beta endorphin


Summary: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.

Top Publications

  1. Doron R, Fridman L, Yadid G. Dopamine-2 receptors in the arcuate nucleus modulate cocaine-seeking behavior. Neuroreport. 2006;17:1633-6 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that dopaminergic neurons in the arcuate nucleus may induce the secretion of beta-endorphin in the nucleus accumbens, and that they are implicated in the cocaine reward pathway. ..
  2. Storek B, Reinhardt M, Wang C, Janssen W, Harder N, Banck M, et al. Sensory neuron targeting by self-complementary AAV8 via lumbar puncture for chronic pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1055-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, gene transfer by LP may be suitable for developing gene therapy-based treatments for chronic pain. ..
  3. Roth Deri I, Schindler C, Yadid G. A critical role for beta-endorphin in cocaine-seeking behavior. Neuroreport. 2004;15:519-21 pubmed
    ..These findings support a critical role for beta-endorphin in the cocaine brain reward system. ..
  4. Koseoglu E, Akboyraz A, Soyuer A, Ersoy A. Aerobic exercise and plasma beta endorphin levels in patients with migrainous headache without aura. Cephalalgia. 2003;23:972-6 pubmed
    This study aims to evaluate the effects of plasma beta endorphin level and exercise on migrainous headache...
  5. Likar R, Mousa S, Steinkellner H, Koppert W, Philippitsch G, Stein C, et al. Involvement of intra-articular corticotropin-releasing hormone in postoperative pain modulation. Clin J Pain. 2007;23:136-42 pubmed
    ..Further clinical studies will have to examine different doses of IA CRH-induced analgesia and to support the involvement of opioid peptides. ..
  6. Yanagita K, Shiraishi J, Fujita M, Bungo T. Effects of N-terminal fragments of beta-endorphin on feeding in chicks. Neurosci Lett. 2008;442:140-2 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the N-terminal fragments of beta-endorphin act as a partial agonist, and may regulate the activity of the central opioidergic system in chicks. ..
  7. Wu C, Lin M, Cheng J, Wang Y, Huang Y, Sun W, et al. Regulated, electroporation-mediated delivery of pro-opiomelanocortin gene suppresses chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Gene Ther. 2004;11:933-40 pubmed
    ..We concluded that intrathecal pTRE2-POMC/pTel-off electroporation alleviates CCI-induced limb pain, and can be controlled by intraperitoneal doxycycline administration. ..
  8. Mousa S, Shakibaei M, Sitte N, Schafer M, Stein C. Subcellular pathways of beta-endorphin synthesis, processing, and release from immunocytes in inflammatory pain. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1331-41 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that immune cells express the entire machinery required for POMC processing into functionally active peptides such as END and are able to release these peptides from secretory granules. ..
  9. Lee H, Lee J, Lee E, Lee H, Kim K, Lee K, et al. Substance P and beta endorphin mediate electroacupuncture induced analgesic activity in mouse cancer pain model. Acupunct Electrother Res. 2009;34:27-40 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, EA treatment effectively increased the concentration of beta endorphin in blood and brain of mice more than tumor control as well as normal group...

More Information


  1. Sitte N, Busch M, Mousa S, Labuz D, Rittner H, Gore C, et al. Lymphocytes upregulate signal sequence-encoding proopiomelanocortin mRNA and beta-endorphin during painful inflammation in vivo. J Neuroimmunol. 2007;183:133-45 pubmed
    ..Semi-nested PCR revealed 8-fold increased exon 2-3 spanning POMC mRNA. Thus, painful inflammation enhances signal sequence-encoding lymphocytic POMC mRNA needed for regulated secretion of functionally active END. ..
  2. Sprott H, Shen H, Gay S, Aeschlimann A. Acetaminophen may act through beta endorphin. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:1522 pubmed
  3. McGreevy P, Nicol C. Physiological and behavioral consequences associated with short-term prevention of crib-biting in horses. Physiol Behav. 1998;65:15-23 pubmed
  4. Roth Deri I, Zangen A, Aleli M, Goelman R, Pelled G, Nakash R, et al. Effect of experimenter-delivered and self-administered cocaine on extracellular beta-endorphin levels in the nucleus accumbens. J Neurochem. 2003;84:930-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that activation of the beta-endorphin neurons within the arcuate nucleus-nucleus accumbens pathway may be important in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the behavioral effects of cocaine. ..
  5. Cabot P, Carter L, Gaiddon C, Zhang Q, Schafer M, Loeffler J, et al. Immune cell-derived beta-endorphin. Production, release, and control of inflammatory pain in rats. J Clin Invest. 1997;100:142-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the immune system is important for the control of inflammatory pain. This has implications for the understanding of pain in immunosuppressed conditions like cancer or AIDS. ..
  6. Gironi M, Furlan R, Rovaris M, Comi G, Filippi M, Panerai A, et al. Beta endorphin concentrations in PBMC of patients with different clinical phenotypes of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:495-7 pubmed
    The possible link between the opioid peptide beta endorphin and the heterogeneity of the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) was investigated...
  7. Allen R, Peng B, Pellegrino M, Miller E, Grandy D, Lundblad J, et al. Altered processing of pro-orphanin FQ/nociceptin and pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides in the brains of mice expressing defective prohormone convertase 2. J Neurosci. 2001;21:5864-70 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that PC2 is directly involved in the biogenesis of two brain neuropeptides in vivo and suggest that the specific prohormone and cellular context influences neuropeptide processing by PCs. ..
  8. Zangen A, Shalev U. Nucleus accumbens beta-endorphin levels are not elevated by brain stimulation reward but do increase with extinction. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:1067-72 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a possible role for increased levels of NAS beta-endorphin in the organism's adaptive response to stress and frustration. ..
  9. Zanardo V, Nicolussi S, Carlo G, Marzari F, Faggian D, Favaro F, et al. Beta endorphin concentrations in human milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2001;33:160-4 pubmed
  10. Miller R, Aaron W, Toneff T, Vishnuvardhan D, Beinfeld M, Hook V. Obliteration of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone derived from POMC in pituitary and brains of PC2-deficient mice. J Neurochem. 2003;86:556-63 pubmed
    ..Overall, these studies demonstrated that the PC2 processing enzyme is critical for the in vivo production of alpha-MSH in pituitary and brain. ..
  11. Lee T, Yang L, Chou A, Wu P, Lin C, Wang C, et al. In vivo electroporation of proopiomelanocortin induces analgesia in a formalin-injection pain model in rats. Pain. 2003;104:159-67 pubmed
    ..We conclude that electroporation successfully delivered intrathecally administered pCMV-hPOMC into the dorsal horn cells of the spinal cord, and induced analgesia in phase 2 of the formalin test in rats. ..
  12. Zanardo V, Nicolussi S, Giacomin C, Faggian D, Favaro F, Plebani M. Labor pain effects on colostral milk beta-endorphin concentrations of lactating mothers. Biol Neonate. 2001;79:87-90 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that labor and parturition pain may increase colostral milk beta-EP concentrations of lactating mothers in order to help the newborn overcome the stressful perinatal events of natural labor and delivery. ..
  13. Machelska H, Mousa S, Brack A, Schopohl J, Rittner H, Schafer M, et al. Opioid control of inflammatory pain regulated by intercellular adhesion molecule-1. J Neurosci. 2002;22:5588-96 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings indicate that ICAM-1 expressed on vascular endothelium recruits immunocytes containing opioids to promote the local control of inflammatory pain. ..
  14. Shan Z, Dai S, Fang F, Su D. Changes of central norepinephrine, beta-endorphin, LEU-enkephalin, peripheral arginine-vasopressin, and angiotensin II levels in acute and chronic phases of sino-aortic denervation in rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2004;43:234-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, if the present results hold true for humans, one can expect abnormal neurotransmitter/neuromodulator responses to environmental insults in patients with impaired ABR function. ..
  15. Yang J, Yang Y, Xu H, Chen J, Liu W, Lin B. Arginine vasopressin induces periaqueductal gray release of enkephalin and endorphin relating to pain modulation in the rat. Regul Pept. 2007;142:29-36 pubmed
    ..The data suggested that AVP in PAG could induce the local release of enkephalin and endorphin rather than dynophin, OXT and classical neurotransmitters to participate in pain modulation. ..
  16. Mousa S, Bopaiah C, Stein C, Schafer M. Involvement of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor subtypes 1 and 2 in peripheral opioid-mediated inhibition of inflammatory pain. Pain. 2003;106:297-307 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that in inflammatory pain CRH-induced peripheral antinociception is mediated via both CRH R1 and CRH R2 located on END containing immune cells within inflamed sites. ..
  17. Fassoulaki A, Paraskeva A, Kostopanagiotou G, Tsakalozou E, Markantonis S. Acupressure on the extra 1 acupoint: the effect on bispectral index, serum melatonin, plasma beta-endorphin, and stress. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:312-7 pubmed
    ..0001 and P = 0.008, respectively), but melatonin and beta-endorphin did not change. Acupressure on the extra 1 point has no effect on melatonin and beta-endorphin levels. ..
  18. Chowdhury I, Chien J, Chatterjee A, Yu J. In vitro effects of mammalian leptin, neuropeptide-Y, beta-endorphin and galanin on transcript levels of thyrotropin beta and common alpha subunit mRNAs in the pituitary of bighead carp (aristichthys nobilis). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;139:87-98 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that endogenous TRH, leptin, NPY, beta-endorphin and galanin may modulate transcript levels of TSHbeta and alpha-subunits in pituitary of bighead carp. ..
  19. Lee S, Lee B. Electroacupuncture relieves pain in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: three-arm randomized trial. Urology. 2009;73:1036-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In a 3-arm randomized trial investigating the clinical effects of EA on CP/CPPS, EA therapy proved to have independent therapeutic effects, particularly for pain relief superior to SEA or A&E therapy. ..
  20. Yim I, Glynn L, Schetter C, Hobel C, Chicz DeMet A, Sandman C. Prenatal beta-endorphin as an early predictor of postpartum depressive symptoms in euthymic women. J Affect Disord. 2010;125:128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..If replicated, these findings have clinical implications for the identification and treatment of this at-risk group and further suggest that some of the pathways leading to this complex disorder may be specific to subgroups of women. ..
  21. Pecins Thompson M, Widmann A, Bethea C. Beta-endorphin, but not oxytocin, substance P or vasoactive-intestinal polypeptide, contributes to progesterone-induced prolactin secretion in monkeys. Neuroendocrinology. 1996;63:569-78 pubmed
    ..Taken together these results support a pivotal role for BE in the neural regulation of P-induced prolactin secretion. The involvement of OT, SP, and VIP in a specific manner at the pituitary level is not indicated. ..
  22. Csaba G, Pallinger E. Is there a possibility of intrasystem regulation by hormones produced by the immune cells? Experiments with extremely low concentrations of histamine. Acta Physiol Hung. 2009;96:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The new data support the earlier hypothesis, that there is a hormonal network inside the immune system. ..
  23. Shimada M. [Biological response to dental interventions]. Kokubyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2007;73(3)-74(1):8-13 pubmed
  24. Pastor R, Aragon C. Ethanol injected into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus induces behavioral stimulation in rats: an effect prevented by catalase inhibition and naltrexone. Behav Pharmacol. 2008;19:698-705 pubmed publisher
  25. Resch G, Simpson C. Glycyl-glutamine reduces ethanol intake at three reward sites in P rats. Alcohol. 2008;42:99-106 pubmed publisher
  26. Satoshi I, Narita M, Ozeki A, Nakamura A, Hashimoto S, Narita M, et al. [Difference in tolerance to anti-hyperalgesic effect and its molecular mechanisms between chronic treatment with morphine, fentanyl and oxycodone in a chronic pain-like state]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2008;28:169-76 pubmed
    ..This phenomenon may explain the high degree of tolerance to fentanyl that develops with hyperalgesia caused by a chronic pain-like state. ..
  27. Caeiro X, Hansen C, Garcia N, Vivas L. Beta-endorphin involvement in the regulatory response to body sodium overload. Neuroscience. 2006;142:557-65 pubmed
  28. Hayashi M, Taira T, Chernov M, Izawa M, Liscak R, Yu C, et al. Role of pituitary radiosurgery for the management of intractable pain and potential future applications. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2003;81:75-83 pubmed
    ..However, efficacy and safety have been shown in all our cases. In our opinion, this treatment has a potential to control severe pain, and GKS will play an important role in the management of intractable pain. ..
  29. Garzón J, Rodríguez Muñoz M, Sánchez Blázquez P. Morphine alters the selective association between mu-opioid receptors and specific RGS proteins in mouse periaqueductal gray matter. Neuropharmacology. 2005;48:853-68 pubmed
    ..The opioid produced no change in the membrane levels of RGS9-2, RGS14, RGSZ1 and RGSZ2. Thus, in PAG synaptosomal membranes, a dynamic and selective link exists between, mu-opioid receptors, Gi/o/z proteins and certain RGS proteins. ..
  30. Shoureshi P, Baron A, Szynskie L, Dores R. Analyzing the evolution of beta-endorphin post-translational processing events: studies on reptiles. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2007;153:148-54 pubmed
  31. Takahashi A, Amano M, Amiya N, Yamanome T, Yamamori K, Kawauchi H. Expression of three proopiomelanocortin subtype genes and mass spectrometric identification of POMC-derived peptides in pars distalis and pars intermedia of barfin flounder pituitary. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2006;145:280-6 pubmed
    ..These results show differential posttranslational processing of POMC between the PD and PI in barfin flounder pituitary. ..
  32. Polisseni F, Faletti A, Pereira V, Reis A, Camargos A, Reis F. Prolactin inhibits oocyte release after gonadotropin stimulation in the rat: putative mechanism involving ovarian production of beta-endorphin and prostaglandin. Fertil Steril. 2005;83 Suppl 1:1119-24 pubmed
    ..This local effect of PRL could interfere in the process of ovulation induction by exogenous gonadotropins. ..
  33. Lutfy K, Brown M, Nerio N, Aimiuwu O, Tran B, Anghel A, et al. Repeated stress alters the ability of nicotine to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Neurochem. 2006;99:1321-7 pubmed
    ..05), but not ACTH and beta-END. The present results suggest that chronic stress leads to an enhanced sensitivity of some components of the HPA axis to a subsequent nicotine challenge. ..
  34. Cepeda M, Bonney I, Weiss J, Moyano J, Carr D. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) produces analgesia in a thermal injury model independent of its effect on systemic beta-endorphin and corticosterone. Regul Pept. 2004;118:39-43 pubmed
    ..1). Thus, systemically administered CRH produces analgesia in thermal injury independent of its effect on these two markers of local or systemic inflammation. ..
  35. Hamer M, Karageorghis C. Psychobiological mechanisms of exercise dependence. Sports Med. 2007;37:477-84 pubmed
    ..Recent developments in methods to reliably assess these biological markers from blood and saliva samples should encourage such research to be undertaken in exercise settings. ..
  36. Andjelkov N, Elvenes J, Martin J, Johansen O. Opiate regulation of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in cultured human articular chondrocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;333:1295-9 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the mechanism of beta-endorphins anti-inflammatory influence in cartilage-damaging states is not apparently mediated via these two cytokines modulation. ..
  37. Genazzani A, Stomati M, Bernardi F, Luisi S, Casarosa E, Puccetti S, et al. Conjugated equine estrogens reverse the effects of aging on central and peripheral allopregnanolone and beta-endorphin levels in female rats. Fertil Steril. 2004;81 Suppl 1:757-66 pubmed
    ..In hypoestrogenic rats, CEE treatment restores allopregnanolone and beta-endorphin content; this indicates a role for these compounds as neuroendocrine mediators of the effects of estrogens. ..
  38. Sudakov K. [Delta sleep-inducing peptide in the cerebral mechanisms of emotional stress]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2003;39:598-608 pubmed
  39. Laakso E, Cabot P. Nociceptive scores and endorphin-containing cells reduced by low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in inflamed paws of Wistar rat. Photomed Laser Surg. 2005;23:32-5 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of effect may occur via a differentiated pressure-sensitive neural pathway rather than a thermal-sensitive neural pathway. The significance of the immunohistochemistry findings remains unknown. ..
  40. Kuhn P, Sarkar D. Ethanol induces apoptotic death of beta-endorphin neurons in the rat hypothalamus by a TGF-beta 1-dependent mechanism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32:706-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ethanol exposure increases TGF-beta1 signaling involving Bcl2 and Rb repression that may lead to apoptotic death of cells including beta-endorphin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. ..
  41. Song E, Cady C, Fried M, Hersh L. Proteolytic fragments of insulysin (IDE) retain substrate binding but lose allosteric regulation. Biochemistry. 2006;45:15085-91 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a role of the C-terminal region of IDE in allosteric regulation. ..
  42. Dabo F, Nyberg F, Qin Zhou -, Sundström Poromaa I, Akerud H. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin during pregnancy and use of labor analgesia. Reprod Sci. 2010;17:742-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Low levels of beta-endorphin at the end of pregnancy were associated with need for additional pain medication beyond nitrous oxide during labor, although the causal relationship is unclear...
  43. Andjelkov N, Elvenes J, Knutsen G, Johansen O. Beta-endorphin regulation of MAPKs in cultured human articular chondrocytes: MAPK inhibitors prevent the increase of IL-1 beta protein levels during beta-endorphin stimulation. Cell Commun Adhes. 2007;14:1-8 pubmed
    ..The effect of beta-endorphin seen in this study is considered critical for the production of several mediators of cartilage damage in an arthritic joint. ..
  44. Boyer J, Bancel E, Perray P, Pouderoux P, Balmes J, Bali J. Effect of champagne compared to still white wine on peripheral neurotransmitter concentrations. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004;74:321-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, some significant blood variations of serotonin and dopamine appeared even after moderately dose of champagne or still white wine. These changes might be partially responsible for the different drinking behavior. ..
  45. Van Ree J, Schagen van Leeuwen J, Koppeschaar H, te Velde E. Unexpected placebo response in premenstrual dysphoric disorder: implication of endogenous opioids. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;182:318-9 pubmed
  46. Johansen O, Winge J, Reikeras O, Jensen T, Knutsen G. Elevated plasma beta-endorphin/beta-lipotropin concentration following a radius fracture. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2004;64:635-39 pubmed
    ..58 after healing (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study showed that beta-endorphin/beta-lipotropin concentrations are increased in both arms following a radius fracture compared to the level after the fracture has healed. ..
  47. Cavun S, Goktalay G, Millington W. Glycyl-glutamine, an endogenous beta-endorphin-derived peptide, inhibits morphine-induced conditioned place preference, tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;315:949-58 pubmed
    ..Glycyl-glutamine thus attenuates morphine-induced conditioned place preference, tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal without compromising morphine analgesia. ..
  48. Pluchino N, Ninni F, Casarosa E, Giannini A, Merlini S, Cubeddu A, et al. Sex differences in brain and plasma beta-endorphin content following testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol administration to gonadectomized rats. Neuroendocrinology. 2009;89:411-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect is particularly evident in the brains of female animals where this endogenous endorphin elicits a much greater response than it does in males that have undergone gonadal steroid depletion and subsequent T replacement. ..
  49. Evans A, Smith M. Opioid receptors in fast and slow skeletal muscles of normal and dystrophic mice. Neurosci Lett. 2004;366:339-41 pubmed
    ..In the soleus the density was approximately 6.4 times higher and the proportion of labelled fibres approximately 1.5 times higher in the dystrophic mice than the normal mice. The receptors were of the delta-opioid subtype. ..
  50. Ma Y, Zhou W, Cheng J. [Study on effect and mechanism of liuwei dihuang decoction in modulating hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis in senescence accelerated mice model]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004;24:325-30 pubmed
    ..LW could improve or modulate the HPO axis functional disturbance in SAMP8. ..
  51. Zalewska Kaszubska J, Gorska D, Dyr W, Czarnecka E. Effect of chronic acamprosate treatment on voluntary alcohol intake and beta-endorphin plasma levels in rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference. Neurosci Lett. 2008;431:221-5 pubmed
    ..We suppose that the anti-craving mechanism of acamprosate that has been reported to abolish excessive glutamate release during alcohol withdrawal may be accompanied by compensation for the beta-endorphin deficiency. ..
  52. Eggers V, Pascher A, Althoff H, Thiele S, Mütze J, Selignow J, et al. Immune reactivity is more suppressed in patients with alcoholic liver disease than in patients with virus-induced cirrhosis after CRH stimulation. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30:140-9 pubmed
    ..5 years. Although an altered immune response is well known among patients with actual alcohol-use disorders, to the best of our knowledge, it is not described in patients after such a long abstinence time. ..
  53. Wang S, Xu H, Wang L. [Measurements and significance of serum gastrin, plasma motilin and serum beta-endorphin in patients with severe burns]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2005;43:745-7 pubmed
    ..Blood GAS, MTL and beta-EP have represented regular changes in patients with severe burns at the early stage after burning. And the pain-stimulus and shock are effective factors. ..
  54. Tobin D, Kauser S. Hair melanocytes as neuro-endocrine sensors--pigments for our imagination. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;243:1-11 pubmed
    ..This review explores this concept and describes how the components of the CRH/POMC systems may help regulate the human hair follicle pigmentary unit. ..
  55. Wang N, Zhang L, Miles L, Hoover Plow J. Plasminogen regulates pro-opiomelanocortin processing. J Thromb Haemost. 2004;2:785-96 pubmed
    ..A deficiency of plasminogen reduces processing of beta-endorphin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, and interferes with normal brain function. ..
  56. Dodo K, Izumi T, Ueda H, Bungo T. Response of neuropeptide Y-induced feeding to mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor antagonists in the neonatal chick. Neurosci Lett. 2005;373:85-8 pubmed
  57. Zámbó L, Dékány M, Bender T. The efficacy of alum-containing ferrous thermal water in the management of chronic inflammatory gynaecological disorders--a randomized controlled study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008;140:252-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As demonstrated by our results, 3-week balneotherapy is a potentially useful adjunct for the management of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, but further, long-term studies are notwithstanding necessary. ..
  58. Han K, Choi S, Shim E, Seo Y, Kwon M, Lee J, et al. Formalin pretreatment attenuates tail-flick inhibition induced by beta-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly or intrathecally in mice. Arch Pharm Res. 2005;28:227-31 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the increase in the POMC mRNA level in the hypothalamus appears to be involved in the supraspinal or spinal beta-endorphin-induced antinociceptive tolerance in formalin-induced inflammatory pain. ..
  59. Girdler S, Maixner W, Naftel H, Stewart P, Moretz R, Light K. Cigarette smoking, stress-induced analgesia and pain perception in men and women. Pain. 2005;114:372-85 pubmed
    ..The reduced pain perception in smokers and absence of relationships between endogenous pain regulatory mechanisms and pain sensitivity may reflect a maladaptive response to chronic smoking. ..
  60. Chang C, Wu H, Cheng K, Lin H, Cheng J. Increase of beta-endorphin secretion by agmatine is induced by activation of imidazoline I(2A) receptors in adrenal gland of rats. Neurosci Lett. 2010;468:297-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, imidazoline I(2A) receptor in the adrenal gland might be applied as a new target for induction of opioid secretion. ..
  61. Jadrić R, Hasić S, Kiseljakovic E, Radovanović J, Ićindić Nakas E, Winterhalter Jadrić M. Effects of amitryptiline administration on rat sera and brain beta-endorphins. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2006;6:64-6 pubmed
    ..95% NaCl. This study shows that use of psychoactive drugs have influence on sera and brain beta-endorphins concentration. Beta-endorphins could be of great importance, used as markers for evaluation of antidepressant drug effects. ..
  62. Kotwica G, Staszkiewicz J, Skowronski M, Siawrys G, Bogacka I, Franczak A, et al. Effects of oxytocin alone and in combination with selected hypothalamic hormones on ACTH, beta-endorphin, LH and PRL secretion by anterior pituitary cells of cyclic pigs. Reprod Biol. 2006;6:115-31 pubmed
    ..Moreover, interaction between OT and CRH in affecting beta-endorphin secretion was shown. These results suggest that OT may be transiently involved in the modulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion in cyclic pigs. ..
  63. Machelska H, Schroff M, Oswald D, Binder W, Sitte N, Mousa S, et al. Peripheral non-viral MIDGE vector-driven delivery of beta-endorphin in inflammatory pain. Mol Pain. 2009;5:72 pubmed publisher
    ..This was possibly associated with insufficient and variable efficacy in transfection and/or beta-endorphin production. Our data point at the importance of the reproducibility of gene therapy strategies for the control of chronic pain. ..
  64. Rizzo A, Minoia G, Trisolini C, Manca R, Sciorsci R. Concentrations of free radicals and beta-endorphins in repeat breeder cows. Anim Reprod Sci. 2007;100:257-63 pubmed
    ..The stress factors (free radicals and beta-endorphins) may actually enhance each other and induce an inhibition of progesterone synthesis in repeat breeders. ..
  65. Fenton K. Fetal stress response to fetal cardiac surgery. Invited commentary. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85:1727-8 pubmed publisher
  66. Kato H. [Pharmacological effects of a mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone on alcohol dependence]. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2008;43:697-704 pubmed
    ..The following review provides a summary of the interactions between endogenous opioid system and mesolimbic dopaminergic system in alcohol dependence. ..
  67. Lam M, Marinelli P, Bai L, Gianoulakis C. Effects of acute ethanol on opioid peptide release in the central amygdala: an in vivo microdialysis study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008;201:261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute systemic ethanol administration induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in beta-endorphin and dynorphin A1-8 release at the level of the CeA, which may be involved in ethanol consumption. ..
  68. Adachi M, Otsuki M, Akatsu M, Tase C. [The effects of heat stimulation and cold stress on the rats with cervical sympathectomy]. Masui. 2003;52:1293-9 pubmed
    ..Changes of beta-END by cold stress were similar in the S and Sx groups. These results suggest that SGB works systemically through hypothalamus endocrine system and affects stress hormone differently. ..
  69. Pluchino N, Luisi M, Lenzi E, Centofanti M, Begliuomini S, Freschi L, et al. Progesterone and progestins: effects on brain, allopregnanolone and beta-endorphin. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;102:205-13 pubmed
    ..This may have far-reaching implications for the clinical effects and related indications of each compound. ..
  70. Vogl S, Worda C, Egarter C, Bieglmayer C, Szekeres T, Huber J, et al. Mode of delivery is associated with maternal and fetal endocrine stress response. BJOG. 2006;113:441-5 pubmed
    ..The mode of delivery and analgesia used during birth are associated with maternal and fetal endocrine stress responses. ..
  71. Mudie A, Holland G. Local opioids in the inflamed dental pulp. J Endod. 2006;32:319-23 pubmed
    ..05). beta-endorphin and somatostatin are both produced in increased amounts in the dental pulp during inflammation attributable, at least in part, to the presence of T lymphocytes producing these substances. ..
  72. Finn A, Fabre S, Hellstrom P, Brene S. Methodological aspects of rat beta-endorphin analysis-influence of diurnal variation. J Immunol Methods. 2006;312:118-25 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that rat beta-endorphin concentrations in these brain areas are not affected by order of removal or diurnal variation. ..
  73. Wu M, Zhou X, Cheng H. [Clinical study on aitongping capsule in treating cancerous pain]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2005;25:218-21 pubmed
    ..05 or P <0.01). ATP has affirmative effect on cancerous pain, its analgesic effect may be associated with the increasing of plasma beta-EP content, decreasing of cAMP level and ameliorating of hemorheologic indexes. ..
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    ..05). In electroacupuncture-assisted anesthesia, 2 Hz/15 Hz disperse-dense wave achieves the optimal anesthesia compared with 2 Hz/100 Hz disperse-dense wave, and moreover inhibits stress reaction induced by anesthesia surgery. ..
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    ..Drospirenone significantly increases central and circulating beta-endorphin levels and does not seem to interfere with allopregnanolone production. ..
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    ..These beta-endorphin-LHRH contacts may be functional synapses, and they may be the morphological substrate of the beta-endorphin control on gonadal functions in man. ..
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    ..Analysis of the neuropeptide degradation patterns from the cancer patients were compared with the controls showed similar results. The study reveals that this approach can be used to identify the enzymatic digestion products of protein. ..
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    ..In conclusion, the peripheral action of beta-endorphin, released in response to the osteosarcoma seems responsible for the observed thermal analgesia. ..
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    ..It is likely that effectiveness of naltrexone in reducing craving for alcohol results from the attenuation of the rewarding properties of ethanol and restoring the beta-endorphin deficit in reward system. ..
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    ..The titer of Ad/AAV-EE is 1.29 x 10(10) PFU/mL after purification. The ascending trend of transgene expression was observed from the 1st to the 14th day, and the protein concentration reached 3141 pg/mL at the 14th day. ..
  90. Cabioglu M, Ergene N. Changes in serum leptin and beta endorphin levels with weight loss by electroacupuncture and diet restriction in obesity treatment. Am J Chin Med. 2006;34:1-11 pubmed
    This study aims to investigate the role of changes in leptin and beta endorphin (BE) levels in weight loss following electroacupuncture (EA) application in obesity treatment. EA was applied to 20 females who were 41.45 +/- 4...