adrenocorticotropic hormone


Summary: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).

Top Publications

  1. Plager J, Cushman P. Suppression of the pituitary-ACTH response in man by administration of ACTH or cortisol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1962;22:147-54 pubmed
  2. Baudry C, Paepegaey A, Groussin L. Reversal of Cushing's syndrome by vandetanib in medullary thyroid carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:584-6 pubmed publisher
  3. Minton J. Function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system in models of acute stress in domestic farm animals. J Anim Sci. 1994;72:1891-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, current dogma of glucocorticoids as the primary mediator of stressor-associated alteration in immune function of domestic livestock may require reevaluation. ..
  4. Lu J, Chatain G, Bugarini A, Wang X, Maric D, Walbridge S, et al. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor SAHA Is a Promising Treatment of Cushing Disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2825-2835 pubmed publisher
    ..92%; P = 0.0007) and ACTH secretion (83.64%; P = 0.03). Our findings demonstrate SAHA's efficacy in reducing survival and ACTH secretion in AtT-20 and hCtT cells, providing a potential intervention for recurrent/unremitting CD. ..
  5. Whitcomb R, Linehan W, Knazek R. Effects of long-chain, saturated fatty acids on membrane microviscosity and adrenocorticotropin responsiveness of human adrenocortical cells in vitro. J Clin Invest. 1988;81:185-8 pubmed
    ..This decrease in trophic support may contribute to the adrenal insufficiency and atrophy in patients with ALD. ..
  6. Tan K, Nicholls J, Kung A, Leong L, Lam K. Unusual endocrine presentations of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer. 1996;77:1967-72 pubmed
    ..The first patient presented with Cushing's syndrome secondary to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production...
  7. Hoffman P, Tabakoff B. Centrally acting peptides and tolerance to ethanol. Curr Alcohol. 1981;8:359-78 pubmed
    ..Neurohypophyseal peptides also modulate ethanol intake. Thus, these neuropeptides, which have been localized to many areas of brain, may serve as endogenous modulators of various parameters related to ethanol consumption. ..
  8. Montoya Williams D, Mowitz M. Cholestasis and Hepatic Iron Deposition in an Infant With Complex Glycerol Kinase Deficiency. Pediatrics. 2017;140: pubmed publisher
    ..A full endocrine workup revealed nearly absent adrenocorticotropic hormone. Coupled with his persistent hypertriglyceridemia (peak of 811 mg/dL) and elevated creatine kinase ..
  9. Seki T, Yasuda A, Oki M, Kitajima N, Takagi A, Nakajima N, et al. Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency Following Nivolumab Therapy in a Patient with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2017;42:115-120 pubmed
    ..Endocrinological assessment by rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) tests revealed that the patient's disorder was a ..

More Information


  1. Strbak V, Benicky J, Macho L, Jezova D, Nikodemova M. Four-week ethanol intake decreases food intake and body weight but does not affect plasma leptin, corticosterone, and insulin levels in pubertal rats. Metabolism. 1998;47:1269-73 pubmed
    ..Drinking 10% ethanol instead of tap water for 4 weeks did not stimulate basal adrenal activity. ..
  2. Trivisano M, Lucchi C, Rustichelli C, Terracciano A, Cusmai R, Ubertini G, et al. Reduced steroidogenesis in patients with PCDH19-female limited epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2017;58:e91-e95 pubmed publisher
    ..progesterone, all the considered hormones were evaluated in basal condition and after stimulation with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). A generalized decrease in blood levels of almost all measured neuroactive steroids was found...
  3. Wang P, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Brem A, Liu Z, Gong R. Acquired Resistance to Corticotropin Therapy in Nephrotic Syndrome: Role of De Novo Neutralizing Antibody. Pediatrics. 2017;140: pubmed publisher
    ..The proof of concept protocols established in this study to examine the anticorticotropin neutralizing antibodies may aid in determining the cause of resistance to corticotropin therapy in future studies. ..
  4. Klemcke H, Pond W. Porcine adrenal adrenocorticotropic hormone receptors: characterization, changes during neonatal development, and response to a stressor. Endocrinology. 1991;128:2476-88 pubmed
    ..The significance of these age-related changes in ACTH receptors for adrenal function remains to be determined; however, it is evident that in neonatal pigs, there is no stress nonresponsive period. ..
  5. Golembiewska E, Machowska A, Stenvinkel P, Lindholm B. Prognostic Value of Copeptin in Chronic Kidney Disease: From General Population to End-Stage Renal Disease. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2017;18:1232-1243 pubmed publisher
    ..water conservation by the kidney, but it also stimulates arteriolar vasoconstriction and the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These actions are mediated by different AVP receptors located on various target cells...
  6. Zeng M, Chen L, Ye H, Gong W, Zhou L, Li Y, et al. Primary hypothyroidism and isolated ACTH deficiency induced by nivolumab therapy: Case report and review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8426 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it also causes plenty of autoimmune-related adverse events, which often involves endocrine system...
  7. Viau V, Meaney M. Variations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to stress during the estrous cycle in the rat. Endocrinology. 1991;129:2503-11 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest an ovarian influence on both activational and inhibitory components of HPA activity. ..
  8. Chapman M, Blankenberg S, Landmesser U. The year in cardiology 2015: prevention. Eur Heart J. 2016;37:510-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Apple J, Minton J, Parsons K, Unruh J. Influence of repeated restraint and isolation stress and electrolyte administration on pituitary-adrenal secretions, electrolytes, and other blood constituents of sheep. J Anim Sci. 1993;71:71-7 pubmed
    ..Electrolyte treatment had no appreciable effect on pituitary-adrenal secretions or any other measured component of blood. ..
  10. Fenton S, Stephenson D, Weder C. Pseudomembranous colitis associated with antibiotic therapy - an emerging entity. Can Med Assoc J. 1974;111:1110-1, 1114 pubmed
    ..These cases reconfirm the importance of antibiotics as etiologic agents in this disease. They also stress the classic sigmoidoscopic and histologic findings that should facilitate prompt and rapid diagnosis. ..
  11. Romero L, Sapolsky R. Patterns of ACTH secretagog secretion in response to psychological stimuli. J Neuroendocrinol. 1996;8:243-58 pubmed
  12. Rivier C, Rivest S. Effect of stress on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: peripheral and central mechanisms. Biol Reprod. 1991;45:523-32 pubmed
    ..In contrast, a variety of hormones or neurotransmitters, including CRF, POMC peptides, and biogenic amines act within the brain to mediate the inhibitory influence of both acute and prolonged stresses on reproductive function. ..
  13. Ge R, Pejo E, Cotten J, Raines D. Adrenocortical suppression and recovery after continuous hypnotic infusion: etomidate versus its soft analogue cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate. Crit Care. 2013;17:R20 pubmed publisher
    ..In the first study, adrenocortical function during hypnotic infusion was assessed by administering adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 90 minutes after the start of the hypnotic infusion and measuring plasma corticosterone ..
  14. Newton R. Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid action: what is important?. Thorax. 2000;55:603-13 pubmed
  15. Marotta S, Sithichoke N, Garcy A, Yu M. Adrenocortical responses of rats to acute hypoxic and hypercapnic stresses after treatment with aminergic agents. Neuroendocrinology. 1976;20:182-92 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that different aminergic pathways may be utilized for different stresses. ..
  16. Plotsky P, Cunningham E, Widmaier E. Catecholaminergic modulation of corticotropin-releasing factor and adrenocorticotropin secretion. Endocr Rev. 1989;10:437-58 pubmed
  17. Plotsky P. Opioid inhibition of immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor secretion into the hypophysial-portal circulation of rats. Regul Pept. 1986;16:235-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it appears that beta-E and DYN are capable of modulating (inhibiting) stimulated secretion of irCRF and thus activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. ..
  18. Roelfsema F, Yang R, Olson T, Joyner M, Takahashi P, Veldhuis J. Enhanced Coupling Within Gonadotropic and Adrenocorticotropic Axes by Moderate Exercise in Healthy Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2482-2490 pubmed publisher
    ..Exercise elicits incompletely defined adaptations of metabolic and endocrine milieu, including the gonadotropic and corticotropic axes...
  19. Tordjman K, Jaffe A, Grazas N, Apter C, Stern N. The role of the low dose (1 microgram) adrenocorticotropin test in the evaluation of patients with pituitary diseases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995;80:1301-5 pubmed
    ..As we have shown that this test correlates well with reference tests of HPA function, it is suggested that it should replace the standard ACTH test in the diagnosis of secondary adrenal insufficiency. ..
  20. Casey M, Winkel C, Porter J, MacDonald P. Endocrine regulation of the initiation and maintenance of parturition. Clin Perinatol. 1983;10:709-21 pubmed
    ..This article examines the research being done and the hypotheses that have been formulated to understand further those processes that act to initiate parturition in women. ..
  21. Michelle M A, Jensen C, Habra M, Menias C, Shaaban A, Wagner Bartak N, et al. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia: diagnostic workup, subtypes, imaging features and mimics. Br J Radiol. 2017;90:20170330 pubmed publisher
    ..This article will discuss the clinical presentation, laboratory workup and imaging features of adrenal cortical hyperplasia, both congenital and acquired. ..
  22. Wood J, Frankland A, James V, Landon J. A RAPID TEST OF ADRENOCORTICAL FUNCTION. Lancet. 1965;1:243-5 pubmed
  23. Johnson R, von Borell E, Anderson L, Kojic L, Cunnick J. Intracerebroventricular injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the pig: acute effects on behavior, adrenocorticotropin secretion, and immune suppression. Endocrinology. 1994;135:642-8 pubmed
  24. Wren A, Small C, Ward H, Murphy K, Dakin C, Taheri S, et al. The novel hypothalamic peptide ghrelin stimulates food intake and growth hormone secretion. Endocrinology. 2000;141:4325-8 pubmed
    ..c.v. administration of ghrelin. These data suggest a possible role for the newly identified endogenous hypothalamic peptide, ghrelin, in stimulation of feeding and growth hormone secretion. ..
  25. Lacroix A. Heredity and cortisol regulation in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:2147-9 pubmed publisher
  26. Cirillo N, Morgan D, Pedicillo M, Celentano A, Lo Muzio L, McCullough M, et al. Characterisation of the cancer-associated glucocorticoid system: key role of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Br J Cancer. 2017;117:984-993 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate evidence of a cancer-associated glucocorticoid system and show for the first time, the functional significance of cancer-derived cortisol in tumour progression. ..
  27. Young G. Cortisol secretion in vitro by the interrenal of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) during smoltification: relationship with plasma thyroxine and plasma cortisol. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1986;63:191-200 pubmed
    ..Maximal in vitro responsiveness of interrenal tissue to ACTH in April was correlated with peak plasma thyroxine titers and enhanced hypoosmoregulatory ability, but not with peak plasma cortisol titers, which occurred in May...
  28. Liu J, Robinson P, Funder J, Engler D. A comparative study of the role of adenylate cyclase in the release of adrenocorticotropin from the ovine and rat anterior pituitary. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1994;101:173-81 pubmed
  29. Agwu J, Spoudeas H, Hindmarsh P, Pringle P, Brook C. Tests of adrenal insufficiency. Arch Dis Child. 1999;80:330-3 pubmed
    ..The LDST revealed mild degrees of adrenal insufficiency not detected by the SSST. The value of a single 08:00 hour serum cortisol concentration is limited. ..
  30. Wu C, Zhang H, Fan C, Wu P, Wei Q, Cai Y, et al. [Expressions of inflammatory and fibrogenic factors in perinephric and subcutaneous adipose tissues of patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2016;37:563-566 pubmed
    ..and fibrosis-related genes in perinephric and subcutaneous adipose tissues in patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome...
  31. Groenink L, van der Gugten J, Zethof T, Van der Heyden J, Olivier B. Stress-induced hyperthermia in mice: hormonal correlates. Physiol Behav. 1994;56:747-9 pubmed
    ..The simultaneous increases in temperature and plasma stress hormones strongly support the use of the SIH paradigm in mice as an animal model to study putative anti-stress or anxiolytic properties of drugs. ..
  32. Tarcic N, Ovadia H, Weiss D, Weidenfeld J. Restraint stress-induced thymic involution and cell apoptosis are dependent on endogenous glucocorticoids. J Neuroimmunol. 1998;82:40-6 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that GC are involved in the restraint-induced effects on the thymus. ..
  33. Nichols T, Nugent C, Tyler F. DIURNAL VARIATION IN SUPPRESSION OF ADRENAL FUNCTION BY GLUCOCORTICOIDS. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1965;25:343-9 pubmed
  34. Tuersunjiang N, Odhiambo J, Shasa D, Smith A, Nathanielsz P, Ford S. Maternal obesity programs reduced leptin signaling in the pituitary and altered GH/IGF1 axis function leading to increased adiposity in adult sheep offspring. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181795 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that MO induced an increase in liver conversion of cortisone to cortisol in adult offspring and support a role for leptin signaling in the pituitary in mediating offspring adiposity. ..
  35. Reimondo G, Puglisi S, Zaggia B, Basile V, Saba L, Perotti P, et al. Effects of mitotane on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017;177:361-367 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study shows that mitotane affects the HPA axis at multiple levels and no single biomarker may be used for the assessment of adrenal insufficiency. ..
  36. Familari M, Smith A, Smith R, Funder J. Arginine vasopressin is a much more potent stimulus to ACTH release from ovine anterior pituitary cells than ovine corticotropin-releasing factor. 1. In vitro studies. Neuroendocrinology. 1989;50:152-7 pubmed
    ..These studies confirm that CRF is a more potent stimulus of ACTH release than AVP in the rat, and establish that in contrast AVP is a much more potent stimulus of ACTH secretion than CRF in isolated ovine pituitary cells. ..
  37. Carey M, Deterd C, de Koning J, Helmerhorst F, de Kloet E. The influence of ovarian steroids on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal regulation in the female rat. J Endocrinol. 1995;144:311-21 pubmed
  38. Naouar S, Braiek S, el Kamel R. Testicular tumors of adrenogenital syndrome: From physiopathology to therapy. Presse Med. 2017;46:572-578 pubmed publisher
    ..Sparing surgical approach is preferred for tumors of stage 4 and steroid unresponsive masses. Magnetic resonance imaging is recommended before surgery. The only indication of surgery in stage 5 is testicular pain. ..
  39. Johnson C, Kass P, Cohen T, Feldman E. Effect of Intravenous or Perivascular Injection of Synthetic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone on Stimulation Test Results in Dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2017;31:730-733 pubmed publisher
    Standard protocols for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation testing (ACTHst) often involve intravenous (IV) injection of corticotropin. ACTH might be unintentionally injected into the perivascular (PV) space...
  40. Pernicone P, Scheithauer B, Sebo T, Kovacs K, Horvath E, Young W, et al. Pituitary carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of 15 cases. Cancer. 1997;79:804-12 pubmed
    ..Of these patients, seven had adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing tumors (four in the context of Nelson's syndrome), seven had prolactin-producing ..
  41. Atkinson H, Waddell B. Circadian variation in basal plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin in the rat: sexual dimorphism and changes across the estrous cycle. Endocrinology. 1997;138:3842-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this variation in plasma corticosterone was not accompanied by corresponding changes in plasma I-ACTH, suggestive of cycle-related changes in responsiveness of the adrenal cortex to trophic stimulation. ..
  42. Roth Isigkeit A, Schmucker P. Postoperative dissociation of blood levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropin after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Steroids. 1997;62:695-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is assumed that the finding of a postoperative dissociation between ACTH and cortisol is a result of the severity of perioperative adaptive mechanisms rather than of the specific conditions related to cardiac surgery. ..
  43. Rydzewska M, Krawczuk Rybak M, Zajkowska A, Jurczuk N, Polnik D, Szalecki M, et al. Cushing's syndrome in infancy due to ectopic ACTH secretion by a sacro-coccygeal teratoma. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2017;30:475-478 pubmed publisher
    ..A rare case of ectopic ACTH syndrome causing Cushing's syndrome in infancy in the context of Currarino syndrome is reported. Radical surgery has resulted in excision of the tumour and current control of Cushing's syndrome. ..
  44. Katugampola H, King P, Chatterjee S, Meso M, Duncan A, Achermann J, et al. Kisspeptin Is a Novel Regulator of Human Fetal Adrenocortical Development and Function: A Finding With Important Implications for the Human Fetoplacental Unit. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:3349-3359 pubmed publisher
    ..sulfate (DHEAS) from HFA cells after kisspeptin treatment, alone or in combination with adrenocorticotropic hormone or corticotropin-releasing hormone...
  45. Prasanth K, Kamat M, Khilfeh M, Davis V. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels in term infants born with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. J Perinat Med. 2014;42:699-703 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate cord blood concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in well term infants born with and without meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and term infants born with MSAF who experienced respiratory ..
  46. Davì M, Cosaro E, Piacentini S, Reimondo G, Albiger N, Arnaldi G, et al. Prognostic factors in ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to neuroendocrine tumors: a multicenter study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017;176:451-459 pubmed publisher
    ..In refractory cases, adrenalectomy should be considered as it affects outcome positively at least in the first 2 years. ..
  47. Sarmah J, Hazarika C, Berkeley E, Ganswindt S, Ganswindt A. Non-invasive assessment of adrenocortical function as a measure of stress in the endangered golden langur. Zoo Biol. 2017;36:278-283 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents a validated practical method for non-invasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in this rare and declining species. ..
  48. Faucz F, Tirosh A, Tatsi C, Berthon A, Hernández Ramírez L, Settas N, et al. Somatic USP8 Gene Mutations Are a Common Cause of Pediatric Cushing Disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2836-2843 pubmed publisher
    ..1 ± 3.6 years, P = 0.03]. Levels of urinary free cortisol, midnight serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone, as well as tumor size and frequency of invasion of the cavernous sinus, were not significantly ..
  49. Johansson A, Olsson T, Carlberg B, Karlsson K, Fagerlund M. Hypercortisolism after stroke--partly cytokine-mediated?. J Neurol Sci. 1997;147:43-7 pubmed
    ..Catecholamine levels correlated with cytokine and cortisol levels. This study suggests that several routes for HPA-axis dysregulation is present early after stroke. Cytokine release may play an important role in this situation. ..
  50. Axelrod L. Glucocorticoid therapy. Medicine (Baltimore). 1976;55:39-65 pubmed
  51. Sithichoke N, Malasanos L, Marotta S. Cholinergic influences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity of stressed rats: an approach utilizing choline deficient diets. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1978;89:737-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, the data suggest that altering the dietary intake of Ch may affect cholinergic activity, which in turn affects the HPA response to stressors. ..
  52. Alexander S, Irvine C, Livesey J, Donald R. Effect of isolation stress on concentrations of arginine vasopressin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and ACTH in the pituitary venous effluent of the normal horse. J Endocrinol. 1988;116:325-34 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the magnitude of the responses of AVP, ACTH and alpha-MSH to isolation is significantly affected by the prevailing cortisol level. ..
  53. Oitzl M, Fluttert M, de Kloet E. The effect of corticosterone on reactivity to spatial novelty is mediated by central mineralocorticosteroid receptors. Eur J Neurosci. 1994;6:1072-9 pubmed
    ..Administration of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist without corticosterone to adrenal-intact rats also increased behavioural reactivity, but this increase did not reach statistical significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  54. Hall P, Almahbobi G. Roles of microfilaments and intermediate filaments in adrenal steroidogenesis. Microsc Res Tech. 1997;36:463-79 pubmed
    ..It is now necessary to define the details of the specific phosphorylation reactions that occur during the response to ACTH, that is, which amino acids are phosphorylated and to what extent by each of the kinase enzymes. ..
  55. Rainey W, Kramer R, Mason J, Shay J. The effects of taxol, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, on steroidogenic cells. J Cell Physiol. 1985;123:17-24 pubmed
    ..However, these results suggest that taxol alters the rate of transport of cholesterol to the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme within the steroidogenic tumor cells. ..
  56. Scheithauer B. Surgical pathology of the pituitary: the adenomas. Part II. Pathol Annu. 1984;19 Pt 2:269-329 pubmed
  57. Horvath E, Kovacs K, Scheithauer B. Pituitary hyperplasia. Pituitary. 1999;1:169-79 pubmed
    ..Adenoma formation may rarely be associated with any type of pituitary hyperplasia. ..
  58. Coste J, Strauch G, Letrait M, Bertagna X. Reliability of hormonal levels for assessing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system in clinical pharmacology. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1994;38:474-9 pubmed
    ..These data show that peak levels of plasma cortisol and ACTH after direct stimulation are highly reliable whereas baseline and main post-metyrapone levels are not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  59. Oftedal S. Multiple sclerosis in vestfold county. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 1965;16:1-62 pubmed
  60. Schwartz J, Ash P, Ford V, Raff H, Crosby S, White A. Secretion of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and ACTH precursors in ovine anterior pituitary cells: actions of corticotrophin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and glucocorticoids. J Endocrinol. 1994;140:189-95 pubmed
    ..5 days before secretion studies) also had no significant effect on basal ACTH(1-39) secretion, but eliminated the response to CRH and decreased the response to AVP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  61. Gal A, Weidgraaf K, Bowden J, Lopez Villalobos N, Cave N, Chambers J, et al. Biological Variability in Serum Cortisol Concentration Post-adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulation in Healthy Dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2017;31:711-716 pubmed publisher
    ..The large CD emphasizes the importance of assessing clinically relevant parameters in the diagnosis and monitoring of HC. ..
  62. Cirillo G, Marini R, Ito S, Wakamatsu K, Scianguetta S, Bizzarri C, et al. Lack of red hair phenotype in a North-African obese child homozygous for a novel POMC null mutation: nonsense-mediated decay RNA evaluation and hair pigment chemical analysis. Br J Dermatol. 2012;167:1393-5 pubmed publisher
  63. Munksgaard L, Simonsen H. Behavioral and pituitary adrenal-axis responses of dairy cows to social isolation and deprivation of lying down. J Anim Sci. 1996;74:769-78 pubmed
    ..05). The results suggest that the socially isolated cows were frustrated or tried to compensate for a lack of stimulation and that repeated deprivation of lying down is aversive to cows. ..
  64. Kaltsas G, Grossman A. Malignant pituitary tumours. Pituitary. 1998;1:69-81 pubmed
  65. Shiver T, Sackett D, Knipling L, Wolff J. Intermediate filaments and steroidogenesis in adrenal Y-1 cells: acrylamide stimulation of steroid production. Endocrinology. 1992;131:201-7 pubmed
    ..However, because of interactions between cytoplasmic fibers, it is currently impossible to say whether interruption of any one of them is a direct or indirect stimulus of steroidogenesis. ..
  66. Rivier C. Alcohol stimulates ACTH secretion in the rat: mechanisms of action and interactions with other stimuli. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996;20:240-54 pubmed
    ..A better understanding of the mechanisms through which the drug alters their release thus may permit the development of therapies designed to alleviate some of the consequences of alcoholism. ..
  67. Cuneo R, Espiner E, Nicholls M, Yandle T, Livesey J. Effect of physiological levels of atrial natriuretic peptide on hormone secretion: inhibition of angiotensin-induced aldosterone secretion and renin release in normal man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987;65:765-72 pubmed
    ..With angiotensin II, urine volume was also significantly increased by alpha hANP (150 +/- 27 vs. 81 +/- 15 mL/mmol creatinine with placebo; P less than 0.03), and urine sodium excretion doubled.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  68. Ely D, Henry J. Neuroendocrine response patterns in dominant and subordinate mice. Horm Behav. 1978;10:156-69 pubmed
  69. Carella M, Srivastava L, Gossain V, Rovner D. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function one week after a short burst of steroid therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993;76:1188-91 pubmed
  70. Cizza G, Gold P, Chrousos G. Aging is associated in the 344/N Fischer rat with decreased stress responsivity of central and peripheral catecholaminergic systems and impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995;771:491-511 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, in this strain of rats, aging is associated with diminished responsiveness of central, and peripheral catecholaminergic systems to acute stress, and progressive hypothalamic CRH deficiency. ..
  71. Mazzocchi G, Malendowicz L, Meneghelli V, Nussdorfer G. Endothelin-1 stimulates mitotic activity in the zona glomerulosa of the rat adrenal cortex. Cytobios. 1992;69:91-6 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that ET-1 exerts a strong proliferogenic effect on the rat ZG, by a mechanism probably similar to that underlying the adrenoglomerulotrophic actions of ANG-II and AVP. ..
  72. Voorhees H, Aschenbrenner J, Carnes J, Mrotek J. Rounding and steroidogenesis of enzyme- and ACTH-treated Y-l mouse adrenal tumor cells. Cell Biol Int Rep. 1984;8:483-97 pubmed
    ..Neuraminidase appeared to alter a carbohydrate-containing ACTH receptor preventing ACTH binding. We conclude rounding and steroidogenesis are not always associated. ..
  73. Sackett D, Wolff J. Cyclic AMP-independent stimulation of steroidogenesis in Y-1 adrenal tumor cells by antimitotic agents. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986;888:163-70 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the antimitotic agents stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis by a cAMP-independent pathway that may involve facilitation of cholesterol access to the mitochondrion. ..
  74. Kochanek S, Renz D, Doerfler W. DNA methylation in the Alu sequences of diploid and haploid primary human cells. EMBO J. 1993;12:1141-51 pubmed
    ..Alu sequences associated with the genes for alpha 1 globin, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and angiogenin...
  75. Spruijt B, van Hooff J, Gispen W. Ethology and neurobiology of grooming behavior. Physiol Rev. 1992;72:825-52 pubmed
  76. von Borell E, Morris J, Hurnik J, Mallard B, Buhr M. The performance of gilts in a new group housing system: endocrinological and immunological functions. J Anim Sci. 1992;70:2714-21 pubmed
    ..8 +/- .45 mm vs 17.8 +/- .55 mm, P = .005 and 14.6 +/- .4 mm vs 16.2 +/- .42 mm, P = .008, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  77. Korbonits M, Trainer P, Nelson M, Howse I, Kopelman P, Besser G, et al. Differential stimulation of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels by food in obese and normal subjects: relation to body fat distribution. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1996;45:699-706 pubmed
    ..We speculate that there may be a caused connection between the cortisol response to food in normal subjects, and the subsequent distribution of fat if such subjects overeat sufficiently to become obese. ..
  78. Rainey W, Shay J, Mason J. The effect of cytochalasin D on steroid production and stress fiber organization in cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1984;35:189-97 pubmed
    ..We suggest that these differences may influence the lack of inhibition of cytochalasin D on ACTH-stimulated steroid release. ..
  79. Minden S, Orav J, Schildkraut J. Hypomanic reactions to ACTH and prednisone treatment for multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1988;38:1631-4 pubmed
    ..Symptoms did not occur with every drug exposure and were more common with ACTH. Patients at risk were identified by episodes of major depression before and after the onset of MS and by family histories of depression or alcoholism. ..
  80. Yin B, Gu C, Lu Y, Hegab I, Yang S, Wang A, et al. Repeated exposure to cat urine induces complex behavioral, hormonal, and c-fos mRNA responses in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Naturwissenschaften. 2017;104:64 pubmed publisher
    ..These defensive responses habituated shortly after the presentation of cat urine. Serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone increased significantly when animals were repeatedly exposed to cat urine...
  81. Jia Z, Xie X, Wang X, Jia W. [Comparative study of main components of ginseng on immune function of rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2014;39:3363-6 pubmed
    ..Panaxadiol saponins and ginseng polysaccharide are better in enhancing immune, and total ginsenoside shows advantages in resisting oxidation and stress. ..
  82. Scantlebury M, Chun K, Ma S, Rho J, Kim D. Adrenocorticotropic hormone protects learning and memory function in epileptic Kcna1-null mice. Neurosci Lett. 2017;645:14-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings indicate that ACTH can ameliorate memory impairment in epileptic Kcna1-null mice separate from seizure control, and suggest that this widely used peptide may exert direct nootropic effects in the epileptic brain. ..
  83. Sominsky L, Ziko I, Spencer S. Neonatal overfeeding disrupts pituitary ghrelin signalling in female rats long-term; Implications for the stress response. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0173498 pubmed publisher
    ..GOAT) in the pituitary as well as reduced pituitary responsiveness to exogenous acyl ghrelin-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release in vitro...