adrenergic agents


Summary: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.

Top Publications

  1. Tadaiesky M, Dombrowski P, Figueiredo C, Cargnin Ferreira E, Da Cunha C, Takahashi R. Emotional, cognitive and neurochemical alterations in a premotor stage model of Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience. 2008;156:830-40 pubmed publisher
  2. Obel L, Andersen K, Bak L, Schousboe A, Waagepetersen H. Effects of adrenergic agents on intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and metabolism of glucose in astrocytes with an emphasis on pyruvate carboxylation, oxidative decarboxylation and recycling: implications for glutamate neurotransmission and excitotoxicit. Neurotox Res. 2012;21:405-17 pubmed publisher
  3. López Contreras A, de la Morena M, Ramos Molina B, Lambertos A, Cremades A, Peñafiel R. The induction of cardiac ornithine decarboxylase by ?2 -adrenergic agents is associated with calcium channels and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114:1978-86 pubmed publisher
    ..that the induction of cardiac ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, by beta-adrenergic agents may have in heart hypertrophy is a controversial issue...
  4. Eskow Jaunarajs K, George J, Bishop C. L-DOPA-induced dysregulation of extrastriatal dopamine and serotonin and affective symptoms in a bilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience. 2012;218:243-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that chronic L-DOPA treatment may interfere with the balance of DA and 5-HT function in affect-related brain regions and could induce and/or exacerbate non-motor symptoms in PD...
  5. Harvey B, Mark A, Chou J, Chen G, Hoffer B, Wang Y. Neurotrophic effects of bone morphogenetic protein-7 in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2004;1022:88-95 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data suggest that BMP7 has neuroprotective and/or neuroreparative effects against 6-OHDA lesioning of the nigrostriatal DA pathway in an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD). ..
  6. Sharott A, Magill P, Harnack D, Kupsch A, Meissner W, Brown P. Dopamine depletion increases the power and coherence of beta-oscillations in the cerebral cortex and subthalamic nucleus of the awake rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:1413-22 pubmed
    ..These changes may be important in regulating movement. ..
  7. Ferro M, Bellissimo M, Anselmo Franci J, Angellucci M, Canteras N, Da Cunha C. Comparison of bilaterally 6-OHDA- and MPTP-lesioned rats as models of the early phase of Parkinson's disease: histological, neurochemical, motor and memory alterations. J Neurosci Methods. 2005;148:78-87 pubmed
    ..The picture of mild motor effects and robust impairment of habit learning and spatial working memory observed in MPTP-lesioned rats models the early phase of Parkinson's disease. ..
  8. Winter C, von Rumohr A, Mundt A, Petrus D, Klein J, Lee T, et al. Lesions of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and in the ventral tegmental area enhance depressive-like behavior in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2007;184:133-41 pubmed
    ..The effects of citalopram administration on depressive behavior induced by lesions of dopaminergic brain regions furthermore suggest an involvement of serotonergic pathways in dopaminergic cell loss-induced depression. ..
  9. Casale R, Symeonidou Z, Bartolo M. Topical Treatments for Localized Neuropathic Pain. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2017;21:15 pubmed publisher
    ..g., diclofenac), salicylates, antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline and doxepin), ?2 adrenergic agents (e.g...

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Volla T, Kopperud G. [Maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008;128:826-8 pubmed
    ..The physician's first choice of drug seems to continue as maintenance treatment. The results suggest that glucocorticosteroids are used more frequently than recommended by the COPD treatment guidelines. ..
  2. Czarnecka A, Lenda T, Domin H, Konieczny J, Śmiałowska M, Lorenc Koci E. Alterations in the expression of nNOS in the substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats: the effects of chronic treatment with l-DOPA and the nitric oxide donor, molsidomine. Brain Res. 2013;1541:92-105 pubmed publisher
    ..NADPH-histochemistry revealed nNOS activity only in a part of neurons of that structure. Our results make an essential contribution to the research on the role of nitric oxide in the regulation of basal ganglia function. ..
  3. Leaver K, Allbutt H, Creber N, Kassiou M, Henderson J. Oral pre-treatment with epigallocatechin gallate in 6-OHDA lesioned rats produces subtle symptomatic relief but not neuroprotection. Brain Res Bull. 2009;80:397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..vehicle) there was no evidence of neuroprotection on post-mortem quantification of degree of nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss when comparing the lesioned groups given the various treatments. ..
  4. Kaplan G, Moore K. The use of cognitive enhancers in animal models of fear extinction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;99:217-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In the clinical setting, such use of effective cognitive enhancers with cue exposure therapy, using compounds derived from animal model studies, provides great hope for the future treatment of anxiety disorders. ..
  5. Subramaniam S, Napolitano F, Mealer R, Kim S, Errico F, Barrow R, et al. Rhes, a striatal-enriched small G protein, mediates mTOR signaling and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Nat Neurosci. 2011;15:191-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Rhes(-/-) mice showed reduced striatal mTOR signaling and diminished dyskinesia, but maintained motor improvement on L-DOPA treatment, suggesting a therapeutic benefit for Rhes-binding drugs. ..
  6. Capozzo A, Florio T, Confalone G, Minchella D, Mazzone P, Scarnati E. Low frequency stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus modulates electrical activity of subthalamic neurons in the rat. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2009;116:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that clinically relevant frequencies for PPTg deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease modulate burst discharges in STN neurons. ..
  7. Bustamante S, Orensanz L, Recio P, Carballido J, García Sacristán A, Prieto D, et al. Functional evidence of nitrergic neurotransmission in the human urinary bladder neck. Neurosci Lett. 2010;477:91-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that NO is the major NANC inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human urinary bladder neck. Blockers of NO synthase could be useful in therapy for the urinary incontinence produced by intrinsic sphincteric deficiency. ..
  8. Greco R, Tassorelli C, Armentero M, Sandrini G, Nappi G, Blandini F. Role of central dopaminergic circuitry in pain processing and nitroglycerin-induced hyperalgesia. Brain Res. 2008;1238:215-23 pubmed publisher
  9. Yang X, Mertens B, Lehtonen E, Vercammen L, Bockstael O, Chtarto A, et al. Reversible neurochemical changes mediated by delayed intrastriatal glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene delivery in a partial Parkinson's disease rat model. J Gene Med. 2009;11:899-912 pubmed publisher
    ..Delayed GDNF gene delivery only transiently improved dopaminergic function. Over the long term, TH was more abundant, but not functional, and the increase was lost when GDNF gene expression was switched off. ..
  10. Maheux J, Vuillier L, Mahfouz M, Rouillard C, Levesque D. Modulation of haloperidol-induced patterns of the transcription factor Nur77 and Nor-1 expression by serotonergic and adrenergic drugs in the mouse brain. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012;15:509-21 pubmed publisher
  11. Pranski E, Dalal N, Sanford C, Herskowitz J, Gearing M, Lazo C, et al. RING finger protein 11 (RNF11) modulates susceptibility to 6-OHDA-induced nigral degeneration and behavioral deficits through NF-?B signaling in dopaminergic cells. Neurobiol Dis. 2013;54:264-79 pubmed publisher
    ..This neuron-specific role of RNF11 in the brain has important implications for targeted therapeutics aimed at preventing neurodegeneration...
  12. Sugimoto T, Morioka N, Sato K, Hisaoka K, Nakata Y. Noradrenergic regulation of period1 expression in spinal astrocytes is involved in protein kinase A, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation mediated by ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors. Neuroscience. 2011;185:1-13 pubmed publisher
  13. Huang S, Huganir R, Kirkwood A. Adrenergic gating of Hebbian spike-timing-dependent plasticity in cortical interneurons. J Neurosci. 2013;33:13171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..By doing so, neuromodulators may allow coordinated plastic changes in FS and pyramidal cells. ..
  14. Szymanska A, Heylman C, Datta R, Gratton E, Nenadic Z. Automated detection and analysis of depolarization events in human cardiomyocytes using MaDEC. Comput Biol Med. 2016;75:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The MaDEC software was also able to distinguish control DEs from drug-treated DEs both immediately as well as 10min after drug administration. ..
  15. Boychuk C, Bateman R, Philbin K, Mendelowitz D. ?1-adrenergic receptors facilitate inhibitory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus. Neuroscience. 2011;193:154-61 pubmed publisher
  16. Haghdoost Yazdi H, Piri H, Faraji A, Fraidouni N, Dargahi T, Mahmudi M, et al. Pretreatment with potassium channel blockers of 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium attenuates behavioural symptoms of Parkinsonism induced by intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine; the role of lipid peroxidation. Neurol Res. 2016;38:294-300 pubmed publisher
  17. Dos Reis Santos M, Leite H, Luiz Pereira A, Dell Acqua Cassão B, de Oliveira Iglesias S. Factors associated with not meeting the recommendations for micronutrient intake in critically ill children. Nutrition. 2016;32:1217-22 pubmed publisher
  18. Kostylev A, Shuvaeva V, Gorshkova O, Dvoretsky D. Adrenergic reactions in microcirculatory bed of pia mater in rat brain. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008;146:182-4 pubmed
    ..Differential characteristic of the reaction of pial arteries of various generations to intravenous administration of norepinephrine was obtained in experiments on rats under artificially stabilized systemic blood pressure. ..
  19. Webster R, Cossins J, Lashley D, Maxwell S, Liu W, Wickens J, et al. A mouse model of the slow channel myasthenic syndrome: Neuromuscular physiology and effects of ephedrine treatment. Exp Neurol. 2013;248:286-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight only a modest potential benefit of these β2-adrenergic receptor agonists for the treatment of the slow channel syndrome. ..
  20. Henning J, Strauss U, Wree A, Gimsa J, Rolfs A, Benecke R, et al. Differential astroglial activation in 6-hydroxydopamine models of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Res. 2008;62:246-53 pubmed publisher
  21. Rodriguez S, Uchida K, Nakayama H. Immunohistochemical changes of nigrostriatal tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter in the golden hamster after a single intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2013;65:463-8 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of the results herein reported, we believe that the GH is a suitable model for studying the patterns of spontaneous recovery of striatal axons following the 6-OHDA intrastriatal injection. ..
  22. Grant R, Sellings L, Crocker S, Melloni E, Park D, Clarke P. Effects of calpain inhibition on dopaminergic markers and motor function following intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine administration in rats. Neuroscience. 2009;158:558-69 pubmed publisher
    ..However, after near-total dopaminergic depletion, the primary benefit of calpain inhibition may not occur within the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway itself. ..
  23. Bergstrom B, Sanberg S, Andersson M, Mithyantha J, Carroll F, Garris P. Functional reorganization of the presynaptic dopaminergic terminal in parkinsonism. Neuroscience. 2011;193:310-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel neuroadaptation may contribute to early preclinical normalization of function and help resolve discrepant findings regarding compensatory changes in DA release during progression of the parkinsonian state...
  24. Thornton E, Tran T, Vink R. A substance P mediated pathway contributes to 6-hydroxydopamine induced cell death. Neurosci Lett. 2010;481:64-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, there was a significant correlation between SP content and lactate dehydrogenase release, a marker of cell death, suggesting elevated SP production may contribute to 6-OHDA induced cell death in vitro...
  25. Szot P, Knight L, Franklin A, Sikkema C, Foster S, Wilkinson C, et al. Lesioning noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus in C57Bl/6 mice with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine injection, to assess molecular, electrophysiological and biochemical changes in noradrenergic signaling. Neuroscience. 2012;216:143-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies indicate that unilateral stereotaxic injection of 6OHDA into mice reduces noradrenergic LC neurons and reduces noradrenergic innervation to many forebrain regions, including the contralateral side. ..
  26. Herzog C, Brown L, Kruegel B, Wilson A, TANSEY M, Gage F, et al. Enhanced neurotrophic distribution, cell signaling and neuroprotection following substantia nigral versus striatal delivery of AAV2-NRTN (CERE-120). Neurobiol Dis. 2013;58:38-48 pubmed publisher
  27. Alm A, Nilsson S. Uveoscleral outflow--a review. Exp Eye Res. 2009;88:760-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, 40 years later we are able to successfully increase aqueous flow through the uveoscleral route, a valuable contribution to glaucoma treatment, but we still have only a limited understanding on its physiological role. ..
  28. López Huerta V, Carrillo Reid L, Galarraga E, Tapia D, Fiordelisio T, Drucker Colín R, et al. The balance of striatal feedback transmission is disrupted in a model of parkinsonism. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4964-75 pubmed publisher
    ..However, to be effective, feedback inhibition should arise from synchronized pools of SPNs whose targets are other SPNs pools. ..
  29. Bashkatova V, Hornick A, Vanin A, Prast H. Antagonist of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor prevents neurotoxicity induced by amphetamine via nitric oxide pathway. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1139:172-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that M1 acetylcholine receptors are critically involved in neurotoxic processes induced by AMPH via NO and LPO. ..
  30. Holland B, Krehbiel C, Hilton G, Streeter M, VanOverbeke D, Shook J, et al. Effect of extended withdrawal of zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance and carcass traits in finishing beef steers. J Anim Sci. 2010;88:338-48 pubmed publisher
    ..11) in mass of body components, expressed in kilograms or as a fraction of empty BW. In this experiment, improvements in animal performance and HCW due to feeding ZH were generally maintained when withdrawal was extended through 10 d. ..
  31. Akopian G, Crawford C, Petzinger G, Jakowec M, Walsh J. Brief mitochondrial inhibition causes lasting changes in motor behavior and corticostriatal synaptic physiology in the Fischer 344 rat. Neuroscience. 2012;215:149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..NMDA receptor binding did not change over the same post 3-NP time points. These data indicate even brief exposure to 3-NP can have lasting behavioral effects mediated by changes in the way DA and glutamate synapses interact. ..
  32. Yu Y, Ju W, Li Z, Wang D, Wang Y, Xie A. Acupuncture inhibits oxidative stress and rotational behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat. Brain Res. 2010;1336:58-65 pubmed publisher
  33. Ferraro L, O Connor W, Beggiato S, Tomasini M, Fuxe K, Tanganelli S, et al. Striatal NTS1 , dopamine D2 and NMDA receptor regulation of pallidal GABA and glutamate release--a dual-probe microdialysis study in the intranigral 6-hydroxydopamine unilaterally lesioned rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:207-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, NTS(1) antagonists in combination with conventional treatments may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in Parkinson's disease. ..
  34. Schmitt G, Arbo M, Lorensi A, Maciel E, Krahn C, Mariotti K, et al. Toxicological effects of a mixture used in weight loss products: p-synephrine associated with ephedrine, salicin, and caffeine. Int J Toxicol. 2012;31:184-91 pubmed publisher
  35. Dranka B, Zielonka J, Kanthasamy A, Kalyanaraman B. Alterations in bioenergetic function induced by Parkinson's disease mimetic compounds: lack of correlation with superoxide generation. J Neurochem. 2012;122:941-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data indicate that MPP(+), rotenone, and 6-OHDA dramatically shift bioenergetic function away from the mitochondria and towards glycolysis in N27 cells...
  36. Ahles A, Engelhardt S. Polymorphisms determine beta-adrenoceptor conformation: implications for cardiovascular disease and therapy. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009;30:188-93 pubmed publisher
  37. Yamanishi T, Takao K, Koizumi H, Ishihama K, Nohara K, Komaki M, et al. Alpha2-adrenoceptors coordinate swallowing and respiration. J Dent Res. 2010;89:258-63 pubmed publisher
  38. Dekundy A, Gravius A, Hechenberger M, Pietraszek M, Nagel J, Tober C, et al. Pharmacological characterization of MRZ-8676, a novel negative allosteric modulator of subtype 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5): focus on L: -DOPA-induced dyskinesia. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2011;118:1703-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The drug was demonstrated to possess a superior antidyskinetic efficacy with a sufficient therapeutic window. MRZ-8676 has also therapeutic potential as an anxiolytic and analgesic drug. ..
  39. Flor Escriche X, Méndez Gómez J, Poblet Cortés R, Lamarca Fornell L, Álvarez Álvarez S, Davies Daunas S. [Quality of life and associated factors in asthma in a Primary Care Center. Application of the reduced version of the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire]. Semergen. 2016;42:538-546 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with intermittent, mild and moderate asthma have a good QoL. Poor control of the asthma and a history of depression negatively affect the QoL. ..
  40. Patel C, Noor N, Rockman H. Functional selectivity in adrenergic and angiotensin signaling systems. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;78:983-92 pubmed publisher
  41. Haggerty D, Glykos V, Adams N, LeBeau F. Bidirectional modulation of hippocampal gamma (20-80 Hz) frequency activity in vitro via alpha(?)- and beta(?)-adrenergic receptors (AR). Neuroscience. 2013;253:142-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that NA is able to differentially modulate on-going gamma frequency oscillatory activity that could result in either increased or decreased information flow through the hippocampus. ..
  42. Ruffoli R, Soldani P, Pasquali L, Ruggieri S, Paparelli A, Fornai F. Methamphetamine fails to alter the noradrenergic integrity of the heart. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1139:337-44 pubmed publisher
  43. Banks M, Blough B, Negus S. Effects of monoamine releasers with varying selectivity for releasing dopamine/norepinephrine versus serotonin on choice between cocaine and food in rhesus monkeys. Behav Pharmacol. 2011;22:824-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results extend the range of conditions across which dopamine and norepinephrine-selective releasers have been shown to reduce cocaine self-administration. ..
  44. Ramsey T, Lau T, Ensom M. Serotonergic and adrenergic drug interactions associated with linezolid: a critical review and practical management approach. Ann Pharmacother. 2013;47:543-60 pubmed publisher
    ..drug interaction, serotonin syndrome, serotonin toxicity, sympathomimetic, serotonergic agents, and adrenergic agents. Citations of retrieved articles were also reviewed...
  45. Landers M, Kinney J, van Breukelen F. Forced exercise before or after induction of 6-OHDA-mediated nigrostriatal insult does not mitigate behavioral asymmetry in a hemiparkinsonian rat model. Brain Res. 2014;1543:263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, it is possible that the one-week delay in the forced exercise protocol implementation in Experiment 2 may have prevented behavioral rescue. ..
  46. Ebert A, Hann H, Bohn M. Progressive degeneration of dopamine neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease does not involve activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:317-25 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that in the adult rat brain DA neurons whose terminals are challenged with 6-OHDA do not die through a classical caspase-dependent apoptotic mechanism. ..
  47. Zhang Z, Cheang L, Wang M, Lee S. Quercetin exerts a neuroprotective effect through inhibition of the iNOS/NO system and pro-inflammation gene expression in PC12 cells and in zebrafish. Int J Mol Med. 2011;27:195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to provide a scientific rationale for the clinical use of quercetin, leading to its development as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. ..
  48. Camprecios G, Sánchez Vizcaíno E, Soley M, Ramirez I. Chronic ?-adrenergic stimulation increases ErbB receptors and cell proliferation in mouse kidney. Growth Factors. 2011;29:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that ErbB receptors may cooperate in the response to chronic ?-adrenergic stimulation. ..
  49. Kasture S, Pawar A, Kasture A, Foddis C, Frau M, Maxia A. Effect of ethanolic extract of Rubia peregrina L. (Rubiaceae) on monoamine-mediated behaviour. Nat Prod Res. 2011;25:1950-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The study suggests that we should carry out further experiments to investigate the psychopharmacological profile of R. peregrina...
  50. Fujii H, Takatori S, Zamami Y, Hashikawa Hobara N, Miyake N, Tangsucharit P, et al. Adrenergic stimulation-released 5-HT stored in adrenergic nerves inhibits CGRPergic nerve-mediated vasodilatation in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;166:2084-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that 5-HT can be taken up by and released from adrenergic nerves in vitro by PNS to inhibit CGRPergic nerve transmission in rat mesenteric arteries. ..
  51. Haghdoost Yazdi H, Fraidouni N, Faraji A, Jahanihashemi H, Sarookhani M. High intake of folic acid or complex of B vitamins provides anti-Parkinsonism effect: no role for serum level of homocysteine. Behav Brain Res. 2012;233:375-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that high intake of folic acid or B complex provides anti-Parkinsonism effect but it is not mediated by lowering plasma Hcy. ..
  52. Faber E, Delaney A, Power J, Sedlak P, Crane J, Sah P. Modulation of SK channel trafficking by beta adrenoceptors enhances excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity in the amygdala. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10803-13 pubmed publisher
  53. Verheij M, Cools A. Accumbal noradrenaline that contributes to the alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated release of dopamine from reserpine-sensitive storage vesicles in the nucleus accumbens is derived from alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine-sensitive pools. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2009;116:389-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical impact of these data is discussed. ..
  54. Long Smith C, Collins L, Toulouse A, Sullivan A, Nolan Y. Interleukin-1? contributes to dopaminergic neuronal death induced by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat glia in vitro. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;226:20-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Blockade of IL-1R1 prevented CM-induced dopaminergic neuronal death. This study suggests that IL-1? in CM from LPS-stimulated glia contributes to dopaminergic neuronal death induced by glia-conditioned medium. ..
  55. Martínez Saénz A, Barahona M, Orensanz L, Recio P, Bustamante S, Benedito S, et al. Mechanisms involved in the nitric oxide independent inhibitory neurotransmission to the pig urinary bladder neck. Neurourol Urodyn. 2011;30:151-7 pubmed publisher
    ..PKA and PKG pathways and postjunctional K(+) channels do not appear to be involved in the NO-independent nerve-mediated relaxations. ..
  56. Eto K, Kim S, Nabekura J, Ishibashi H. Taltirelin, a thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog, alleviates mechanical allodynia through activation of descending monoaminergic neurons in persistent inflammatory pain. Brain Res. 2011;1414:50-7 pubmed publisher
  57. Thomas Tayra J, Kameda M, Yasuhara T, Agari T, Kadota T, Wang F, et al. The neuroprotective and neurorescue effects of carbamylated erythropoietin Fc fusion protein (CEPO-Fc) in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2013;1502:55-70 pubmed publisher
    ..CEPO-Fc might be a therapeutic tool for patients with Parkinson's disease. ..
  58. Ouachikh O, Dieb W, Durif F, Hafidi A. Differential behavioral reinforcement effects of dopamine receptor agonists in the rat with bilateral lesion of the posterior ventral tegmental area. Behav Brain Res. 2013;252:24-31 pubmed publisher
  59. Vahaba D, Lacey W, Tomaszycki M. DSP-4, a noradrenergic neurotoxin, produces sex-specific effects on pairing and courtship behavior in zebra finches. Behav Brain Res. 2013;252:164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results extend previous findings to naturalistic contexts, provide evidence that DBH-ir densities in specific regions correlate with pairing-related behaviors, and inform us of sex differences in the role of NE in pairing. ..
  60. Zhang Z, Hou L, Li X, Ju C, Zhang J, Li X, et al. Neuroprotection of inositol hexaphosphate and changes of mitochondrion mediated apoptotic pathway and α-synuclein aggregation in 6-OHDA induced parkinson's disease cell model. Brain Res. 2016;1633:87-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, IP6 exerted its neuroprotection on dopaminergic cells in PD cell model and the mechanism may be associated with changes of mitochondrion mediated apoptotic pathway and α-synuclein aggregation. ..
  61. Tao K, Wang B, Feng D, Zhang W, Lu F, Lai J, et al. Salidroside Protects Against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Cytotoxicity by Attenuating ER Stress. Neurosci Bull. 2016;32:61-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides a rationale for the investigation of salidroside as a potential therapeutic agent in animal models of PD. ..
  62. Locke C, Fox S, Caldwell G, Caldwell K. Acetaminophen attenuates dopamine neuron degeneration in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2008;439:129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies imply an activity for acetaminophen in the attenuation of DA neuron loss that, following essential corroborative analyses in mammalian systems, may represent a potential benefit for PD. ..
  63. Yan W, Zhang Q, Liu J, Wang T, Wang S, Liu X, et al. The neuronal activity of thalamic parafascicular nucleus is conversely regulated by nigrostriatal pathway and pedunculopontine nucleus in the rat. Brain Res. 2008;1240:204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the fact that the PPN lesions induced a decrease in the firing rate of PF neurons in normal and SNc-lesioned rats suggests that the PF is under major control of the PPN. ..
  64. Sanders J, Happe H, Bylund D, Murrin L. Differential effects of neonatal norepinephrine lesions on immediate early gene expression in developing and adult rat brain. Neuroscience. 2008;157:821-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the idea that norepinephrine plays an important role during CNS development and that changes in noradrenergic signaling during development may have long lasting effects, potentially on learning and memory. ..
  65. Liu X, Osawa T. Astaxanthin protects neuronal cells against oxidative damage and is a potent candidate for brain food. Forum Nutr. 2009;61:129-35 pubmed publisher
  66. Koopman R, Ryall J, Church J, Lynch G. The role of beta-adrenoceptor signaling in skeletal muscle: therapeutic implications for muscle wasting disorders. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009;12:601-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies examining beta-agonist administration for muscle wasting conditions need to separate beneficial effects on skeletal muscle from potentially deleterious effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. ..
  67. Cai J, Yang M, Poremsky E, Kidd S, Schneider J, Iacovitti L. Dopaminergic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells survive and integrate into 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Stem Cells Dev. 2010;19:1017-23 pubmed publisher
  68. Ganser C, Papazoglou A, Just L, Nikkhah G. Neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin on 6-hydroxydopamine-treated ventral mesencephalic dopamine-rich cultures. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:737-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, it could be used in promoting the survival of DA neurons after transplantation in clinical trials. ..
  69. Li Y, Luo F, Wei L, Liu Z, Xu P. Knockdown of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. Neurosci Lett. 2011;487:41-6 pubmed publisher
  70. Hu J, Vidovic M, Chen M, Lu Q, Song Z. Activation of alpha 2A adrenoceptors alters dendritic spine development and the expression of spinophilin in cultured cortical neurones. Brain Res. 2008;1199:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter finding points to a possible mechanism by which adrenoceptors may regulate spinophilin function in dendritic spine development and structure in cortical neurones in vitro. ..
  71. Ziiazetdinova G, Sapronova A, Kiiasova V, Nanaev A, Kudrin V, Martina N, et al. [Compensatory reaction during degeneration of arcuate nucleus dopaminergic neurons in rats]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2008;44:72-7 pubmed
  72. Hellstrom W. Clinical applications of centrally acting agents in male sexual dysfunction. Int J Impot Res. 2008;20 Suppl 1:S17-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Bremelanotide, a melanocortin agonist, has been tested in men with ED and may prove to be one of the first centrally acting agents to have clinical utility in male sexual dysfunction. ..
  73. Naneix F, Marchand A, Di Scala G, Pape J, Coutureau E. A role for medial prefrontal dopaminergic innervation in instrumental conditioning. J Neurosci. 2009;29:6599-606 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that dissociable neurobiological mechanisms support action-outcome relationships and goal representation, dopamine signaling in the prelimbic cortex being necessary for the former but not the latter. ..
  74. Jakob S, Stanga Z. Perioperative metabolic changes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Nutrition. 2010;26:349-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Early nutrition in cardiac surgery is safe and well tolerated. ..
  75. Lei S, Deng P, Porter J, Shin H. Adrenergic facilitation of GABAergic transmission in rat entorhinal cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:2868-77 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that NE-mediated facilitation of GABAergic function contributes to its antiepileptic effects in the EC. ..
  76. Lin E, Cavanaugh J, Leak R, Perez R, Zigmond M. Rapid activation of ERK by 6-hydroxydopamine promotes survival of dopaminergic cells. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:108-17 pubmed
  77. Wanchoo S, Lee M, Swann A, Dafny N. Bilateral six-hydroxydopamine administration to PFC prevents the expression of behavioral sensitization to methylphenidate. Brain Res. 2010;1312:89-100 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that the 6-OHDA lesion group failed to exhibit behavioral sensitization to MPD. The involvement of the dopaminergic afferents of PFC in behavioral sensitization to MPD is discussed. ..
  78. Glajch K, Fleming S, Surmeier D, Osten P. Sensorimotor assessment of the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Behav Brain Res. 2012;230:309-16 pubmed publisher
  79. Bakovic D, Pivac N, Zubin Maslov P, Breskovic T, Damonja G, Dujic Z. Spleen volume changes during adrenergic stimulation with low doses of epinephrine. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013;64:649-55 pubmed
  80. Harrison L, LaHoste G, Ruskin D. Ontogeny and dopaminergic regulation in brain of Ras homolog enriched in striatum (Rhes). Brain Res. 2008;1245:16-25 pubmed publisher
  81. Gorelova N, Mulholland P, Chandler L, Seamans J. The glutamatergic component of the mesocortical pathway emanating from different subregions of the ventral midbrain. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:327-36 pubmed publisher
    ..When viewed in the light of the previously documented strong ?-aminobutyric acidergic component, it would seem that the rostromedial mesocortical projection is actually an amino acid pathway that in addition has a DA component. ..
  82. Wong C, Jenne C, Lee W, Leger C, Kubes P. Functional innervation of hepatic iNKT cells is immunosuppressive following stroke. Science. 2011;334:101-5 pubmed publisher
  83. Murnane K, PERRINE S, Finton B, Galloway M, Howell L, Fantegrossi W. Effects of exposure to amphetamine derivatives on passive avoidance performance and the central levels of monoamines and their metabolites in mice: correlations between behavior and neurochemistry. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;220:495-508 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that certain amphetamines impair PA performance in mice and that these impairments may be attributable to specific neurochemical depletions. ..
  84. Fainstein N, Einstein O, Cohen M, Brill L, Lavon I, Ben Hur T. Time limited immunomodulatory functions of transplanted neural precursor cells. Glia. 2013;61:140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the immunomodulatory effects of neural precursor cell transplantation are limited in time. ..
  85. Oeckl P, Hengerer B, Ferger B. G-protein coupled receptor 6 deficiency alters striatal dopamine and cAMP concentrations and reduces dyskinesia in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2014;257:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings could offer an opportunity for the treatment of Parkinson's disease beyond dopamine replacement. ..
  86. Lane E, Soulet D, Vercammen L, Cenci M, Brundin P. Neuroinflammation in the generation of post-transplantation dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2008;32:220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that an inflammatory response in and around grafted dopaminergic neurons is not sufficient to evoke dyskinetic behaviors in experimental models of PD. ..
  87. Oses J, Batassini C, Pochmann D, Böhmer A, Vuaden F, Silvestrin R, et al. The hydrolysis of striatal adenine- and guanine-based purines in a 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2011;36:215-22 pubmed publisher
  88. Meitzen J, Luoma J, Stern C, Mermelstein P. ?1-Adrenergic receptors activate two distinct signaling pathways in striatal neurons. J Neurochem. 2011;116:984-95 pubmed publisher
  89. Sun W, Sugiyama K, Asakawa T, Ito Yamashita T, Namba H. Behavioral performance at early (4 weeks) and later (6 months) stages in rats with unilateral medial forebrain bundle and striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2013;53:7-11 pubmed
    ..More behavioral tests of different mechanisms with simultaneous molecular studies are needed for evaluation of parkinsonian animal models and the efficacy of treatments. ..
  90. Frau L, Morelli M, Simola N. Performance of movement in hemiparkinsonian rats influences the modifications induced by dopamine agonists in striatal efferent dynorphinergic neurons. Exp Neurol. 2013;247:663-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these results may provide information on the first initial molecular events taking place in the complex processes that lead to dyskinetic movements in Parkinson's disease. ..
  91. Morroni F, Tarozzi A, Sita G, Bolondi C, Zolezzi Moraga J, Cantelli Forti G, et al. Neuroprotective effect of sulforaphane in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Neurotoxicology. 2013;36:63-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SFN may potentially be effective in slowing down the progression of idiopathic PD by the modulation of oxidative stress and apoptotic machinery. ..
  92. Jones T, Southcott A, Homan S. Drugs potentially affecting the extent of airways reversibility on pulmonary function testing are frequently consumed despite guidelines. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2013;8:383-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is likely that the increase in FEV1 is frequently affected by interference from drugs and this might impact on diagnosis and/or treatment options. ..