immunosuppressive agents

Summary

Summary: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.

Top Publications

  1. Ho E, Wong G, Craig J, Chapman J. Once-daily extended-release versus twice-daily standard-release tacrolimus in kidney transplant recipients: a systematic review. Transplantation. 2013;95:1120-8 pubmed publisher
    ..02 [0.94-1.10]; P=0.62; I=0%) were observed in observational studies. Once-daily tacrolimus appears to be as effective as twice-daily tacrolimus up to 12 months after kidney transplantation. ..
  2. First M, Dhadda S, Croy R, Holman J, Fitzsimmons W. New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT): an evaluation of definitions in clinical trials. Transplantation. 2013;96:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Appropriate definitions of NODAT allow for a better understanding of the incidence of this complication and may result in earlier initiation of therapy with improved long-term outcomes. ..
  3. Jokubaitis V, Li V, Kalincik T, Izquierdo G, Hodgkinson S, Alroughani R, et al. Fingolimod after natalizumab and the risk of short-term relapse. Neurology. 2014;82:1204-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides Class IV evidence that RRs are not higher in patients with multiple sclerosis switching to fingolimod from natalizumab compared to those patients switching to fingolimod from other therapies. ..
  4. Turner A, Knechtle S. Induction immunosuppression in liver transplantation: a review. Transpl Int. 2013;26:673-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In children, the same antibody is commonly used in order to reduce rates of acute rejection. Most patients, adult and pediatric, are treated with initially higher levels of tacrolimus rather than antibody induction. ..
  5. Kraft P, Göb E, Schuhmann M, Göbel K, Deppermann C, Thielmann I, et al. FTY720 ameliorates acute ischemic stroke in mice by reducing thrombo-inflammation but not by direct neuroprotection. Stroke. 2013;44:3202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, our findings in Rag1(-/-) mice and cultured neurons argue against direct neuroprotective effects of FTY720. ..
  6. Flynn J, O Leary M, Zambataro C, Academia E, Presley M, Garrett B, et al. Late-life rapamycin treatment reverses age-related heart dysfunction. Aging Cell. 2013;12:851-62 pubmed publisher
  7. Caforio A, Pankuweit S, Arbustini E, Basso C, Gimeno Blanes J, Felix S, et al. Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of myocarditis: a position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. Eur Heart J. 2013;34:2636-48, 2648a-2648d pubmed publisher
  8. Gomez Bravo M, Salcedo M, Fondevila C, Suarez F, Castellote J, Rufián S, et al. Impact of donor and recipient CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms on tacrolimus dosage requirements and rejection in Caucasian Spanish liver transplant patients. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;53:1146-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that in Caucasian Spanish LT patients, a native or graft-borne CYP3A5*1 allele tends to lower tacrolimus concentrations and increase dosage needs, but has no significant impact on the incidence of BPAR. ..
  9. Mease P, Fleischmann R, Deodhar A, Wollenhaupt J, Khraishi M, Kielar D, et al. Effect of certolizumab pegol on signs and symptoms in patients with psoriatic arthritis: 24-week results of a Phase 3 double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study (RAPID-PsA). Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) after 24 weeks in RAPID-PsA (NCT01087788), an ongoing Phase 3 trial in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA)...
  10. Goldwater R, Keirns J, Blahunka P, First R, Sawamoto T, Zhang W, et al. A phase 1, randomized ascending single-dose study of antagonist anti-human CD40 ASKP1240 in healthy subjects. Am J Transplant. 2013;13:1040-1046 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment emergent antibodies to ASKP1240 were detected in 5/70 (7.1%) ASKP1240 recipients. In conclusion, antagonism of the CD40/CD154 interaction with ASKP1240 was safe and well tolerated at the doses tested. ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Ho E, Wong G, Craig J, Chapman J. Once-daily extended-release versus twice-daily standard-release tacrolimus in kidney transplant recipients: a systematic review. Transplantation. 2013;95:1120-8 pubmed publisher
    ..02 [0.94-1.10]; P=0.62; I=0%) were observed in observational studies. Once-daily tacrolimus appears to be as effective as twice-daily tacrolimus up to 12 months after kidney transplantation. ..
  2. First M, Dhadda S, Croy R, Holman J, Fitzsimmons W. New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT): an evaluation of definitions in clinical trials. Transplantation. 2013;96:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Appropriate definitions of NODAT allow for a better understanding of the incidence of this complication and may result in earlier initiation of therapy with improved long-term outcomes. ..
  3. Jokubaitis V, Li V, Kalincik T, Izquierdo G, Hodgkinson S, Alroughani R, et al. Fingolimod after natalizumab and the risk of short-term relapse. Neurology. 2014;82:1204-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides Class IV evidence that RRs are not higher in patients with multiple sclerosis switching to fingolimod from natalizumab compared to those patients switching to fingolimod from other therapies. ..
  4. Turner A, Knechtle S. Induction immunosuppression in liver transplantation: a review. Transpl Int. 2013;26:673-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In children, the same antibody is commonly used in order to reduce rates of acute rejection. Most patients, adult and pediatric, are treated with initially higher levels of tacrolimus rather than antibody induction. ..
  5. Kraft P, Göb E, Schuhmann M, Göbel K, Deppermann C, Thielmann I, et al. FTY720 ameliorates acute ischemic stroke in mice by reducing thrombo-inflammation but not by direct neuroprotection. Stroke. 2013;44:3202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, our findings in Rag1(-/-) mice and cultured neurons argue against direct neuroprotective effects of FTY720. ..
  6. Flynn J, O Leary M, Zambataro C, Academia E, Presley M, Garrett B, et al. Late-life rapamycin treatment reverses age-related heart dysfunction. Aging Cell. 2013;12:851-62 pubmed publisher
  7. Caforio A, Pankuweit S, Arbustini E, Basso C, Gimeno Blanes J, Felix S, et al. Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of myocarditis: a position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. Eur Heart J. 2013;34:2636-48, 2648a-2648d pubmed publisher
  8. Gomez Bravo M, Salcedo M, Fondevila C, Suarez F, Castellote J, Rufián S, et al. Impact of donor and recipient CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms on tacrolimus dosage requirements and rejection in Caucasian Spanish liver transplant patients. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;53:1146-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that in Caucasian Spanish LT patients, a native or graft-borne CYP3A5*1 allele tends to lower tacrolimus concentrations and increase dosage needs, but has no significant impact on the incidence of BPAR. ..
  9. Mease P, Fleischmann R, Deodhar A, Wollenhaupt J, Khraishi M, Kielar D, et al. Effect of certolizumab pegol on signs and symptoms in patients with psoriatic arthritis: 24-week results of a Phase 3 double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study (RAPID-PsA). Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) after 24 weeks in RAPID-PsA (NCT01087788), an ongoing Phase 3 trial in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA)...
  10. Goldwater R, Keirns J, Blahunka P, First R, Sawamoto T, Zhang W, et al. A phase 1, randomized ascending single-dose study of antagonist anti-human CD40 ASKP1240 in healthy subjects. Am J Transplant. 2013;13:1040-1046 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment emergent antibodies to ASKP1240 were detected in 5/70 (7.1%) ASKP1240 recipients. In conclusion, antagonism of the CD40/CD154 interaction with ASKP1240 was safe and well tolerated at the doses tested. ..
  11. Nuttall T, Reece D, Roberts E. Life-long diseases need life-long treatment: long-term safety of ciclosporin in canine atopic dermatitis. Vet Rec. 2014;174 Suppl 2:3-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ciclosporin has a positive risk-benefit profile for the long-term management of canine AD. ..
  12. Ye L, Widlund A, Sims C, Lamming D, Guan Y, Davis J, et al. Rapamycin doses sufficient to extend lifespan do not compromise muscle mitochondrial content or endurance. Aging (Albany NY). 2013;5:539-50 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the doses of rapamycin required to extend life do not cause overt mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. ..
  13. Durand P, Debray D, Kolaci M, Bouligand J, Furlan V, Fabre M, et al. Tacrolimus dose requirement in pediatric liver transplantation: influence of CYP3A5 gene polymorphism. Pharmacogenomics. 2013;14:1017-25 pubmed publisher
    ..04). Donor CYP3A5 genotype partially explains tacrolimus dose requirement. Original submitted 30 January 2013; Revision submitted 2 May 2013. ..
  14. Rosenberg A, Rosenkrantz W, Griffin C, Angus J, Keys D. Evaluation of azithromycin in systemic and toothpaste forms for the treatment of ciclosporin-associated gingival overgrowth in dogs. Vet Dermatol. 2013;24:337-45, e74-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Gingival overgrowth is an adverse effect of ciclosporin therapy. Azithromycin (AZI) in capsule and toothpaste form is an effective treatment for ciclosporin-associated gingival overgrowth (CsAGO) in humans...
  15. Ramirez C, Doria C, Frank A, Armenti S, Marino I. Completely steroid-free immunosuppression in liver transplantation: a randomized study. Clin Transplant. 2013;27:463-71 pubmed publisher
    ..CS avoidance with basiliximab, calcineurin inhibitor, and EC-MPS is safe and effective as CS- containing immunosuppression in adult OLT. ..
  16. Hargis A, Myers S, Gortel K, Duclos D, Randolph Habecker J. Proliferative, lymphocytic, infundibular mural folliculitis and dermatitis with prominent follicular apoptosis and parakeratotic casts in four Labrador retrievers: preliminary description and response to therapy. Vet Dermatol. 2013;24:346-54, e76-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical lesions and the response to therapy of a novel skin disease in four dogs, and to compare the lesions with those of other similar conditions...
  17. Groves A, Kihara Y, Chun J. Fingolimod: direct CNS effects of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulation and implications in multiple sclerosis therapy. J Neurol Sci. 2013;328:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we briefly outline other existing and investigational MS therapies that may also have effects in the CNS...
  18. Molas Ferrer G, Soy Muner D, Anglada Martínez H, Riu Viladoms G, Estefanell Tejero A, Ribas Sala J. Interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse reaction to mTOR inhibitors. Nefrologia. 2013;33:297-300 pubmed publisher
    ..There is lack of conclusive data on treatment strategies. It appears that everolimus may be tolerated better than sirolimus. ..
  19. Kovarik J. From immunosuppression to immunomodulation: current principles and future strategies. Pathobiology. 2013;80:275-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, the author describes the mode of action of the currently most used immunosuppressive agents (not attempting to cover all principles that are available) and expands on recent activities in the ..
  20. Nel J, Epstein S. Metabolic Bone Disease in the Post-transplant Population: Preventative and Therapeutic Measures. Med Clin North Am. 2016;100:569-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Suggested monitoring and investigations are reviewed as well as treatment as far as the current literature supports, emphasizing the difference between kidney and liver recipients. ..
  21. Roca F, Dominique S, Schmidt J, Smail A, Duhaut P, Levesque H, et al. Interstitial lung disease in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Autoimmun Rev. 2017;16:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We also suggest that patients presenting predictive factors of ILD deterioration may need a closer follow-up and a more aggressive therapy. ..
  22. Amezaga A, Van Assche G. Practical Approaches to "Top-Down" Therapies for Crohn's Disease. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2016;18:35 pubmed publisher
    ..The natural history of ulcerative colitis differs from CD and, to date, there is not much scientific evidence on the use of early combined immunosuppression. ..
  23. Weckbach L, Maurer U, Schramm R, Huber B, Lackermair K, Weiss M, et al. Lower frequency routine surveillance endomyocardial biopsies after heart transplantation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182880 pubmed publisher
    ..Morbidity and mortality of lower frequency rsEMB are comparable with data from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) registry. Consensus is needed on the optimal frequency of EMB. ..
  24. André A, Felix A, Shamasna M, Nzwalo H, Basílio C. Neuroendocrine tumour metastatic brain disease during immunosuppressive treatment for paraneoplastic GABAB receptor antibodies encephalitis: Is immunosuppression always beneficial?. J Neuroimmunol. 2017;310:66-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The occurrence of diversified neurological manifestations of an underling tumour is difficult to manage. We speculate if in some cases, immunosuppression can itself facilitate tumour progression. ..
  25. Remo M, Abraham I, Kankanala V, Chacra W, Danciu O. Hepatitis B Reactivation in a Patient Receiving Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Case Report. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:3791-3793 pubmed
    ..Our case highlights the importance of developing definitive guidelines regarding HBV screening in patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors and raises the question of the need for universal screening. ..
  26. Chang M, Lee C, Ahn J, Cavalcante R, Sotomi Y, Onuma Y, et al. Comparison of Outcome of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Versus Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation for Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2017;120:380-386 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, among patients with NSTE-ACS for left main or multivessel coronary artery disease, CABG significantly reduces the risk of death from any causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke compared with PCI with drug-eluting stents. ..
  27. Veltri L, Milton D, Delgado R, Shah N, Patel K, Nieto Y, et al. Outcome of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in refractory multiple myeloma. Cancer. 2017;123:3568-3575 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings indicate that auto-HCT is an effective and safe therapy in patients with refractory multiple myeloma, including those who are refractory to IMiDs and PIs. Cancer 2017;123:3568-75. © 2017 American Cancer Society. ..
  28. Hodson E, Wong S, Willis N, Craig J. Interventions for idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;10:CD003594 pubmed
    ..Children who fail to respond may be treated with immunosuppressive agents including calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporin or tacrolimus) and with non-immunosuppressive agents such ..
  29. Hüsing A, Kabar I, Schmidt H. Lipids in liver transplant recipients. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:3315-24 pubmed publisher
    ..disorders in these patients is multifactorial, with different lipid profiles observed depending on the immunosuppressive agents administered and the presence of additional risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and ..
  30. Shin J, Lee J, Park J, Lim S, Jang H, Kwon G, et al. The effects of cytotoxic therapy in progressive IgA nephropathy. Ann Med. 2016;48:171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..886). Cytotoxic therapy attenuated the rate of GFR decline and was associated with a favorable renal outcome in patients with progressive IgAN. ..
  31. Zhao Y, Zhang J, Shi X, Li J, Wang R, Song R, et al. Quercetin targets the interaction of calcineurin with LxVP-type motifs in immunosuppression. Biochimie. 2016;127:50-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is desirable to develop alternative immunosuppressive agents. To this end, we first tested the interactions between CN and the LxVP-type substrates, including ..
  32. Rao B, Segovia M, Kazimi M, Parekh R, Raoufi M, Jafri S. Use of Everolimus After Multivisceral Transplantation: A Report of Two Cases. Transplant Proc. 2016;48:485-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Everolimus was beneficial in stabilizing renal function in both patients and has the theoretical potential to prevent recurrence of NET. ..
  33. Li T, Chen X, Dai X, Wei B, Weng Q, Chen X, et al. Novel Hsp90 inhibitor platycodin D disrupts Hsp90/Cdc37 complex and enhances the anticancer effect of mTOR inhibitor. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;330:65-73 pubmed publisher
  34. Deng P, Li X, Wei Y, Liu J, Chen M, Xu Y, et al. The herbal decoction modified Danggui Buxue Tang attenuates immune-mediated bone marrow failure by regulating the differentiation of T lymphocytes in an immune-induced aplastic anemia mouse model. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180417 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, it may be used for applications of traditional medicine against AA in modern complementary and alternative immunosuppressive therapeutics. ..
  35. Tian T, Zhang J, Zhu X, Wen S, Shi D, Zhou H. FTY720 ameliorates renal fibrosis by simultaneously affecting leucocyte recruitment and TGF-? signalling in fibroblasts. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017;190:68-78 pubmed publisher
  36. Troncone E, Monteleone G. The safety of non-biological treatments in Ulcerative Colitis. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2017;16:779-789 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary data indicate that such compounds have better overall safety and tolerability than corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. ..
  37. Vila G, Gessl A, Riedl M, Luger A. [Other specific types of diabetes]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2016;128 Suppl 2:S208-11 pubmed publisher
  38. Matsuo S, Hayashi K, Morimoto E, Kato A, Sada K, Watanabe H, et al. The Successful Treatment of Refractory Polyarteritis Nodosa Using Infliximab. Intern Med. 2017;56:1435-1438 pubmed publisher
    ..IFX is considered to be an effective alternative treatment for PAN which proves to be refractory to several immunosuppressive treatments. ..
  39. Oliveira S, Monteiro I. Diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease in children. BMJ. 2017;357:j2083 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the evidence on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and approaches to management of children and adolescents with IBD. ..
  40. Zhang L, Wu X, Wang L, Li J, Chen H, Zhao Y, et al. Clinical Features of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients Complicated With Evans Syndrome: A Case-Control, Single Center Study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95:e3279 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, monitoring with antoantibodies profile as well as nonhematological presentations are necessary for patients with ITP and (or) AIHA. ..
  41. Samson M, Puechal X, Mouthon L, Devilliers H, Cohen P, Bienvenu B, et al. Microscopic polyangiitis and non-HBV polyarteritis nodosa with poor-prognosis factors: 10-year results of the prospective CHUSPAN trial. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017;35 Suppl 103:176-184 pubmed
    ..Although the 3-year CHUSPAN trial results indicated the superiority of 12 vs. 6 CYC pulses, that early advantage progressively declined and became non-significant by 10 years. ..
  42. Zhang X, Wang Q, Chen H, Chen Y, Han W, Wang F, et al. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of Intracranial hemorrhage in patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ann Hematol. 2016;95:1637-43 pubmed publisher
    ..7 % (P?=?.001), respectively. Intracranial hemorrhage is associated with high mortality and a decreased overall survival rate. Systemic infections, platelet count, and fibrinogen levels were individual independent risk factors. ..
  43. Nitta D, Kinugawa K, Imamura T, Endo M, Amiya E, Hatano M, et al. Successful Pregnancy and Delivery in a Heart Transplantation Recipient. Int Heart J. 2016;57:383-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We closely monitored the concentration of immunosuppressive agents, cardiac function, fetal condition, and serological assay including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ..
  44. Patel D, Locke M, Jarrett P. Pyoderma gangrenosum with pathergy: A potentially significant complication following breast reconstruction. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2017;70:884-892 pubmed publisher
    ..A diagnostic algorithm is suggested to guide surgeons in investigations and management when post-surgical PG is suspected. ..
  45. Kamimura T, Isobe N, Yoshimura Y. Effects of inhibitors of transcription factors, nuclear factor-?B and activator protein 1, on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines induced by stimulation with Toll-like receptor ligands in hen vaginal cells. Poult Sci. 2017;96:723-730 pubmed publisher
  46. Liu F, Ting P, Lin J, Yu H. Immunosuppressants and new onset gallstone disease in patients having undergone renal transplantation. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2017;13:1391-1398 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this population-based study was to explore the prevalence, predictive factors, and outcomes of newly developed GSDART. The relationship between immunosuppressant and GSDART was also explored...
  47. Dobry A, Quesenberry C, Ray G, Geier J, Asgari M. Serious infections among a large cohort of subjects with systemically treated psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;77:838-844 pubmed publisher
    ..There also was a signal suggesting increased risk for meningitis. Clinicians should be aware of these potential adverse events when prescribing biologic agents. ..
  48. Destefanis S, Giretto D, Muscolo M, Di Cerbo A, Guidetti G, Canello S, et al. Clinical evaluation of a nutraceutical diet as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment in dogs affected by Keratoconjunctivitis sicca. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12:214 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that metabolic changes could affect the immune response orchestration in a model of immune-mediated ocular disease, as represented by cKCS. ..
  49. Johnson D, Lenive O, Mitchell J, Jackson G, Owen R, Drayson M, et al. Neutral tumor evolution in myeloma is associated with poor prognosis. Blood. 2017;130:1639-1643 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide evidence that knowledge of the evolutionary history of MM has relevance for predicting patient outcomes and personalizing therapy. ..
  50. Song Y, Cai G, Xiao Y, Wang Y, Yuan B, Xia Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of calcineurin inhibitor treatment for IgA nephropathy: a meta-analysis. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:61 pubmed publisher
    ..CNIs might provide renal protection in patients with IgAN, but at an increased risk of adverse events. Reliably defining the efficacy and safety of CNIs in IgAN requires a high-quality trial with a large sample size. ..
  51. Chaigne B, Guillevin L. Unsolved questions and concerns about treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitides. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2016;34:S121-8 pubmed
    ..Herein, after reviewing the literature, we provide answers to, or at least an analysis of, available evidence on 10 specific and practical questions concerning ANCA-associated vasculitis management. ..
  52. Disanto G, Benkert P, Lorscheider J, Mueller S, Vehoff J, Zecca C, et al. The Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Cohort-Study (SMSC): A Prospective Swiss Wide Investigation of Key Phases in Disease Evolution and New Treatment Options. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0152347 pubmed publisher
    ..4%), natalizumab (24.5%) or injectable DMDs (13.6%). The SMSC will provide relevant information regarding DMDs efficacy and safety and will serve as a comprehensive infrastructure available for nested research projects. ..
  53. Fang W, Chen M, Liu J, Hagen F, Ms A, Al Hatmi -, et al. Cryptococcal meningitis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: pooled analysis and systematic review. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016;5:e95 pubmed publisher
    ..6%. Our results suggest that more emphasis should be placed to further understand lupus-related cryptococcal meningitis and to develop better prophylaxis and management strategies to combat this condition. ..
  54. Townsley D, Scheinberg P, Winkler T, Desmond R, Dumitriu B, Rios O, et al. Eltrombopag Added to Standard Immunosuppression for Aplastic Anemia. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:1540-1550 pubmed publisher
    ..Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01623167 .). ..
  55. Chao W, Lin C, Liao T, Chen Y, Hsu C, Chen J, et al. The risk of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: a nationwide, population-based cohort study. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:796 pubmed publisher
    ..77; 95% CI, 4.53-69.61), especially during the first year (HR, 33.33; 95% CI, 4.37-254.23). An increased risk of NTM infection was found in SS patients treated with immunosuppressants during the first year after SS diagnosis. ..
  56. Carta P, Bigazzi B, Buti E, Antognoli G, Di Maria L, Caroti L, et al. Anemia and Immunosuppressive Regimen in Renal Transplanted Patients: Single-Center Retrospective Study. Transplant Proc. 2016;48:337-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed no differences in terms of development of anemia in renal transplanted patients treated with everolimus-based regimen. ..
  57. Kinoshita Y, Saeki H. A Review of the Active Treatments for Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. J Nippon Med Sch. 2017;84:110-117 pubmed publisher
    ..There is still much to be investigated regarding the pathogenesis of TEN, and new findings may contribute to the identification of an effective active intervention strategy. ..
  58. Al Ghamdi M, AlGhamdi K, Ghandoora Y, Alzahrani A, Salah F, Alsulami A, et al. Treatment outcomes for patients with Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS CoV) infection at a coronavirus referral center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:174 pubmed publisher
    ..Severity of illness was the greatest predictor of reduced survival in the multivariate analysis. Larger randomized trials are needed to better evaluate the efficacy of these treatment regimens for MERS-CoV. ..
  59. Johnson D, Sullivan R, Menzies A. Immune checkpoint inhibitors in challenging populations. Cancer. 2017;123:1904-1911 pubmed publisher
    ..Cancer 2017;123:1904-1911. © 2017 American Cancer Society. ..
  60. Wong T, Lo C, Fung J. Emerging drugs for prevention of T-cell mediated rejection in liver and kidney transplantation. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2017;22:123-136 pubmed publisher
    ..With the introduction of potent immunosuppressive agents such as calcineurin inhibitors, the risk of rejection has been significantly reduced...
  61. Tardieu M, Zerah M, Gougeon M, Ausseil J, de Bournonville S, Husson B, et al. Intracerebral gene therapy in children with mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB syndrome: an uncontrolled phase 1/2 clinical trial. Lancet Neurol. 2017;16:712-720 pubmed publisher
    ..Longer follow-up is needed to further assess safety outcomes and persistence of improved cognitive development. Association Française Contre les Myopathies, Vaincre les Maladies Lysosomales, Institut Pasteur, and UniQure. ..
  62. Bashir S, Teo Y, Naeem S, Ramesh S, Ramesh K. pH responsive N-succinyl chitosan/Poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels and in vitro release of 5-fluorouracil. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179250 pubmed publisher
    ..From the above results, it can be concluded that the synthesized hydrogels have capability to adapt their potential exploitation as targeted oral drug delivery carriers. ..