antidiuretic agents


Summary: Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.

Top Publications

  1. Manning M, Stoev S, Chini B, Durroux T, Mouillac B, Guillon G. Peptide and non-peptide agonists and antagonists for the vasopressin and oxytocin V1a, V1b, V2 and OT receptors: research tools and potential therapeutic agents. Prog Brain Res. 2008;170:473-512 pubmed publisher
    ..administration), for the treatment of euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia in hospitalized patients. Promising new non-peptide V(1b) and OT antagonists, as well as non-peptide V(2) and OT agonists are now in pre-clinical development. ..
  2. Marschall Kehrel D, Harms T. Structured desmopressin withdrawal improves response and treatment outcome for monosymptomatic enuretic children. J Urol. 2009;182:2022-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, desmopressin followed by structured withdrawal should be the standard. It is also superior to published outcomes of alarm treatment. ..
  3. Van Herzeele C, Alova I, Evans J, Eggert P, Lottmann H, Nørgaard J, et al. Poor compliance with primary nocturnal enuresis therapy may contribute to insufficient desmopressin response. J Urol. 2009;182:2045-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased compliance was associated with a lower response rate. Patients should be encouraged to comply fully with treatment to achieve an optimal outcome. ..
  4. Hvistendahl G, Frøkiaer J, Nielsen S, Djurhuus J. Gender differences in nighttime plasma arginine vasopressin and delayed compensatory urine output in the elderly population after desmopressin. J Urol. 2007;178:2671-6 pubmed
    ..The pharmacodynamics of desmopressin as an antidiuretic in the elderly population are different from those in young individuals. ..
  5. Osterberg O, Savic R, Karlsson M, Simonsson U, Nørgaard J, Walle J, et al. Pharmacokinetics of desmopressin administrated as an oral lyophilisate dosage form in children with primary nocturnal enuresis and healthy adults. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;46:1204-11 pubmed
    ..The main difference in the pharmacokinetics between children and adults was the absorption delay. The pharmacokinetic difference was minor and presumably of no clinical relevance. ..
  6. Van de Walle J, Van Herzeele C, Raes A. Is there still a role for desmopressin in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis?: a focus on safety issues. Drug Saf. 2010;33:261-71 pubmed publisher
  7. van Kerrebroeck P, Rezapour M, Cortesse A, Thüroff J, Riis A, Nørgaard J. Desmopressin in the treatment of nocturia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur Urol. 2007;52:221-9 pubmed
    ..Oral desmopressin tablets provide an effective and well-tolerated treatment for nocturia. Compared with placebo, nocturnal voiding frequency is reduced, duration of the first sleep period is increased, and sleep quality may be improved. ..
  8. De Guchtenaere A, Raes A, Vande Walle C, Hoebeke P, Van Laecke E, Donckerwolcke R, et al. Evidence of partial anti-enuretic response related to poor pharmacodynamic effects of desmopressin nasal spray. J Urol. 2009;181:302-9; discussion 309 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the documented prolonged action of desmopressin in some patients, increasing the dose without performing pharmacodynamic testing is no longer acceptable. ..
  9. Lottmann H, Baydala L, Eggert P, Klein B, Evans J, Norgaard J. Long-term desmopressin response in primary nocturnal enuresis: open-label, multinational study. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Early improvements in bedwetting of any appreciable magnitude may be rewarding, may facilitate compliance and enable good long-term response. ..

More Information


  1. Kwiatkowska A, Sobolewski D, Prahl A, Borovickova L, Slaninova J, Lammek B. Arginine vasopressin and its analogues--the influence of position 2 modification with 3,3-diphenylalanine enantiomers. Highly potent V2 agonists. Eur J Med Chem. 2009;44:2862-67 pubmed
    ..Four of the new peptides ([Mpa1,D-Dip2]AVP, [Mpa1,D-Dip2,Val4]AVP, [Mpa1,D-Dip2,D-Arg8]VP, [Mpa1,D-Dip2,Val4,D-Arg8]VP) are exceptionally potent antidiuretic agents with significantly prolonged activities.
  2. Rittig S, Schaumburg H, Siggaard C, Schmidt F, Djurhuus J. The circadian defect in plasma vasopressin and urine output is related to desmopressin response and enuresis status in children with nocturnal enuresis. J Urol. 2008;179:2389-95 pubmed publisher
  3. Vande Walle J, Van Laecke E. Pitfalls in studies of children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:173-8 pubmed
    ..All these may lead to false positive and/or false negative results. In this commentary we try to tackle these different issues which might be relevant for the interpretation even of placebo-controlled studies like that of Ferrara et al. ..
  4. Evans J, Malmsten B, Maddocks A, Popli H, Lottmann H. Randomized comparison of long-term desmopressin and alarm treatment for bedwetting. J Pediatr Urol. 2011;7:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..99). Desmopressin and alarm demonstrated comparable efficacy in the treatment of PNE. Withdrawal from the alarm group was high, indicating the importance of considering family motivation before selecting treatment, for optimal outcome. ..
  5. Vande Walle J, Bogaert G, Mattsson S, Schurmans T, Hoebeke P, Deboe V, et al. A new fast-melting oral formulation of desmopressin: a pharmacodynamic study in children with primary nocturnal enuresis. BJU Int. 2006;97:603-9 pubmed
    ..However, some patients might require a higher dose to obtain antidiuresis for the complete night. ..
  6. Lee H, Choo M, Lee J, Park C, Paick J, Lee J, et al. Desmopressin is an effective treatment for mixed nocturia with nocturnal polyuria and decreased nocturnal bladder capacity. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:1792-7 pubmed publisher
    ..001). The overall impression of patients about their quality of sleep improved. Adverse events occurred in 6 patients, including one asymptomatic hyponatremia. Desmopressin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for mixed nocturia...
  7. Zong H, Yang C, Peng X, Zhang Y. Efficacy and safety of desmopressin for treatment of nocturia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blinded trials. Int Urol Nephrol. 2012;44:377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The adverse effects of desmopressin were similar to those observed in the placebo group. Administered desmopressin was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for nocturia. ..
  8. Raes A, Dehoorne J, Van Laecke E, Hoebeke P, Vande Walle C, Vansintjan P, et al. Partial response to intranasal desmopressin in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is related to persistent nocturnal polyuria on wet nights. J Urol. 2007;178:1048-51; discussion 1051-2 pubmed
  9. Lottmann H, Froeling F, Alloussi S, El Radhi A, Rittig S, Riis A, et al. A randomised comparison of oral desmopressin lyophilisate (MELT) and tablet formulations in children and adolescents with primary nocturnal enuresis. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61:1454-60 pubmed
    ..Desmopressin MELT had similar levels of efficacy and safety at lower dosing levels than the tablet, and therefore facilitates early initiation of PNE treatment in children aged 5-6 years. ..
  10. Dehoorne J, Raes A, Van Laecke E, Hoebeke P, Vande Walle J. Desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria secondary to increased nocturnal osmotic excretion. J Urol. 2006;176:749-53 pubmed
    ..We investigated the role of increased solute excretion in children with desmopressin resistant nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria...
  11. Juul K, Klein B, Sandström R, Erichsen L, Nørgaard J. Gender difference in antidiuretic response to desmopressin. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;300:F1116-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Areas for further research are proposed to uncover pathophysiological mechanism(s) behind these gender differences. ..
  12. De Guchtenaere A, Van Herzeele C, Raes A, Dehoorne J, Hoebeke P, Van Laecke E, et al. Oral lyophylizate formulation of desmopressin: superior pharmacodynamics compared to tablet due to low food interaction. J Urol. 2011;185:2308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..001). With meal combination desmopressin melt formulation has a superior pharmacodynamic profile to tablet, making it more suitable for the younger age group with a limited interval between meal and drug administration. ..
  13. Vande Walle J, Rittig S, Bauer S, Eggert P, Marschall Kehrel D, Tekgul S. Practical consensus guidelines for the management of enuresis. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171:971-83 pubmed publisher
    ..e., checklists, diary templates, and quick-reference flowcharts) for complete evaluation and successful treatment of enuresis. ..
  14. Kowalczyk W, Prahl A, Derdowska I, Sobolewski D, Olejnik J, Zabrocki J, et al. Analogues of neurohypophyseal hormones, oxytocin and arginine vasopressin, conformationally restricted in the N-terminal part of the molecule. J Med Chem. 2006;49:2016-21 pubmed
    ..The results of these assays showed that the reduction of conformational freedom of the N-terminal part of the molecule had a significant impact on pharmacological activities. ..
  15. Kamperis K, Hagstroem S, Rittig S, Djurhuus J. Combination of the enuresis alarm and desmopressin: second line treatment for nocturnal enuresis. J Urol. 2008;179:1128-31 pubmed publisher
    ..02 compared to 0.86 +/- 0.05, not significant). Children needing the addition of desmopressin have a higher nocturnal urine production on wet nights but do not seem to differ in terms of bladder reservoir function characteristics. ..
  16. Bakoto N, Strivay M. [Germinoma responsible for central diabetes insipidus]. Rev Med Liege. 2009;64:386-9 pubmed
    ..This case highlights the importance of the clinical and radiological follow-up of central diabetes insipidus, especially when it is of unknown origin. The differential diagnosis will be reviewed. ..
  17. Ming L, Yin A. Therapeutic effects of glycyrrhizic acid. Nat Prod Commun. 2013;8:415-8 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the effects of GA on metabolic syndrome, tumorigenesis, microbes and viruses, oxidative stress, and inflammation, as well as the reported side effects of the drug. ..
  18. Tsukamoto I, Koshio H, Kuramochi T, Saitoh C, Yanai Inamura H, Kitada Nozawa C, et al. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of amide derivatives of (4,4-difluoro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5H-1-benzazepin-5-ylidene)acetic acid as selective arginine vasopressin V2 receptor agonists. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:3130-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Some representative compounds obtained in this study were also found to decrease urine volume in awake rats. ..
  19. Scott J, Miller M, Li S, Lin S, Vaccaro H, Hong L, et al. Tetrahydroquinoline sulfonamides as vasopressin 1b receptor antagonists. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:6018-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Further optimization of the right hand portion afforded potent V1b antagonists that possessed moderate to high selectivity over other receptors. ..
  20. Alloussi S, Mürtz G, Lang C, Madersbacher H, Strugala G, Seibold J, et al. Desmopressin treatment regimens in monosymptomatic and nonmonosymptomatic enuresis: A review from a clinical perspective. J Pediatr Urol. 2011;7:10-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The broad range of mono- and adjunct treatments were evaluated according to the evidence based criteria recommended by the European Association of Urology. ..
  21. Cobb C, Brown J, Rankin J. Antidiuretic action of angiotensin II in the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis: evidence for endocrine control of kidney function in cyclostomes. J Fish Biol. 2010;77:1424-31 pubmed publisher
    ..fluviatilis kidney function had not been examined. This study provides the first evidence for an antidiuretic action of Ang II in cyclostomes and, in evolutionary terms, suggests a renal function for the RAS in early vertebrates. ..
  22. Asplund R. Pharmacotherapy for nocturia in the elderly patient. Drugs Aging. 2007;24:325-43 pubmed
    ..This will improve patients' sleep and, in turn, reduce their risk of fall injuries and the associated detrimental consequences, thereby improving patients' health and quality of life. ..
  23. Nørgaard J, Hashim H, Malmberg L, Robinson D. Antidiuresis therapy: mechanism of action and clinical implications. Neurourol Urodyn. 2007;26:1008-13 pubmed
    ..These conditions are primarily characterized by an increase in the total amount of urine produced (polyuria) or a circadian shift in the control of urine production and/or voiding (nocturnal enuresis, nocturia). ..
  24. Sozubir S, Ergun G, Celik A, Ulman I, Avanoglu A. The influence of urine osmolality and other easily detected parameters on the response to desmopressin in the management of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in children. Minerva Urol Nefrol. 2006;58:207-12 pubmed
    ..We believe that it is important to characterize such different subgroups that could be used as predictors of a good response to desmopressin. ..
  25. Zoerner F, Semenas E. Resuscitation with amiodarone increases survival after hemorrhage and ventricular fibrillation in pigs. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014;76:1402-8 pubmed publisher
  26. Saldano D, Chaviano A, Maizels M. Sustainability of remission of pediatric primary nocturnal enuresis--comparison of remission using Try for Dry vs. non-Try for Dry treatment plans. Urol Nurs. 2008;28:263-6 pubmed
    ..Remission of PNE using the Try for Dry treatment method was retained longer and more often than using a non-Try for Dry plan. ..
  27. Makhanova N, Sequeira Lopez M, Gomez R, Kim H, Smithies O. Disturbed homeostasis in sodium-restricted mice heterozygous and homozygous for aldosterone synthase gene disruption. Hypertension. 2006;48:1151-9 pubmed
  28. Kwak K, Lee Y, Park K, Baek M. Efficacy of desmopressin and enuresis alarm as first and second line treatment for primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: prospective randomized crossover study. J Urol. 2010;184:2521-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Switching to the alternative treatment following partial or no response provided an additional benefit. ..
  29. Sata N, Satoh M, Seo N. [Case of ischemic heart disease resulting from persistent diuresis after giant ovarian tumor resection]. Masui. 2010;59:231-4 pubmed
    ..The total of 7 unit vasopressin was intermittently given for vasoconstriction and antidiuresis. Her hemodynamic was immediately restored, and ECG turned to normal ST-T. The patient had uneventful postoperative recovery. ..
  30. Hew Butler T. Arginine vasopressin, fluid balance and exercise: is exercise-associated hyponatraemia a disorder of arginine vasopressin secretion?. Sports Med. 2010;40:459-79 pubmed publisher
  31. Uyar I, Sahin V, Akpinar B, Yurtman V, Abacilar F, Okur F, et al. Temporary diabetes insipidus in 2 men after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Tex Heart Inst J. 2013;40:99-101 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of diabetes insipidus should be considered in patients who produce excessive urine early after cardiac surgery in which cardiopulmonary bypass has been used. ..
  32. Tsunematsu T, Fu L, Yamanaka A, Ichiki K, Tanoue A, Sakurai T, et al. Vasopressin increases locomotion through a V1a receptor in orexin/hypocretin neurons: implications for water homeostasis. J Neurosci. 2008;28:228-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This system appears to play a key role in water deprivation-induced hyperlocomotor activity, a response to dehydration that increases the chance of locating water in nature. ..
  33. Hoffert J, Fenton R, Moeller H, Simons B, Tchapyjnikov D, McDill B, et al. Vasopressin-stimulated increase in phosphorylation at Ser269 potentiates plasma membrane retention of aquaporin-2. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:24617-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The data support a model in which vasopressin-mediated phosphorylation of AQP2 at Ser269:(a) depends on prior PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Ser256 and (b) enhances apical plasma membrane retention of AQP2...
  34. Weatherall M, Arnold T. Nocturia in adults: draft New Zealand guidelines for its assessment and management in primary care. N Z Med J. 2006;119:U1976 pubmed
    ..A draft algorithm based on international guidelines is presented. ..
  35. Vandergheynst F, Pradier O, Beukinga I, Kornreich A, Vassart G, Decaux G. Lack of responsiveness to 1-desamino-D arginin vasopressin (desmopressin) in male patients with nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis: from bench to bedside. Eur J Clin Invest. 2012;42:254-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Coherent with in vitro observation in transfected cells, our clinical observations demonstrate that the R137C-V2R mutant is resistant to vasopressin stimulation in its physiological sites of expression. ..
  36. Amlal H, Sheriff S, Faroqui S, Ma L, Barone S, Petrovic S, et al. Regulation of acid-base transporters by vasopressin in the kidney collecting duct of Brattleboro rat. Am J Nephrol. 2006;26:194-205 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and/or decreased glucocorticoid levels likely plays a role in the transduction of these effects. ..
  37. Paluzzi J, Young P, Defferrari M, Orchard I, Carlini C, O Donnell M. Investigation of the potential involvement of eicosanoid metabolites in anti-diuretic hormone signaling in Rhodnius prolixus. Peptides. 2012;34:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..prolixus and, unlike the urease-related effects, the eicosanoid metabolite pathway is not involved in RhoprCAPA-2 mediated anti-diuresis. ..
  38. Rieg T, Tang T, Uchida S, Hammond H, Fenton R, Vallon V. Adenylyl cyclase 6 enhances NKCC2 expression and mediates vasopressin-induced phosphorylation of NKCC2 and NCC. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:96-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Renal AC6 determines total NKCC2 expression and mediates vasopressin-induced NKCC2/NCC phosphorylation. These regulatory mechanisms, which are defective in AC knockout mice, are likely responsible for the observed mild Bartter syndrome. ..
  39. Tomoda Y, Kai T, Inata J, Miyazaki K, Murai H, Yamaoka N, et al. [Central diabetes insipidus caused by pituitary metastasis of lung cancer]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2005;43:751-4 pubmed
    ..However, his lung cancer progressed. Diabitus insipidus caused by lung cancer is rare. ..
  40. Yoshida S. [Drug-induced syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH]. Nihon Rinsho. 2007;65 Suppl 8:589-91 pubmed
  41. Sand P, Dmochowski R, Reddy J, van der Meulen E. Efficacy and safety of low dose desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet in women with nocturia: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study. J Urol. 2013;190:958-64 pubmed publisher
    ..At a dose of 25 ?g, desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet is an effective and well tolerated treatment for women with nocturia. Treatment provides rapid and sustained improvement in nocturia and quality of life. ..
  42. Roos K, Bugaj V, Mironova E, Stockand J, Ramkumar N, Rees S, et al. Adenylyl cyclase VI mediates vasopressin-stimulated ENaC activity. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24:218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data suggest that adenylyl cyclase VI mediates vasopressin-stimulated ENaC activity in the kidney...
  43. Kwiatkowska A, Lewandowska M, Borovickova L, Slaninova J, Lammek B, Prahl A. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of new arginine vasopressin analogues containing proline derivatives in position 2. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2013;81:420-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study provide useful information about the structure-activity relationship of arginine vasopressin analogues and can help to design compounds with desired biological properties. ..
  44. Ftaiti F, Dantin M, Nicol C, Brunet C, Grelot L. The effect of desmopressin, a vasopressin analog, on endurance performance during a prolonged run in simulated heat conditions. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006;31:135-43 pubmed
    ..Urine mass was also lower under NH-Des conditions than under NH and FH conditions (p < 0.05). It is suggested that desmopressin administration could improve dramatically prolonged running performances in a hot and humid environment. ..
  45. Augoustides J, Szeto W. Unmasked diabetes insipidus after pericardial drainage and biopsy for pericardial effusion in association with Erdheim-Chester disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;136:217-8 pubmed publisher
  46. Solberg O, Omland T. [Arginine vasopressin antagonism--new treatment option in chronic heart failure]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2007;127:179-82 pubmed
    ..Studies in animals and the early human studies are promising. Ongoing phase III studies will hopefully clarify whether arginine vasopressin inhibition can reduce morbidity and mortality in heart failure. ..
  47. Majzoub J, Srivatsa A. Diabetes insipidus: clinical and basic aspects. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2006;4 Suppl 1:60-5 pubmed
    ..Treatment of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus involves removing the underlying cause, if possible, reducing solute load or therapy with a diuretic agent. ..
  48. Tuygun C, Eroglu M, Bakirtas H, Gucuk A, Zengin K, Imamoglu A. Is second-line enuretic alarm therapy after unsuccessful pharmacotherapy superior to first-line therapy in the treatment of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis?. Urol Int. 2007;78:260-3 pubmed
    ..When these success rates were compared between groups 1 and 3, no statistically significant difference was found (p = 1.000). Prior pharmacotherapy did not increase success rates of alarm therapy in our MNE patients. ..
  49. Escobar Chavez J, Bonilla Martínez D, Villegas González M, Revilla Vázquez A. Electroporation as an efficient physical enhancer for skin drug delivery. J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;49:1262-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This review presents the main findings in the field of electroporation-namely, transdermal drug delivery. Particular attention is paid to proposed enhancement mechanisms and trends in the field of topical and transdermal delivery. ..
  50. Robins G, Maclennan K, Boot Handford R, Sandle G. Rapid stimulation of human renal ENaC by cAMP in Xenopus laevis oocytes. J Physiol Biochem. 2013;69:419-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that this stimulatory effect on Na(+) reabsorption (and hence water absorption) may contribute to the early restoration of extracellular fluid volume following severe haemorrhage...
  51. Shin S, Im Y, Lee M, Lee Y, Choi E, Han S. Spina bifida occulta: not to be overlooked in children with nocturnal enuresis. Int J Urol. 2013;20:831-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, verifying spina bifida occulta in this patient population can facilitate the prediction of the response to nocturnal enuresis treatment. ..
  52. Rubenwolf P, Gerharz E, Kieser W, Riedmiller H. [Therapy of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in childhood and adolescence: what is the evidence?]. Klin Padiatr. 2007;219:2-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, further comparative studies of adequate methodological quality are needed. ..
  53. Price J, Schwartz N. Maternal rhabdomyolysis and twin fetal death associated with gestational diabetes insipidus. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122:493-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal rhabdomyolysis caused by gestational diabetes insipidus is extremely rare. Early recognition and treatment of gestational diabetes insipidus is necessary to prevent maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. ..