toxicity, and could be able to penetrate into the CNS. ..
  18. Sheehan S, Oman C, Duda K. Motion sickness: a cholinomimetic agent hypothesis. J Vestib Res. 2011;21:209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypothesis could be experimentally pursued via human and animal experiments employing a nicotinic antagonist that has both central and peripheral ganglionic actions such as mecamylamine. ..
  19. Yao Q, Sun L, Wang C, Jiang C. [The role of AT1 receptor in the changes in TH immunoreactivity of LC induced by brain cholinergic stimulation]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2006;22:45-8 pubmed
    ..The blockade of AT1 receptor may down regulate the above action induced by carbachol in locus coeruleus. ..
  20. Soukup O, Proska J, Binder J, Karasova J, Tobin G, Jun D, et al. Methylacridinium and its cholinergic properties. Neurotox Res. 2009;16:372-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of MA to cross the blood-brain barrier (log P = -0.32; polar surface area 3.88) provides prerequisites for a potential use of the drug in the treatment of neural disorders. ..
  21. Markus R, Silva C, Franco D, Barbosa E, Ferreira Z. Is modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by melatonin relevant for therapy with cholinergic drugs?. Pharmacol Ther. 2010;126:251-62 pubmed publisher
  22. Lelito K, Shafer O. Reciprocal cholinergic and GABAergic modulation of the small ventrolateral pacemaker neurons of Drosophila's circadian clock neuron network. J Neurophysiol. 2012;107:2096-108 pubmed publisher
  23. Kwon J, Rand G, Cho K, Gore P, McCartney M, Chuck R. Association Between Corneal Endothelial Cell Density and Topical Glaucoma Medication Use in an Eye Bank Donor Population. Cornea. 2016;35:1533-1536 pubmed publisher
    ..298). Donors on topical glaucoma medication do not have ECDs statistically significantly lower than donors not on medication. ..
  24. Barbuti A, Crespi A, Capilupo D, Mazzocchi N, Baruscotti M, DiFrancesco D. Molecular composition and functional properties of f-channels in murine embryonic stem cell-derived pacemaker cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;46:343-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that mESC-derived pacemaker cells functionally express proteins which underlie generation and modulation of heart rhythm, and can therefore represent a potential cell substrate for the generation of biological pacemakers. ..
  25. Pal B, Koszeghy A, Pap P, Bakondi G, Pocsai K, Szucs G, et al. Targets, receptors and effects of muscarinic neuromodulation on giant neurones of the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;30:769-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings shed light on the cellular mechanisms of a tonic cholinergic modulation in the CN, which may become particularly important in evoking contralateral excitatory responses under certain pathological conditions. ..
  26. Hiraoka K, Okamura N, Funaki Y, Hayashi A, Tashiro M, Hisanaga K, et al. Cholinergic deficit and response to donepezil therapy in Parkinson's disease with dementia. Eur Neurol. 2012;68:137-43 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that donepezil therapy is more effective in patients with less decrease in acetylcholinesterase, a binding site of donepezil, at least in the specific cognitive domain. ..
  27. Kullmann F, ARTIM D, Birder L, de Groat W. Activation of muscarinic receptors in rat bladder sensory pathways alters reflex bladder activity. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1977-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the urothelial-afferent nerve interactions can influence reflex voiding function. ..
  28. Kuwagata Y, Inoue H. Effects of estrogen on AF64A-induced apoptosis in NG108-15 cells. Brain Res. 2009;1297:9-16 pubmed publisher
  29. Vierck C, Yezierski R, Wiley R. Pain sensitivity following loss of cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons in the rat. Neuroscience. 2016;319:23-34 pubmed publisher
  30. Chen D, Xiong Y, Lv B, Liu F, Wang L, Tang Z, et al. Effects of berberine on rat jejunal motility. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2013;65:734-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggested the potential clinical implication of berberine for alternating-type irritable bowel syndrome. ..
  31. Harrill Smith C, Ripley Moffitt C, Goldstein A. Tobacco cessation in 2013: what every clinician should know. N C Med J. 2013;74:401-5 pubmed
    ..This commentary discusses health system changes that promote treatment for tobacco use, new protocols for tobacco cessation therapies, and emerging tobacco products that are being marketed as harm-reduction tools. ..
  32. Lugea A, Gong J, Nguyen J, Nieto J, French S, Pandol S. Cholinergic mediation of alcohol-induced experimental pancreatitis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34:1768-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate key roles for the cholinergic system in the mechanisms of alcoholic pancreatitis. ..
  33. Lesko S, Wessler I, Gäbel G, Petto C, Pfannkuche H. Cholinergic modulation of epithelial integrity in the proximal colon of pigs. Cells Tissues Organs. 2013;197:411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..ACh is strongly involved in the regulation of epithelial tightness in the proximal colon of pigs via muscarinic pathways. Non-neuronal ACh seems to be of particular importance for epithelial cells forming a tight barrier. ..
  34. Sales M. Cholinergic drugs as therapeutic tools in inflammatory diseases: participation of neuronal and non-neuronal cholinergic systems. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2013;12:109-16 pubmed
  35. Khalil D, Hirota J, Nair P. Cholinergics, airway eosinophils and asthma exacerbation in the elderly. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2011;53:59-61 pubmed
    ..This case series emphasises the need to exercise caution while prescribing cholinergic drugs in elderly patients with asthma, particularly in patients with a history of virus-induced exacerbations and airway eosinophilia. ..
  36. Liang Y, Huang L, Yang J. Differential expression of ryanodine receptor in the developing rat cochlea. Eur J Histochem. 2009;53:249-60 pubmed
    ..Morphological and Ca imaging results suggested that RyRs expression is related to cochlear maturity, and may play an important role in its function. ..
  37. Ramos R, Masuet C, Badia M, Perna V, Macia I, Escobar I, et al. Quantification of eccrine sweat glands with acetylcholine sweat-spot test and anatomical redistribution of sweating after T2-T3 thoracoscopic sympathicolysis. Surg Endosc. 2009;23:321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, this activation is subsequently self-limiting, resulting in no gland atrophy, and reinnervation occurs without patient awareness. ..
  38. Scheepe J, Braun P, Junemann K, Alken P. Effects of propiverine and its metabolite propiverine-N-oxide on bladder contraction and salivation in mini pigs. Urol Int. 2008;81:468-73 pubmed publisher
    ..As expected, P4 showed anticholinergic effects on bladder contraction and salivation. ..
  39. Visweswari G, Prasad K, Chetan P, Lokanatha V, Rajendra W. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant effect of Centella asiatica (gotu kola) in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures with respect to cholinergic neurotransmission. Epilepsy Behav. 2010;17:332-5 pubmed publisher
    ..asiatica extracts caused recovery of the levels of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase. These findings suggest that C. asiatica causes perceptible changes in the cholinergic system as one of the facets of its anticonvulsant activity. ..
  40. Korabecny J, Musilek K, Zemek F, Horova A, Holas O, Nepovimova E, et al. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 7-methoxy-N-(pent-4-enyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9-amine-new tacrine derivate with cholinergic properties. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:6563-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Letter, the synthesis, biological activity and molecular modelling of elimination by-product isolated during synthesis of 7-MEOTA based bis-alkylene linked compound is described. ..
  41. Robinson L, Platt B, Riedel G. Involvement of the cholinergic system in conditioning and perceptual memory. Behav Brain Res. 2011;221:443-65 pubmed publisher
  42. Fish I, Stößel A, Eitel K, Valant C, Albold S, Huebner H, et al. Structure-Based Design and Discovery of New M2 Receptor Agonists. J Med Chem. 2017;60:9239-9250 pubmed publisher
    ..Even pockets as tightly defined and as deeply studied as that of the muscarinic reveal opportunities for the structure-based design and the discovery of new chemotypes...
  43. Buckingham H, Buckingham S. Is recurrent perseveration a product of deafferented functional systems with otherwise normal post-activation decay rates?. Clin Linguist Phon. 2011;25:1066-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This article will discuss and evaluate how various proposals from theory, from the clinic and from drug therapy interact and compete in the search for a cause or causes of recurrent perseveration. ..
  44. Ameer O, Salman I, Siddiqui M, Yam M, Sriramaneni R, Sadikun A, et al. In vitro cholinomimetic effect of Loranthus ferrugineus in isolated guinea pig ileum. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2009;2:288-93 pubmed publisher
    ..ferrugineus is possibly mediated through a direct action on intestinal muscarinic receptors. It is suggested that the bioactive constituents of L. ferrugineus serve as a substrate for acetylcholinesterase. ..
  45. Matsuzawa Y, Sugiyama S, Sugamura K, Nozaki T, Ohba K, Konishi M, et al. Digital assessment of endothelial function and ischemic heart disease in women. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:1688-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Digital RH-PAT can predict patients with IHD, especially NOCAD before angiography. RH-PAT is potentially useful for identifying high-risk women for IHD. (Endothelial Dysfunction and Coronary Artery Spasm; NCT00619294). ..
  46. Ignácio Z, Réus G, Arent C, Abelaira H, Pitcher M, Quevedo J. New perspectives on the involvement of mTOR in depression as well as in the action of antidepressant drugs. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2016;82:1280-1290 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of the rapid antidepressant effect exerted by glutamatergic and cholinergic agents highlights the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway as a critical pathway that contributes to the ..
  47. Power J, Grealy C, Rintoul D. Tobacco interventions for Indigenous Australians: a review of current evidence. Health Promot J Austr. 2009;20:186-94 pubmed
    ..However, there is no evidence regarding interventions likely to be effective in encouraging more Indigenous Australians to access these quit support strategies. ..
  48. Fox P. Xerostomia: recognition and management. Dent Assist. 2008;77:18, 20, 44-8; quiz 50-1 pubmed
    ..Appropriate management of symptoms and increasing saliva output may help patients feel more comfortable and improve their quality of life. ..
  49. Tata A. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: new potential therapeutic targets in antinociception and in cancer therapy. Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov. 2008;3:94-103 pubmed
    ..Moreover muscarinic agonists such as vedaclidine, CMI- 936 and CMI-1145 have been demonstrated to have analgesic effects, in animal models comparable or more pronounced to those produced by morphine or opiates. ..
  50. Gilani A, Jabeen Q, Khan A, Shah A. Gut modulatory, blood pressure lowering, diuretic and sedative activities of cardamom. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;115:463-72 pubmed
    ..Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) is traditionally used in various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neuronal disorders...
  51. Hardwick J, Southerland E, Girasole A, Ryan S, Negrotto S, Ardell J. Remodeling of intrinsic cardiac neurons: effects of ?-adrenergic receptor blockade in guinea pig models of chronic heart disease. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;303:R950-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this effect was preferentially observed with active cardiac disease states, indicating that the ?-receptors were more influential on remodeling during dynamic disease progression. ..
  52. Delgado G, Estañol Vidal B. [Vagotonía. The medical thesis of Salvador Zubirán]. Rev Invest Clin. 2012;64:387-98 pubmed
    ..Zubirán appears here as the introducer in Mexico of the physiopharmacological approach in autonomic nervous system disorders. ..
  53. Chung S, Chien C, Yu H. Alterations in peripheral purinergic and muscarinic signaling of rat bladder after long-term fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52:347-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Impaired mitochondrial integrity, reduced nerve density, ATP and acetylcholine content and upregulation of purinergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors expression may contribute to the bladder dysfunction of fructose-fed animals. ..
  54. Moriguchi S, Zhao X, Marszalec W, Yeh J, Fukunaga K, Narahashi T. Nefiracetam and galantamine modulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission via stimulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat cortical neurons. Neuroscience. 2009;160:484-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Nefiracetam at 10 nM had no effect on neurons that did not respond to 30 nM ACh. It was concluded that the nefiracetam released glutamate via stimulation of the alpha4beta2 nAChRs. ..
  55. Anglister L, Cherniak M, Lev Tov A. Ascending pathways that mediate cholinergic modulation of lumbar motor activity. J Neurochem. 2017;142 Suppl 2:82-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an article for the special issue XVth International Symposium on Cholinergic Mechanisms. ..
  56. Pesic S, Grbovic L, Stoiljkovic M, Nikolic V, Djokic J. Functional characterization of the muscarinic receptors involved in endothelium-dependent relaxation in isolated canine uterine artery. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2009;32:109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of differential antagonist affinity, we suggest that the muscarinic receptors involved in the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of canine uterine artery are predominantly of M(3) subtype. ..
  57. Soukup O, Jun D, Tobin G, Kuca K. The summary on non-reactivation cholinergic properties of oxime reactivators: the interaction with muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Arch Toxicol. 2013;87:711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Even though atropine showed a much higher muscarinic antagonism, it is supposed that non-reactivation properties of oxime reactivators play a significant role in the treatment of OP poisoning. ..
  58. Ji W, Suga N. Histaminergic modulation of nonspecific plasticity of the auditory system and differential gating. J Neurophysiol. 2013;109:792-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus HA modulates the nonspecific augmentation, whereas acetylcholine amplifies the BF shifts. These two neuromodulators may mediate differential gating of cortical plasticity. ..
  59. Sarter M, Lustig C, Taylor S. Cholinergic contributions to the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and the viability of cholinergic treatments. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62:1544-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The limited evidence available from patient studies and animal models indicates pressing research needs in order to guide the development of cholinergic treatments of the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. ..
  60. Antonini V, Marrazzo A, Kleiner G, Coradazzi M, Ronsisvalle S, Prezzavento O, et al. Anti-amnesic and neuroprotective actions of the sigma-1 receptor agonist (-)-MR22 in rats with selective cholinergic lesion and amyloid infusion. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;24:569-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, sigma-1 receptor agonists such as (-)-MR22 may ameliorate perturbed cognitive abilities and exert a protective action onto target neurons, holding promises as viable tools for memory enhancement and neuroprotection. ..
  61. Galletly C. Recent advances in treating cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;202:259-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Standardized cognitive assessment measures are being developed so studies can be compared more easily. This field is advancing rapidly, but as yet, no widely applicable, evidence-based treatments are available to the clinician. ..
  62. Hernández Melesio M, González Esquivel D, Ortiz Plata A, Sanchez Mendoza A, Sánchez García A, Alcaraz Zubeldia M, et al. Molsidomine modulates the cNOS activity in an experimental model of cholinergic damage induced by 192-IgG saporin. Neurosci Lett. 2011;491:133-7 pubmed publisher
    ..SAP reduced the cellular population in the lesion site and MOLS was able to avoid the progression of damage in this area. NO donor is able to modulate the nitrergic status in an experimental model induced by SAP. ..
  63. Nunes Freitas A, Ribeiro Carvalho A, Lima C, Dutra Tavares A, Manhães A, Lisboa P, et al. Nicotine exposure during the third trimester equivalent of human gestation: time course of effects on the central cholinergic system of rats. Toxicol Sci. 2011;123:144-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, detrimental effects are observable even long after the exposure has been interrupted. ..
  64. Sharma K, Bhatnagar M, Kulkarni S. Effect of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy and Asparagus racemosus Willd on learning and memory in young and old mice: a comparative evaluation. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48:479-85 pubmed
    ..reacemosus and CA3 area with C. pluracaulis treatment. The underlying mechanism of these actions of A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis may be attributed to their antioxidant, neuroprotective and cholinergic properties...
  65. Miwa J, Lester H, Walz A. Optimizing cholinergic tone through lynx modulators of nicotinic receptors: implications for plasticity and nicotine addiction. Physiology (Bethesda). 2012;27:187-99 pubmed publisher
    ..If this is indeed the case, then, what regulates the regulator? Transcriptional changes of lynx genes in response to pharmacological, physiological, and pathological alterations are explored in this review. ..
  66. Beltrame S, Auger S, Bilder C, Waldner C, Goin J. Modulation of M(2) muscarinic receptor-receptor interaction by immunoglobulin G antibodies from Chagas' disease patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;164:170-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the modulatory effect of ChD IgG on M(2) receptor-receptor interaction results from receptor cross-linking by bivalent antibodies. ..
  67. Alexander J, Sagher D, Krivoshein A, Criado M, Jefford G, Green W. Ric-3 promotes alpha7 nicotinic receptor assembly and trafficking through the ER subcompartment of dendrites. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10112-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In neurons, Ric-3 ER retention appears to promote transport within the dendritic ER subcompartment, thereby restricting alpha7 trafficking to dendrites and preventing axonal transport. ..
  68. Bridges T, Phillip Kennedy J, Noetzel M, Breininger M, Gentry P, Conn P, et al. Chemical lead optimization of a pan Gq mAChR M1, M3, M5 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) lead. Part II: development of a potent and highly selective M1 PAM. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:1972-5 pubmed publisher
    ..An iterative library synthesis approach delivered a potent (M(1) EC(50)=830 nM) and highly selective M(1) PAM (>30 microM vs M(2)-M(5)). ..
  69. Abbas S, Bashir S, Khan A, Mehmood M, Gilani A. Gastrointestinal stimulant effect of Urginea indica Kunth. and involvement of muscarinic receptors. Phytother Res. 2012;26:704-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of a calcium antagonist effect in the plant may help to alleviate untoward effects of the plant that may result from an excessive increase in gut motility. ..
  70. Dela Peña I, Yoon S, Kim S, Lee G, Park C, Kim Y, et al. Inhibition of intestinal motility by the putative BK(Ca) channel opener LDD175. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32:413-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate the antispasmodic activity of LDD175 attributable to the potentiation of the BK(Ca) channels. ..
  71. Ariffin M, Chang L, Koh H, Low C, Khanna S. An environment-dependent modulation of cortical neural response by forebrain cholinergic neurons in awake rat. Brain Res. 2013;1513:72-84 pubmed publisher
  72. Gais S, Schönauer M. Untangling a Cholinergic Pathway from Wakefulness to Memory. Neuron. 2017;94:696-698 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Neuron, Papouin et al. (2017) describe a D-serine-dependent pathway involving astroglia by which the transmitter tunes the hippocampus toward memory encoding during wakefulness. ..
  73. Park J, Kim S, Kim H, Sun B, Koo S, Choi S, et al. Spinal cholinergic mechanism of the relieving effects of electroacupuncture on cold and warm allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain. J Physiol Sci. 2009;59:291-8 pubmed publisher
    ..pirenzepine attenuated the antiallodynic effects of EA, whereas methoctramine and 4-DAMP did not. These results suggest that spinal muscarinic receptors, especially M(1) subtype, mediate the EA-induced antiallodynia in neuropathic rats. ..
  74. Easton A, Goulson D. The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid repels pollinating flies and beetles at field-realistic concentrations. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54819 pubmed publisher
    ..It remains to be seen if the repellent effect on insects occurs when neonicotinoids are present in real flowers, but if so then this could have implications for exposure of pollinators to neonicotinoids and for crop pollination. ..
  75. Ward R, Lallemand F, De Witte P, Dexter D. Neurochemical pathways involved in the protective effects of nicotine and ethanol in preventing the development of Parkinson's disease: potential targets for the development of new therapeutic agents. Prog Neurobiol. 2008;85:135-47 pubmed publisher
  76. Jeong D, Lee J, Chang W, Chang J. Identifying the appropriate time for deep brain stimulation to achieve spatial memory improvement on the Morris water maze. BMC Neurosci. 2017;18:29 pubmed publisher
    ..The improvement is significantly correlated with the up-regulation of BDNF expression and neurogenesis. Based on the results of this study, the use of MS-DBS during the early stage of disease may restore spatial memory impairment. ..
  77. Kruger W, Yun C, Monteith G, Poronnik P. Muscarinic-induced recruitment of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase involves PSD-95/Dlg/Zo-1-mediated interactions. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1820-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings describe rapid agonist-induced translocation of PMCA in a native cell model and suggest that NHERF-2 plays a key role in scaffolding and maintaining PMCA at the cell membrane. ..
  78. Blomeley C, Cains S, Smith R, Bracci E. Ethanol affects striatal interneurons directly and projection neurons through a reduction in cholinergic tone. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:1033-46 pubmed publisher
  79. Zant J, Rozov S, Wigren H, Panula P, Porkka Heiskanen T. Histamine release in the basal forebrain mediates cortical activation through cholinergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:13244-54 pubmed
    ..The level of histamine release is tightly connected to behavioral state, but conveys no information about sleep pressure...
  80. Paban V, Chambon C, Farioli F, Alescio Lautier B. Gene regulation in the rat prefrontal cortex after learning with or without cholinergic insult. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2011;95:441-52 pubmed publisher
    ..e., in processes associated with brain repair after injury. ..
  81. Lorincz M, Crunelli V, Hughes S. Cellular dynamics of cholinergically induced alpha (8-13 Hz) rhythms in sensory thalamic nuclei in vitro. J Neurosci. 2008;28:660-71 pubmed publisher
  82. van Gool W, van de Beek D, Eikelenboom P. Systemic infection and delirium: when cytokines and acetylcholine collide. Lancet. 2010;375:773-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Agents that either restore cholinergic control of microglia or directly inhibit neuroinflammation warrant testing in clinical trials. ..
  83. Bourgin M, Violleau F, Debrauwer L, Albet J. Ozonation of imidacloprid in aqueous solutions: reaction monitoring and identification of degradation products. J Hazard Mater. 2011;190:60-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The ozonation by-products were then collected and identified by ESI(+)-MS. A degradation pathway of imidacloprid was finally proposed. ..
  84. Adermark L. Modulation of endocannabinoid-mediated long-lasting disinhibition of striatal output by cholinergic interneurons. Neuropharmacology. 2011;61:1314-20 pubmed publisher
  85. Motta P, Perez A, Alves D, Duarte I. Peripheral control of inflammatory but not neuropathic pain by endogenous cholinergic system. Pharmacology. 2011;88:18-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that a peripheral endogenous cholinergic system involving muscarinic receptors may be activated during inflammation as a modulatory negative feedback control of inflammatory pain. ..
  86. Thany S, Tricoire Leignel H, Lapied B. Identification of cholinergic synaptic transmission in the insect nervous system. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;683:1-10 pubmed
  87. Xiao J, Zhang H, Liang D, Liu Y, Liu Y, Zhao H, et al. Taxol, a microtubule stabilizer, prevents atrial fibrillation in in vitro atrial fibrillation models using rabbit hearts. Med Sci Monit. 2010;16:BR353-60 pubmed
    ..Taxol, a microtubule stabilizer, prevents atrial fibrillation in in vitro atrial fibrillation model using rabbit hearts. This stabilizer most likely prevents atrial fibrillation by reducing the level of reactive oxygen species. ..
  88. Gritton H, Stasiak A, Sarter M, Lee T. Cognitive performance as a zeitgeber: cognitive oscillators and cholinergic modulation of the SCN entrain circadian rhythms. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56206 pubmed publisher
  89. Ma G, Gao J, Fu Q, Jiang L, Wang R, Zhang Y, et al. Diazoxide reverses the enhanced expression of KATP subunits in cholinergic neurons caused by exposure to A?????. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:2133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of diazoxide on KATP subunits expression may explain, in part, the resistance of diazoxide to the toxicity of A?????. ..
  90. Kimura M, Hayashida K, Eisenach J, Saito S, Obata H. Relief of hypersensitivity after nerve injury from systemic donepezil involves spinal cholinergic and ?-aminobutyric acid mechanisms. Anesthesiology. 2013;118:173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of this spinal cholinergic-GABAergic interaction represents a promising treatment for neuropathic pain. ..