agglutinins

Summary

Summary: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.

Top Publications

  1. Clement F, Pramod S, Venkatesh Y. Identity of the immunomodulatory proteins from garlic (Allium sativum) with the major garlic lectins or agglutinins. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:316-24 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins QR-2 and QR-1 present in a ratio of 4:1 in raw garlic contribute to garlic's immunomodulatory activity, and their characteristics are markedly similar to the abundant Allium sativum agglutinins (ASA) I and II, respectively.
  2. Balzarini J, Hatse S, Vermeire K, Princen K, Aquaro S, Perno C, et al. Mannose-specific plant lectins from the Amaryllidaceae family qualify as efficient microbicides for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:3858-70 pubmed
    ..0) for prolonged time periods and can be easily formulated in gel preparations for microbicidal use; they did not agglutinate human erythrocytes and were not toxic to mice when administered intravenously...
  3. Banerjee S, Hess D, Majumder P, Roy D, Das S. The Interactions of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin with a chaperonin group of unique receptor protein isolated from a bacterial endosymbiont of the mustard aphid. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23782-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, garlic leaf lectin provides an important component of a crop management program by controlling, on one hand, aphid attack and on the other hand, symbionin-mediated luteovirus transmission. ..
  4. Prakobphol A, Xu F, Hoang V, Larsson T, Bergstrom J, Johansson I, et al. Salivary agglutinin, which binds Streptococcus mutans and Helicobacter pylori, is the lung scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein gp-340. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:39860-6 pubmed
    ..These results identify the salivary agglutinin as gp-340 and suggest it binds bacteria that are important determinants of either the oral ecology or systemic diseases. ..
  5. Pascual V, Victor K, Spellerberg M, Hamblin T, Stevenson F, Capra J. VH restriction among human cold agglutinins. The VH4-21 gene segment is required to encode anti-I and anti-i specificities. J Immunol. 1992;149:2337-44 pubmed
    ..The implications of this apparently absolute requirement for a single VH gene segment, unprecedented in the human autoimmune response, are discussed. ..
  6. Li G, Li N, Zhang Y, Li X, Wang Y, Liu X, et al. Mannose-exposing myeloid leukemia cells detected by the sCAR-PPA fusion protein. Int J Hematol. 2009;89:611-7 pubmed publisher
  7. Vaishnavi C, Kumar S. Investigation for background prevalence of Brucella agglutinins among blood donors. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2007;25:302-4 pubmed
  8. Torres J, Villegas L, Perez H, Suarez L, Torres V M, Campos M. Low-grade parasitaemias and cold agglutinins in patients with hyper-reactive malarious splenomegaly and acute haemolysis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97:125-30 pubmed
    ..005) contained elevated titres (of at least 1:32) of complement-fixing IgM cold agglutinins (CA)...
  9. Mollenhauer J, Helmke B, Müller H, Kollender G, Lyer S, Diedrichs L, et al. Sequential changes of the DMBT1 expression and location in normal lung tissue and lung carcinomas. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002;35:164-9 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that the changes of the DMBT1 expression and location do reflect a time course that may point to possible mechanisms for its role in epithelial cancer. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Mueller W, Mollenhauer J, Stockhammer F, Poustka A, von Deimling A. Rare mutations of the DMBT1 gene in human astrocytic gliomas. Oncogene. 2002;21:5956-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, 21 of the 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in this study have not been recognized previously. The data indicate, that small mutations are not a frequent finding in gliomas. ..
  2. Mollenhauer J, Wiemann S, Scheurlen W, Korn B, Hayashi Y, Wilgenbus K, et al. DMBT1, a new member of the SRCR superfamily, on chromosome 10q25.3-26.1 is deleted in malignant brain tumours. Nat Genet. 1997;17:32-9 pubmed
    ..Lack of DMBT1 expression has been demonstrated in 4/5 brain-tumour cell lines. We suggest that DMBT1 is a putative tumour-suppressor gene implicated in the carcinogenesis of medulloblastoma and glibolastoma multiforme. ..
  3. Mori M, Shiraishi T, Tanaka S, Yamagata M, Mafune K, Tanaka Y, et al. Lack of DMBT1 expression in oesophageal, gastric and colon cancers. Br J Cancer. 1999;79:211-3 pubmed
    ..6%) of the primary tumours and two (13.3%) of the cell lines. These findings suggest that DMBT1 may act as a tumour-suppressor gene not only in brain tumours but also in gastrointestinal cancers, especially in oesophageal cancers. ..
  4. Hamshou M, Smagghe G, Shahidi Noghabi S, De Geyter E, Lannoo N, Van Damme E. Insecticidal properties of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum agglutinin and its interaction with insect tissues and cells. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:883-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential use of SSA in insect control is discussed. ..
  5. Cotter P, Ayoub J, Parmentier H. Directional selection for specific sheep cell antibody responses affects natural rabbit agglutinins of chickens. Poult Sci. 2005;84:220-5 pubmed
    ..028). Qualitative changes in anti-Gal accompanied SRBC selection. Rabbit agglutinins of 4 types were recognizable: classic, granular, annular, and one negative or very weak reaction...
  6. Ferris P, Waffenschmidt S, Umen J, Lin H, Lee J, Ishida K, et al. Plus and minus sexual agglutinins from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Cell. 2005;17:597-615 pubmed
    ..undergo sexual adhesion via enormous chimeric Hyp-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), the plus and minus sexual agglutinins, that are displayed on their flagellar membrane surfaces...
  7. Mollenhauer J, Helmke B, Medina D, Bergmann G, Gassler N, Müller H, et al. Carcinogen inducibility in vivo and down-regulation of DMBT1 during breast carcinogenesis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2004;39:185-94 pubmed
    ..The dynamic behavior of DMBT1 in lung carcinoma is fully reflected in breast cancer, which suggests that this behavior might be common to tumor types arising from monolayered epithelia. ..
  8. Kang W, Reid K. DMBT1, a regulator of mucosal homeostasis through the linking of mucosal defense and regeneration?. FEBS Lett. 2003;540:21-5 pubmed
  9. Mollenhauer J, Deichmann M, Helmke B, Müller H, Kollender G, Holmskov U, et al. Frequent downregulation of DMBT1 and galectin-3 in epithelial skin cancer. Int J Cancer. 2003;105:149-57 pubmed
    ..This would support the view that galectin-3 can exert tumor-suppressive effects in certain scenarios, and DMBT1/galectin-3-mediated differentiation represents a candidate mechanism for this effect. ..
  10. Hikita C, Vijayakumar S, Takito J, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Al Awqati Q. Induction of terminal differentiation in epithelial cells requires polymerization of hensin by galectin 3. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:1235-46 pubmed
    ..Hence, the high density state causes a secretion of a protein that acts on another ECM protein to allow the new complex to signal the cell to change its phenotype. This is a new mechanism of inside-out signaling. ..
  11. Ligtenberg T, Bikker F, Groenink J, Tornoe I, Leth Larsen R, Veerman E, et al. Human salivary agglutinin binds to lung surfactant protein-D and is identical with scavenger receptor protein gp-340. Biochem J. 2001;359:243-8 pubmed
    ..Rec. 230, 307-318]. We conclude that agglutinin is identical with gp-340, and that this molecule interacts with S. mutans and surfactant protein-D. ..
  12. MUNOZ J, Lázcoz P, Inda M, Nistal M, Pestaña A, Encío I, et al. Homozygous deletion and expression of PTEN and DMBT1 in human primary neuroblastoma and cell lines. Int J Cancer. 2004;109:673-9 pubmed
    ..From our work, we can conclude that PTEN and DMBT1 seem to contribute to the development of a small fraction of neuroblastomas, and that promoter hypermethylation might have a role in DMBT1 gene silencing. ..
  13. Mollenhauer J, Herbertz S, Holmskov U, Tolnay M, Krebs I, Merlo A, et al. DMBT1 encodes a protein involved in the immune defense and in epithelial differentiation and is highly unstable in cancer. Cancer Res. 2000;60:1704-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, DMBT1 is a gene that is highly unstable in cancer and encodes for a protein with at least two different functions, one in the immune defense and a second one in epithelial differentiation. ..
  14. Riboldi P, Gaidano G, Schettino E, Steger T, Knowles D, Dalla Favera R, et al. Two acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Burkitt's lymphomas produce specific anti-i IgM cold agglutinins using somatically mutated VH4-21 segments. Blood. 1994;83:2952-61 pubmed
    ..The IgM MoAbs were highly specific for the i determinant on red blood cells (cold agglutinins), but bound none of the other eight self and nine foreign antigens (Ags) tested, including those most commonly ..
  15. Takeshita H, Sato M, Shiwaku H, Semba S, Sakurada A, Hoshi M, et al. Expression of the DMBT1 gene is frequently suppressed in human lung cancer. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1999;90:903-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that inactivation of the DMBT1 gene plays an important role in human lung carcinogenesis. ..
  16. Mollenhauer J, Herbertz S, Helmke B, Kollender G, Krebs I, Madsen J, et al. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 is a versatile mucin-like molecule likely to play a differential role in digestive tract cancer. Cancer Res. 2001;61:8880-6 pubmed
    ..However, although DMBT1 originally has divergent functions in monolayered and multilayered epithelia, carcinogenesis possibly converges in a common pathway that requires an inactivation of its functions in the ECM. ..
  17. Liu M, Guo S, Hu S, Xiao Y, Xu Q, Li Z, et al. Displaying the protein of Mycoplasma gallisepticum agglutinin on the cell surface of Bacillus thuringiensis with the S-layer protein. Vet Microbiol. 2008;130:99-106 pubmed publisher
    ..2P and exhibited immunogenicity, as indicated by serum plate agglutination (SPA) assays. This study suggests the possibility of generating heat-stable and oral vaccines against infectious diseases of fowl with Bt surface-display system...
  18. Mladenov I, Haralambieva I, Iankov I, Mitov I. Characterisation of 20-kDa lectin-spermagglutinin from Arum maculatum that prevents Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of L-929 fibroblast cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2002;32:249-54 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae. These results suggest that the isolated lectin prevents attachment by binding to a C. pneumoniae specific sialoglycoprotein receptor expressed on the surface of L-929 fibroblast cells. ..
  19. Vandenborre G, Groten K, Smagghe G, Lannoo N, Baldwin I, Van Damme E. Nicotiana tabacum agglutinin is active against Lepidopteran pest insects. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:1003-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, feeding experiments with the Solanaceae specialist, Manduca sexta, provided further evidence that NICTABA exerts clear entomotoxic effects on Lepidopteran larvae. ..
  20. Wessels P, Twijnstra A, Kubat B, Ummelen M, Claessen S, Sciot R, et al. 10q25.3 (DMBT1) copy number changes in astrocytoma grades II and IV. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2004;39:22-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that selective loss of the 10q25.3 region, including the DMBT1 gene, is not an initiating event in the genesis of astrocytoma grade II. ..
  21. Ligtenberg A, Bikker F, de Blieck Hogervorst J, Veerman E, Nieuw Amerongen A. Binding of salivary agglutinin to IgA. Biochem J. 2004;383:159-64 pubmed
    ..Despite this similar binding site, IgA did not inhibit binding of Streptococcus mutans to SAG or peptide. These results show that the binding of IgA to SAG is specifically mediated by a peptide sequence on the SRCR domains. ..
  22. Strobel E, Scheidegger C, Obermaier Kusser B, Roelcke D. [Cold agglutinins of the IgM class in a patient with monoclonal gammopathy of the IgA class]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2001;126:872-5 pubmed
    ..Between the specificity and the immunoglobulin class of cold agglutinins correlations exist that are also of significance for these autoantibodies...
  23. Maheswari R, Mullainadhan P, Arumugam M. Isolation and characterization of an acetyl group-recognizing agglutinin from the serum of the Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;402:65-76 pubmed
    ..indicus in the host immunodefense reactions against microbial invaders. ..
  24. Johnson S, McFarland J, Kelly K, Casper J, Gottschall J. Transfusion support with RBCs from an Mk homozygote in a case of autoimmune hemolytic anemia following diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccination. Transfusion. 2002;42:567-71 pubmed
    ..This case represents life-threatening AIHA in an infant, temporally related to a DPT injection and responsive to a combination of immunosuppression and transfusion of rare compatible blood. ..
  25. Thorpe S, Turner C, Stevenson F, Spellerberg M, Thorpe R, Natvig J, et al. Human monoclonal antibodies encoded by the V4-34 gene segment show cold agglutinin activity and variable multireactivity which correlates with the predicted charge of the heavy-chain variable region. Immunology. 1998;93:129-36 pubmed
    ..We found that (i) cold agglutinin activity was a property of all the V4-34-encoded mAb (ii) the cold agglutinins from CAD patients were generally monospecific for I/i whereas most of the anti-D and the other V4-34-encoded ..
  26. Wilson N. Gametic cell adhesion and fusion in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;475:39-51 pubmed publisher
  27. Lipke P, Wojciechowicz D, Kurjan J. AG alpha 1 is the structural gene for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-agglutinin, a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions during mating. Mol Cell Biol. 1989;9:3155-65 pubmed
  28. Van Damme E, Barre A, Mazard A, Verhaert P, Horman A, Debray H, et al. Characterization and molecular cloning of the lectin from Helianthus tuberosus. Eur J Biochem. 1999;259:135-42 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the discovery of Heltuba is of great importance in view of the occurrence and molecular evolution of the jacalin-related lectins. ..
  29. Yamamoto R, Minobe S, Ebina Y, Watari H, Kudo M, Henmi F, et al. Prenatal trisomy 21 screening using the Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein ratio. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2004;44:87-92 pubmed
    ..05) and AFP MoM (P < 0.0005). However, no statistical difference was observed between the AUCs of L3 MoM and L3 MoM/AFP MoM. In conclusion, the L3 MoM should be an effective replacement for AFP-L3% in prenatal trisomy 21 screening. ..
  30. Rhodin N, Van Tilburg M, Oli M, McArthur W, Brady L. Further characterization of immunomodulation by a monoclonal antibody against Streptococcus mutans antigen P1. Infect Immun. 2004;72:13-21 pubmed
    ..mutans alters P1's susceptibility to proteolytic digestion. Hence, changes in antigen processing and presentation may contribute to the immunomodulatory effects of this MAb. ..
  31. Vargas Albores F, Jimenez Vega F, Yepiz Plascencia G. Purification and comparison of beta-1,3-glucan binding protein from white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1997;116:453-8 pubmed
    ..californiensis) and crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) BGBP, indicating that this recognition protein is present in freshwater and marine crustaceans. ..
  32. Mullainadhan P, Renwrantz L. Comparative analysis of agglutinins from hemolymph and albumin gland of Helix pomatia. J Comp Physiol B. 1989;159:443-52 pubmed
    ..The biochemical properties observed were compared with those of the well-known blood group A-specific lectin from the albumin gland of H. pomatia. ..
  33. Feng L, Sun P, Mi T, Liu M, Liu W, Yao S, et al. Agglutinin isolated from Arisema heterophyllum Blume induces apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells through inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway and inducing ER stress. Chin J Nat Med. 2016;14:856-864 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, cytotoxicity of AHA on cancer cells might be related to its effects on apoptosis and autophagy through inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway and induction of ER stress. ..
  34. Bergan T, Midtvedt T. Epidemiological markers for pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand B. 1975;83:1-9 pubmed
    ..These findings may have implications for the understanding of the degree of stability in epidemiological typing results for P. aeruginosa. ..
  35. Hoyer L, Fundyga R, Hecht J, Kapteyn J, Klis F, Arnold J. Characterization of agglutinin-like sequence genes from non-albicans Candida and phylogenetic analysis of the ALS family. Genetics. 2001;157:1555-67 pubmed
    ..Homologous recombination between the tandem repeat sequences present in ALS genes could explain the different histories for co-localized genes in a predominantly clonal organism like C. albicans. ..
  36. Breuer G, Raveh D, Rudensky B, Rosenberg R, Ruchlemer R, Halevy J. Remember the blood smear: a clinical laboratory vignette. Isr Med Assoc J. 2002;4:1089-90 pubmed
  37. Green C, Cheng G, Chandra J, Mukherjee P, Ghannoum M, Hoyer L. RT-PCR detection of Candida albicans ALS gene expression in the reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) model of oral candidiasis and in model biofilms. Microbiology. 2004;150:267-75 pubmed
    ..The method will provide further insight into the role of ALS genes and their encoded proteins in the diverse interactions between C. albicans and its host. ..
  38. Wilson M, Menjivar E, Kalapatapu V, Hand A, Garber J, Ruiz M. Mycoplasma pneumoniae associated with hemolytic anemia, cold agglutinins, and recurrent arterial thrombosis. South Med J. 2007;100:215-7 pubmed
    ..developed Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (IgM titer 1:256) as well as autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to cold agglutinins (titer of 1:512)...
  39. Sinha S, Mitra N, Kumar G, Bajaj K, Surolia A. Unfolding studies on soybean agglutinin and concanavalin a tetramers: a comparative account. Biophys J. 2005;88:1300-10 pubmed
    ..These interactions further stabilize SBA with respect to ConA, which is not glycosylated...
  40. Schutte M, van Es J, Silberstein L, Logtenberg T. VH4.21-encoded natural autoantibodies with anti-i specificity mirror those associated with cold hemagglutinin disease. J Immunol. 1993;151:6569-76 pubmed
    ..21-encoded antibodies with anti-i specificity from the normal B cell repertoire mirror their pathogenic counterparts and that naturally occurring anti-I antibodies may be encoded by a more diverse array of VH4 genes. ..
  41. Jayasree S. Purification and characterization of a natural agglutinin in the hemolymph of the prawn Penaeus indicus H. Milne Edwards. J Invertebr Pathol. 2001;77:237-42 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that prawn agglutinin is proteinaceous in nature, with agglutinating, hemolytic, and antibacterial properties against marine bacteria and erythrocytes with carbohydrate binding sites. ..
  42. Shiraga S, Kawakami M, Ishiguro M, Ueda M. Enhanced reactivity of Rhizopus oryzae lipase displayed on yeast cell surfaces in organic solvents: potential as a whole-cell biocatalyst in organic solvents. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:4335-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, this immobilized lipase, which is more easily prepared and has higher activity than commercially available free and immobilized lipases, may be a practical alternative for the production of esters derived from fatty acids. ..
  43. Beeson J, Mann E, Byrne T, Caragounis A, Elliott S, Brown G, et al. Antigenic differences and conservation among placental Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes and acquisition of variant-specific and cross-reactive antibodies. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:721-30 pubmed
    ..Conclusions. Immunity may be mediated by a repertoire of antibodies to diverse and common epitopes. Strategies based on vaccination with a single domain or isolate might be hindered by antigenic diversity. ..
  44. Jimenez M, Sáiz J, Andre S, Gabius H, Solís D. Monomer/dimer equilibrium of the AB-type lectin from mistletoe enables combination of toxin/agglutinin activities in one protein: analysis of native and citraconylated proteins by ultracentrifugation/gel filtration and cell biological consequences of. Glycobiology. 2005;15:1386-95 pubmed
  45. Sasaki M, Huang S, Chen M, Jan Y, Yeh T, Ishikawa A, et al. Expression of deleted in malignant brain tumor-1 (DMBT1) molecule in biliary epithelium is augmented in hepatolithiasis: possible participation in lithogenesis. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48:1234-40 pubmed
    ..Augmented expression and secretion of DMBT1 in intrahepatic large bile ducts in hepatolithiasis suggests its role in lithogenesis. ..
  46. Bitencourt F, Figueiredo J, Mota M, Bezerra C, Silvestre P, Vale M, et al. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of a mucin-binding agglutinin isolated from the red marine alga Hypnea cervicornis. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2008;377:139-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In short, H. cervicornis agglutinin showed important antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity via interaction with the lectin carbohydrate-binding site. ..
  47. Stenudd C, Nordlund A, Ryberg M, Johansson I, Källestål C, Stromberg N. The association of bacterial adhesion with dental caries. J Dent Res. 2001;80:2005-10 pubmed
    ..Non-Db phenotypes (i.e., acidic PRP-1 and PRP-2 variants) coincided with both low caries experience and S. mutans, but high A. naeslundii, adhesion. Thus, bacterial adhesion may modulate susceptibility and resistance to dental caries. ..
  48. Steck P, Lin H, Langford L, Jasser S, Koul D, Yung W, et al. Functional and molecular analyses of 10q deletions in human gliomas. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999;24:135-43 pubmed
    ..These results support a model of molecular progression in gliomas in which the frequent deletion of 10q25-26 is an early event and is followed by the deletion of the MMAC/PTEN during the progression to high-grade GBMs. ..
  49. Mancini J, Weckselblatt B, Chung Y, Durante J, Andelman S, Glaubman J, et al. The heat-resistant agglutinin family includes a novel adhesin from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain 60A. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:4813-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Hra1, Tia, and the novel accessory adhesin Hra2 are members of a family of integral outer membrane proteins that confer different colonization-associated phenotypes. ..
  50. Upadhyay S, Singh S, Chandrashekar K, Tuli R, Singh P. Compatibility of garlic (Allium sativum L.) leaf agglutinin and Cry1Ac ?-endotoxin for gene pyramiding. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;93:2365-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that the toxins had different binding sites on the ALP and APN but influenced mutual binding. We conclude that ASAL can be safely employed with Cry1Ac for developing transgenic crops for wider insect resistance. ..
  51. Alen M, Dallmeier K, Balzarini J, Neyts J, Schols D. Crucial role of the N-glycans on the viral E-envelope glycoprotein in DC-SIGN-mediated dengue virus infection. Antiviral Res. 2012;96:280-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates a crucial role of the N-glycans in the E-glycoprotein in the infection of dendritic cells, which constitute primary target cells of DENV during viral pathogenesis in the human body. ..
  52. Yao J, Pang Y, Qi H, Wan B, Zhao X, Kong W, et al. Transgenic tobacco expressing Pinellia ternata agglutinin confers enhanced resistance to aphids. Transgenic Res. 2003;12:715-22 pubmed
    ..Our study indicates that the pta gene can be used as a supplement to the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) lectin gene (gna) in the control of aphids, a sap-sucking insect pest causing significant yield losses of crops. ..
  53. Lanciego J, Wouterlood F, Erro E, Gimenez Amaya J. Multiple axonal tracing: simultaneous detection of three tracers in the same section. Histochem Cell Biol. 1998;110:509-15 pubmed
    ..We illustrate this method by showing convergence of projections arising from neurons located in two separate basal ganglia-related nuclei onto identified thalamostriatal projection neurons. ..