Summary: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.

Top Publications

  1. Bradley K, Jones C, Tompkins S, Tripp R, Russell R, Gramer M, et al. Comparison of the receptor binding properties of contemporary swine isolates and early human pandemic H1N1 isolates (Novel 2009 H1N1). Virology. 2011;413:169-82 pubmed publisher
  2. Li G, Tian Z, Yu H, Jin Y, Hou S, Zhou Y, et al. Fusion of C3d with hemagglutinin enhances protective immunity against swine influenza virus. Res Vet Sci. 2009;86:406-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, C3d enhanced antibody responses to hemagglutinin and protective immunity against SIV of different subtypes. ..
  3. Shinde V, Bridges C, Uyeki T, Shu B, Balish A, Xu X, et al. Triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) in humans in the United States, 2005-2009. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2616-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Although all the patients recovered, severe illness of the lower respiratory tract and unusual influenza signs such as diarrhea were observed in some patients, including those who had been previously healthy. ..
  4. Ge M, Freed J. Fusion peptide from influenza hemagglutinin increases membrane surface order: an electron-spin resonance study. Biophys J. 2009;96:4925-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible roles of bending stresses in promoting membrane fusion are discussed. ..
  5. de Vries R, Smit C, de Bruin E, Rigter A, de Vries E, Cornelissen L, et al. Glycan-dependent immunogenicity of recombinant soluble trimeric hemagglutinin. J Virol. 2012;86:11735-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the glycosylation state of recombinant antigens is a factor of significant importance when developing glycoprotein-based vaccines, such as recombinant HA proteins. ..
  6. Nagao Y, Nishio Y, Shiomoda H, Tamaru S, Shimojima M, Goto M, et al. An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals. J Vet Med Sci. 2012;74:699-705 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species...
  7. Höper D, Hoffmann B, Beer M. A comprehensive deep sequencing strategy for full-length genomes of influenza A. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19075 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the disambiguated primer sequences, high quality full-length sequences for the three isolates used for sequencing trials could be established from the raw data in de novo assemblies. ..
  8. Liu S, Ji K, Chen J, Tai D, Jiang W, Hou G, et al. Panorama phylogenetic diversity and distribution of Type A influenza virus. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5022 pubmed publisher
  9. Qi X, Li X, Rider P, Fan W, Gu H, Xu L, et al. Molecular characterization of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses isolated from raccoon dogs in China. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4682 pubmed publisher
    ..This also facilitates the surveillance and detection of possible emergence of highly pathogenic strains of specific genotypes from unknown hosts or hosts that have not been previously reported to carry these genotypes...

More Information


  1. Veljkovic V, Veljkovic N, Muller C, Muller S, Glisic S, Perovic V, et al. Characterization of conserved properties of hemagglutinin of H5N1 and human influenza viruses: possible consequences for therapy and infection control. BMC Struct Biol. 2009;9:21 pubmed publisher
    ..The presented results may help to better understand the interaction of influenza virus with its receptor(s) and to identify new therapeutic targets for drug development. ..
  2. Kapczynski D, Gonder E, Liljebjelke K, Lippert R, Petkov D, Tilley B. Vaccine-induced protection from egg production losses in commercial turkey breeder hens following experimental challenge with a triple-reassortant H3N2 avian influenza virus. Avian Dis. 2009;53:7-15 pubmed
    ..This study provides the first detailed description of the clinical protection afforded to laying turkey hens by vaccination against challenge with a circulating field isolate of a H3N2 triple-reassortant AIV. ..
  3. Dupejova J, Sterba J, Vancova M, Grubhoffer L. Hemelipoglycoprotein from the ornate sheep tick, Dermacentor marginatus: structural and functional characterization. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:4 pubmed publisher
  4. Cheng M, Soda K, Lee M, Lee S, Sakoda Y, Kida H, et al. Isolation and characterization of potentially pathogenic H5N2 influenza virus from a chicken in Taiwan in 2008. Avian Dis. 2010;54:885-93 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis of the eight segments of the isolate indicated that the isolated virus was a reassortant whose HA and NA gene segments belonged to the American lineage and internal genes to the Eurasian lineage. ..
  5. Bhoumik P, Hughes A. Reassortment of ancient neuraminidase and recent hemagglutinin in pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1748-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This pattern implies reassortment and suggests that the novel form of hemagglutinin conferred a selective advantage. ..
  6. Galiano M, Agapow P, Thompson C, Platt S, Underwood A, Ellis J, et al. Evolutionary pathways of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in the UK. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23779 pubmed publisher
    ..Although some limited antigenic divergence in viruses with four-fold reduction in HI titre might be related to the presence of 203T, additional studies are needed to test this hypothesis. ..
  7. Chakrabarti A, Pawar S, Cherian S, Koratkar S, Jadhav S, Pal B, et al. Characterization of the influenza A H5N1 viruses of the 2008-09 outbreaks in India reveals a third introduction and possible endemicity. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7846 pubmed publisher
  8. Greenbaum J, Kotturi M, Kim Y, Oseroff C, Vaughan K, Salimi N, et al. Pre-existing immunity against swine-origin H1N1 influenza viruses in the general human population. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20365-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with reports about disease incidence, severity, and mortality rates associated with human S-OIV. ..
  9. Chen Z, Wang W, Zhou H, Suguitan A, Shambaugh C, Kim L, et al. Generation of live attenuated novel influenza virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) vaccines with high yield in embryonated chicken eggs. J Virol. 2010;84:44-51 pubmed publisher
    ..However, changes at residues 119 and 186 did not affect virus antigenicity or immunogenicity, justifying their inclusion in live attenuated vaccine candidates to protect against the currently circulating 2009 swine origin H1N1 viruses. ..
  10. Cheng M, Lee M, Ho Y, Chyi W, Wang C. Avian influenza monitoring in migrating birds in Taiwan during 1998-2007. Avian Dis. 2010;54:109-14 pubmed
    ..Using the IVPI test and the HA cleavage sequences, all of the H5 or H7 AIVs isolated were determined to be low pathogenicity AIVs. ..
  11. Sakabe S, Iwatsuki Horimoto K, Horimoto T, Nidom C, Le M, Takano R, et al. A cross-reactive neutralizing monoclonal antibody protects mice from H5N1 and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection. Antiviral Res. 2010;88:249-55 pubmed publisher
    ..that the monoclonal antibody C179, which recognizes a neutralizing epitope common among H1, H2, H5, and H6 hemagglutinins (HAs), protected mice from a lethal challenge with various H5N1 and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses when ..
  12. Crevar C, Ross T. Elicitation of protective immune responses using a bivalent H5N1 VLP vaccine. Virol J. 2008;5:131 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that a multivalent influenza VLP vaccine representing different genetic clades is a promising strategy to elicit protective immunity against isolates from emerging clades and subclades of H5N1. ..
  13. Kreijtz J, Suezer Y, de Mutsert G, van den Brand J, van Amerongen G, Schnierle B, et al. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin gene confers protection against homologous and heterologous H5N1 influenza virus infections in macaques. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:405-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, MVA-HA-VN/04 is a promising vaccine candidate for the induction of protective immunity against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in humans. ..
  14. Jin Y, Takegahara Y, Sugawara Y, Matsumura T, Fujinaga Y. Disruption of the epithelial barrier by botulinum haemagglutinin (HA) proteins - differences in cell tropism and the mechanism of action between HA proteins of types A or B, and HA proteins of type C. Microbiology. 2009;155:35-45 pubmed publisher
  15. Belser J, Jayaraman A, Raman R, Pappas C, Zeng H, Cox N, et al. Effect of D222G mutation in the hemagglutinin protein on receptor binding, pathogenesis and transmissibility of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25091 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that although the D222G mutation does not influence virus transmission, it may be considered a molecular marker for enhanced replication in certain cell types. ..
  16. Das S, Puigbò P, Hensley S, Hurt D, Bennink J, Yewdell J. Glycosylation focuses sequence variation in the influenza A virus H1 hemagglutinin globular domain. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001211 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports the conclusion that glycosylation generally shields HA from antibody-mediated neutralization, and implies that fitness costs in accommodating oligosaccharides limit virus escape via HA hyperglycosylation. ..
  17. Chen H, Wen X, To K, Wang P, Tse H, Chan J, et al. Quasispecies of the D225G substitution in the hemagglutinin of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus from patients with severe disease in Hong Kong, China. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1517-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Continuous monitoring of the prevalence and tissue tropism of this variant during its circulation among humans is important. ..
  18. McCarthy A, Shaw M, Goodman S. Pathogen evolution and disease emergence in carnivores. Proc Biol Sci. 2007;274:3165-74 pubmed
  19. Keawcharoen J, Amonsin A, Oraveerakul K, Wattanodorn S, Papravasit T, Karnda S, et al. Characterization of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of recent influenza virus isolates from different avian species in Thailand. Acta Virol. 2005;49:277-80 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a deletion of 20 amino acids in the NA stalk region was detected in all Thai isolates in contrast to the H5N1 strain that had caused outbreaks in eastern Asia in 1996-1997 and 2000-2001. ..
  20. Shtyrya Y, Mochalova L, Voznova G, Rudneva I, Shilov A, Kaverin N, et al. Adjustment of receptor-binding and neuraminidase substrate specificities in avian-human reassortant influenza viruses. Glycoconj J. 2009;26:99-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, all postreassortment changes in oligosaccharide specificities of "alien" HA and NA were directed towards their adjustment to each other, but by different manner. ..
  21. Marjuki H, Alam M, Ehrhardt C, Wagner R, Planz O, Klenk H, et al. Membrane accumulation of influenza A virus hemagglutinin triggers nuclear export of the viral genome via protein kinase Calpha-mediated activation of ERK signaling. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:16707-15 pubmed
    ..This may represent an auto-regulative mechanism that coordinates timing of RNP export to a point when all viral components are ready for virus budding. ..
  22. Neumann G, Kawaoka Y. Host range restriction and pathogenicity in the context of influenza pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:881-6 pubmed
    ..We summarize current knowledge of viral factors that determine host range restriction and pathogenicity of influenza A viruses. ..
  23. Seers C, Slakeski N, Veith P, Nikolof T, Chen Y, Dashper S, et al. The RgpB C-terminal domain has a role in attachment of RgpB to the outer membrane and belongs to a novel C-terminal-domain family found in Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:6376-86 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the C-terminal domain is essential for outer membrane attachment and may be involved in a coordinated process of export and attachment to the cell surface. ..
  24. Cavada B, Moreno F, da Rocha B, De Azevedo W, Castellón R, Goersch G, et al. cDNA cloning and 1.75 A crystal structure determination of PPL2, an endochitinase and N-acetylglucosamine-binding hemagglutinin from Parkia platycephala seeds. FEBS J. 2006;273:3962-74 pubmed
    ..75 A resolution, showed that Parkia platycephala lectin 2 is homologous to endochitinases of the glycosyl hydrolase family 18, which share the (betaalpha)8 barrel topology harboring the catalytic residues Asp125, Glu127, and Tyr182. ..
  25. Oda H, Saiki K, Numabe Y, Konishi K. Effect of gamma-immunoglobulin on the asaccharolytic growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Periodontal Res. 2007;42:438-42 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that GA medium is currently the most reliable minimal medium for examining the growth properties of P. gingivalis. ..
  26. Gioia C, Castilletti C, Tempestilli M, Piacentini P, Bordi L, Chiappini R, et al. Cross-subtype immunity against avian influenza in persons recently vaccinated for influenza. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the possibility of boosting cross-type cellular and humoral immunity against highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H5N1 by seasonal influenza vaccination. ..
  27. Shoji Y, Chichester J, Bi H, Musiychuk K, de la Rosa P, Goldschmidt L, et al. Plant-expressed HA as a seasonal influenza vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2008;26:2930-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that plant-produced HA protein is antigenic and can induce immune responses in mice that correlate with protection. ..
  28. Gambotto A, Barratt Boyes S, de Jong M, Neumann G, Kawaoka Y. Human infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus. Lancet. 2008;371:1464-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss ideas relating to virus transmission, host restriction, and pathogenesis. Finally, we discuss vaccine development in view of the probable importance of vaccination in pandemic control. ..
  29. Bateman A, Busch M, Karasin A, Bovin N, Olsen C. Amino acid 226 in the hemagglutinin of H4N6 influenza virus determines binding affinity for alpha2,6-linked sialic acid and infectivity levels in primary swine and human respiratory epithelial cells. J Virol. 2008;82:8204-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using specific neuraminidases, we found that irrespective of their relative binding preferences, all of the influenza viruses examined utilized SAalpha2,6Gal to infect swine and human cells. ..
  30. Kalbfuss B, Knöchlein A, Kröber T, Reichl U. Monitoring influenza virus content in vaccine production: precise assays for the quantitation of hemagglutination and neuraminidase activity. Biologicals. 2008;36:145-61 pubmed
    ..Linearity of both assays was verified in dilution experiments. Applicability was demonstrated in three cases: virus propagation in mammalian cell culture, ultrafiltration and precipitation of nucleic acids. ..
  31. Singh N, Pandey A, Jayashankar L, Mittal S. Bovine adenoviral vector-based H5N1 influenza vaccine overcomes exceptionally high levels of pre-existing immunity against human adenovirus. Mol Ther. 2008;16:965-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the importance of BAd vectors as an alternate or supplement to HAd vectors for influenza pandemic preparedness. ..
  32. Hoelscher M, Singh N, Garg S, Jayashankar L, Veguilla V, Pandey A, et al. A broadly protective vaccine against globally dispersed clade 1 and clade 2 H5N1 influenza viruses. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:1185-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed an adenoviral vector-based vaccine that contains hemagglutinin protein from clade 1 and clade 2 viruses, as well as conserved nucleoprotein, to broaden the vaccine coverage against H5N1 viruses. ..
  33. Abdel Ghafar A, Chotpitayasunondh T, Gao Z, Hayden F, Nguyen D, de Jong M, et al. Update on avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in humans. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:261-73 pubmed publisher
  34. Matsumura T, Jin Y, Kabumoto Y, Takegahara Y, Oguma K, Lencer W, et al. The HA proteins of botulinum toxin disrupt intestinal epithelial intercellular junctions to increase toxin absorption. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:355-64 pubmed
    ..These studies show that the 16S BoNT complex is a multifunctional protein assembly equipped with the machinery to efficiently breach the intestinal barrier and act systemically on peripheral nerves. ..
  35. Banet Noach C, Perk S, Simanov L, Grebenyuk N, Rozenblut E, Pokamunski S, et al. H9N2 influenza viruses from Israeli poultry: a five-year outbreak. Avian Dis. 2007;51:290-6 pubmed
  36. Balder R, Hassel J, Lipski S, Lafontaine E. Moraxella catarrhalis strain O35E expresses two filamentous hemagglutinin-like proteins that mediate adherence to human epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2765-75 pubmed
    ..The construction of isogenic mutants in the mhaB1 and mhaB2 genes of strain O35E also suggests that the MhaB proteins play distinct roles in M. catarrhalis adherence. ..
  37. Funke S, Maisner A, Mühlebach M, Koehl U, Grez M, Cattaneo R, et al. Targeted cell entry of lentiviral vectors. Mol Ther. 2008;16:1427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Because MV enters cells through direct fusion at the cell membrane, this novel targeting system should be widely applicable. ..
  38. Shih A, Hsiao T, Ho M, Li W. Simultaneous amino acid substitutions at antigenic sites drive influenza A hemagglutinin evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6283-8 pubmed
  39. Shahsavandi S, Salmanian A, Ghorashi S, Masoudi S, Ebrahimi M. Evolutionary characterization of hemagglutinin gene of H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from Asia. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93:234-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that, although most positions in HAs were under purifying selection and can be eliminated, a few positions located in the antigenic regions and receptor binding sites were subject to positive selection. ..
  40. Prorok Hamon M, Friswell M, Alswied A, Roberts C, Song F, Flanagan P, et al. Colonic mucosa-associated diffusely adherent afaC+ Escherichia coli expressing lpfA and pks are increased in inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Gut. 2014;63:761-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated genes responsible for these effects and their co-association in colonic mucosal isolates...
  41. Pose A, Gomez J, Sánchez A, Redondo A, Rodríguez E, Seguí R, et al. Subunit influenza vaccine candidate based on CD154 fused to HAH5 increases the antibody titers and cellular immune response in chickens. Vet Microbiol. 2011;152:328-37 pubmed publisher
    ..01). These data demonstrate that HACD is able to significantly enhance humoral and cellular immune responses against HA antigen, which make this fusion protein a promising subunit vaccine candidate against H5N1 virus outbreaks. ..
  42. Grodeland G, Mjaaland S, Roux K, Fredriksen A, Bogen B. DNA vaccine that targets hemagglutinin to MHC class II molecules rapidly induces antibody-mediated protection against influenza. J Immunol. 2013;191:3221-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that MHC II-targeted DNA vaccines could play a role in situations of pandemic threats. The vaccine principle should be extendable to other infectious diseases. ..
  43. Pfeiffer D, Otte M, Roland Holst D, Inui K, Nguyen T, Zilberman D. Implications of global and regional patterns of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 clades for risk management. Vet J. 2011;190:309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased multilateral collaboration needs to focus on developing enhanced disease surveillance and control targeted at evolutionary 'hotspots'. ..
  44. Kowalczyk A, Markowska Daniel I. Phylogenetic evolution of swine-origin human influenza virus: a pandemic H1N1 2009. Pol J Vet Sci. 2010;13:491-500 pubmed
    ..This analysis contributes to the evidence that pigs are not the only hosts playing the role of "mixing vessel", as it was suggested for many years. ..
  45. Liljebjelke K, Petkov D, Kapczynski D. Mucosal vaccination with a codon-optimized hemagglutinin gene expressed by attenuated Salmonella elicits a protective immune response in chickens against highly pathogenic avian influenza. Vaccine. 2010;28:4430-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Results provide evidence of effectiveness of attenuated Salmonella strains for delivery of recombinant avian influenza HA antigens and induction of mucosal and systemic immune responses protective against lethal challenge with HPAI. ..
  46. Hymas W, Mills A, Ferguson S, Langer J, She R, Mahoney W, et al. Development of a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of influenza A, influenza B, RSV and typing of the 2009-H1N1 influenza virus. J Virol Methods. 2010;167:113-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this multiplexed format proved to be sensitive, robust and easy to use and serves as a useful tool for pandemic testing. ..
  47. Gildea S, Quinlivan M, Arkins S, Cullinane A. The molecular epidemiology of equine influenza in Ireland from 2007-2010 and its international significance. Equine Vet J. 2012;44:387-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These data also serve as a scientific basis for investigating the source of epizootics and outbreaks both nationally and internationally. ..
  48. Ariyakumar D, Nishiguchi M. Characterization of two host-specific genes, mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (mshA) and uridyl phosphate dehydrogenase (UDPDH) that are involved in the Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna tasmanica mutualism. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;299:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This furthers our understanding of the genetic factors playing important roles in this environmentally transmitted symbiosis. ..
  49. Long M, Hedstrom L. Mushroom tyrosinase oxidizes tyrosine-rich sequences to allow selective protein functionalization. Chembiochem. 2012;13:1818-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These reactions are selective for proteins bearing HA and other unstructured poly-tyrosine-containing tags and can be performed in lysates to create specifically tagged proteins. ..
  50. Khampanon K, Chanprakop T, Sriwanitchrak P, Setthakarn M, Oota S, Nathalang O. The characteristics of ABO antibodies in group O Thai blood donors. J Clin Lab Anal. 2012;26:223-6 pubmed publisher
  51. Kim S, Yan Y, Samal S. Role of the cytoplasmic tail amino acid sequences of Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein in virion incorporation, cell fusion, and pathogenicity. J Virol. 2009;83:10250-5 pubmed publisher
  52. Hao S, Li Q, Wang C, Wang H, Yang S, Xia X. [Cloning and expression of single-chain Fv antibodies against H5N1 Avian influenza virus hemagglutinin]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2009;25:63-7 pubmed
    ..The recombinant plasmid was then transformed to E. coli BL21(DE3) and sequence analysis indicated the total length of scFv was 714 bp and the expression of Fv was validated by PAGE and Western blot. ..
  53. O Brien J, Minin V, Suchard M. Learning to count: robust estimates for labeled distances between molecular sequences. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:801-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In the final example, we demonstrate the advantages of using robust synonymous distances to alleviate the effect of convergent evolution on phylogenetic analysis of an HIV transmission network. ..