glucagon like peptide 1


Summary: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.

Top Publications

  1. Astrup A, Rossner S, Van Gaal L, Rissanen A, Niskanen L, Al Hakim M, et al. Effects of liraglutide in the treatment of obesity: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Lancet. 2009;374:1606-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Liraglutide treatment over 20 weeks is well tolerated, induces weight loss, improves certain obesity-related risk factors, and reduces prediabetes. Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark. ..
  2. McGill J. Insights from the Liraglutide Clinical Development Program--the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes (LEAD) studies. Postgrad Med. 2009;121:16-25 pubmed publisher
  3. Rosenstock J, Reusch J, Bush M, Yang F, Stewart M. Potential of albiglutide, a long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist, in type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial exploring weekly, biweekly, and monthly dosing. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1880-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Weekly albiglutide administration significantly improved glycemic control and elicited weight loss in type 2 diabetic patients, with a favorable safety and tolerability profile. ..
  4. Cummings D. Endocrine mechanisms mediating remission of diabetes after gastric bypass surgery. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33 Suppl 1:S33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Research designed to prioritize these mechanisms and identify potential additional mechanisms promises to help optimize surgical design and might also reveal novel pharmaceutical targets for diabetes treatment. ..
  5. Grieve D, Cassidy R, Green B. Emerging cardiovascular actions of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1: potential therapeutic benefits beyond glycaemic control?. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;157:1340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will discuss the current understanding of GLP-1 biology, examine its emerging cardiovascular actions in both health and disease and explore the potential use of GLP-1 as a novel treatment for CVD. ..
  6. Tahrani A, Piya M, Barnett A. Saxagliptin: a new DPP-4 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adv Ther. 2009;26:249-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Saxagliptin will be a new effective drug in the currently available variety of antidiabetic medications for patients with T2DM. ..
  7. Dalla Man C, Micheletto F, Sathananthan A, Rizza R, Vella A, Cobelli C. A model of GLP-1 action on insulin secretion in nondiabetic subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E1115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..2 +/- 1.4 10(-9) min(-1). Under GLP-1 stimulus, Pi = 12.6 +/- 0.71% per pmol/l, meaning that an increase of 5 pmol/l in peripheral GLP-1 concentrations induces an approximately 60% increase in over-basal insulin secretion. ..
  8. Zinman B, Gerich J, Buse J, Lewin A, Schwartz S, Raskin P, et al. Efficacy and safety of the human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide in combination with metformin and thiazolidinedione in patients with type 2 diabetes (LEAD-4 Met+TZD). Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1224-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Liraglutide combined with metformin and a thiazolidinedione is a well-tolerated combination therapy for type 2 diabetes, providing significant improvements in glycemic control. ..
  9. Buse J, Rosenstock J, Sesti G, Schmidt W, Montanya E, Brett J, et al. Liraglutide once a day versus exenatide twice a day for type 2 diabetes: a 26-week randomised, parallel-group, multinational, open-label trial (LEAD-6). Lancet. 2009;374:39-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that liraglutide might be a treatment option for type 2 diabetes, especially when weight loss and risk of hypoglycaemia are major considerations. Novo Nordisk A/S. ..

More Information


  1. Bush M, Matthews J, De Boever E, Dobbins R, Hodge R, Walker S, et al. Safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of albiglutide, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetic, in healthy subjects. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2009;11:498-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Albiglutide has a half-life that favours once weekly or less frequent dosing with an acceptable safety/tolerability profile in non-diabetic subjects. ..
  2. Kim Chung L, Hosaka T, Yoshida M, Harada N, Sakaue H, Sakai T, et al. Exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, directly induces adiponectin expression through protein kinase A pathway and prevents inflammatory adipokine expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:613-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that Ex-4 directly promotes adiponectin secretion via the protein kinase A pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and may ameliorate insulin resistance. ..
  3. Underwood C, Garibay P, Knudsen L, Hastrup S, Peters G, Rudolph R, et al. Crystal structure of glucagon-like peptide-1 in complex with the extracellular domain of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:723-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The data support the existence of differences in the binding modes of GLP-1 and exendin-4 on the full-length GLP-1 receptor. ..
  4. Widenmaier S, Sampaio A, Underhill T, McIntosh C. Noncanonical activation of Akt/protein kinase B in {beta}-cells by the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:10764-73 pubmed publisher
  5. Vollmer K, Gardiwal H, Menge B, Goetze O, Deacon C, Schmidt W, et al. Hyperglycemia acutely lowers the postprandial excursions of glucagon-like Peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:1379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports the concept that reduced incretin levels in some patients with type 2 diabetes are a consequence rather than a cause of type 2 diabetes. ..
  6. Irwin N, Flatt P, Patterson S, Green B. Insulin-releasing and metabolic effects of small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonist 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-N-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;628:268-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence to support the development and potential use of low molecular weight GLP-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. ..
  7. Noyan Ashraf M, Momen M, Ban K, Sadi A, Zhou Y, Riazi A, et al. GLP-1R agonist liraglutide activates cytoprotective pathways and improves outcomes after experimental myocardial infarction in mice. Diabetes. 2009;58:975-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that GLP-1R activation engages prosurvival pathways in the normal and diabetic mouse heart, leading to improved outcomes and enhanced survival after MI in vivo. ..
  8. Liu H, Dear A, Knudsen L, Simpson R. A long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue attenuates induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and vascular adhesion molecules. J Endocrinol. 2009;201:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects suggest that liraglutide may potentially improve the endothelial cell dysfunction associated with premature atherosclerosis identified in type 2 diabetic patients. ..
  9. Russell Jones D, Vaag A, Schmitz O, Sethi B, Lalic N, Antic S, et al. Liraglutide vs insulin glargine and placebo in combination with metformin and sulfonylurea therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (LEAD-5 met+SU): a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2009;52:2046-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The difference vs insulin glargine in HbA(1c) was within the predefined non-inferiority margin. NCT00331851. The study was funded by Novo Nordisk A/S. ..
  10. Retterstøl K. Taspoglutide: a long acting human glucagon-like polypeptide-1 analogue. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2009;18:1405-11 pubmed publisher
  11. Wideman R, Kieffer T. Mining incretin hormone pathways for novel therapies. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2009;20:280-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review these recent advances and outline the multiple strategies being pursued to exploit the potential therapeutic benefits of GIP and GLP-1. ..
  12. Saliba J, Wattacheril J, Abumrad N. Endocrine and metabolic response to gastric bypass. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009;12:515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This duality likely explains the short-term and long-term resolution of diabetes in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. ..
  13. Deacon C, Holst J. Saxagliptin: a new dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Adv Ther. 2009;26:488-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Saxagliptin is being co-developed by Bristol-Myers-Squibb (New York, NY, USA) and AstraZeneca (Cheshire, UK), and is currently undergoing regulatory review. ..
  14. Nauck M, Marre M. Adding liraglutide to oral antidiabetic drug monotherapy: efficacy and weight benefits. Postgrad Med. 2009;121:5-15 pubmed publisher
    ..0001) and higher rates of minor hyperglycemia. Given the combination of effective glycemic control and weight benefits, liraglutide is a good option for early add-on therapy for patients on OAD monotherapy. ..
  15. Deane A, Chapman M, Fraser R, Burgstad C, Besanko L, Horowitz M. The effect of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 on the glycaemic response to small intestinal nutrient in the critically ill: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled cross over study. Crit Care. 2009;13:R67 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that GLP-1 and/or its analogues have the potential to manage hyperglycaemia in the critically ill. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number: ACTRN12609000093280. ..
  16. Martin B, Dotson C, Shin Y, Ji S, Drucker D, Maudsley S, et al. Modulation of taste sensitivity by GLP-1 signaling in taste buds. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1170:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest a novel paracrine mechanism for the hormonal modulation of taste function in mammals...
  17. Deane A, Nguyen N, Stevens J, Fraser R, Holloway R, Besanko L, et al. Endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 slows gastric emptying in healthy subjects, attenuating postprandial glycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:215-21 pubmed publisher 60 min, the increment in blood glucose and gastric emptying (T50); r = -0.89; P < 0.001]. GLP-1 plays a physiological role to slow gastric emptying in health, which impacts on glucose absorption and, hence, postprandial glycemia. ..
  18. Riedel M, Gaddy D, Asadi A, Robbins P, Kieffer T. DsAAV8-mediated expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 in pancreatic beta-cells ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Gene Ther. 2010;17:171-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from this study indicate that expression and secretion of GLP-1 from beta-cells in vivo via DsAAV8 represents a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of diabetes. ..
  19. Deacon C. Potential of liraglutide in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2009;5:199-211 pubmed
    ..These tend to be most pronounced during the initial period of therapy and decline with time. Further clinical experience with liraglutide will reveal its long-term durability, safety and efficacy. ..
  20. Kapitza C, Heise T, Birman P, Jallet K, Ramis J, Balena R. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of taspoglutide, a once-weekly, human GLP-1 analogue, after single-dose administration in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2009;26:1156-64 pubmed publisher
    ..A single dose of taspoglutide significantly improved glycaemic parameters in Type 2 diabetes patients for up to 14 days. The formulation was well tolerated and appears suitable for weekly administration. ..
  21. Vilsboll T. Liraglutide: a new treatment for type 2 diabetes. Drugs Today (Barc). 2009;45:101-13 pubmed publisher
    ..It is expected to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency in Europe for use in 2009. ..
  22. Abu Hamdah R, Rabiee A, Meneilly G, Shannon R, Andersen D, Elahi D. Clinical review: The extrapancreatic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 and related peptides. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:1843-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects may be particularly important in the obese state. GLP-1, GLP-1m, and exendin-4 therefore have potential therapeutic roles because of their diffuse extrapancreatic actions. ..
  23. Marre M, Shaw J, Brandle M, Bebakar W, Kamaruddin N, Strand J, et al. Liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analogue, added to a sulphonylurea over 26 weeks produces greater improvements in glycaemic and weight control compared with adding rosiglitazone or placebo in subjects with Type 2 diabetes (LEAD-1 SU). Diabet Med. 2009;26:268-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Liraglutide added to glimepiride was well tolerated and provided improved glycaemic control and favourable weight profile. ..
  24. De Leon D, Deng S, Madani R, Ahima R, Drucker D, Stoffers D. Role of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 in islet regeneration after partial pancreatectomy. Diabetes. 2003;52:365-71 pubmed
    ..These studies point to a role for endogenous GLP-1 in beta-cell regeneration after Ppx in mice. ..
  25. Korner J, Inabnet W, Febres G, Conwell I, McMahon D, Salas R, et al. Prospective study of gut hormone and metabolic changes after adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33:786-95 pubmed publisher
    ..01) after RYGB. Differences in levels of gut hormones may play a role in promoting greater weight loss and insulin sensitivity after RYGB compared with LAGB, however, weight loss may be limited by decreases in free T(3) and leptin. ..
  26. Sandoval D, Bagnol D, Woods S, D Alessio D, Seeley R. Arcuate glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors regulate glucose homeostasis but not food intake. Diabetes. 2008;57:2046-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the arcuate GLP-1 receptors are a key component of the GLP-1 system for improving glucose homeostasis by regulating both insulin secretion and glucose production. ..
  27. Raman V, Heptulla R. New potential adjuncts to treatment of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:370-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the potential use of these newer pharmacologic agents as adjunctive therapy in T1DM in children and adolescents. ..
  28. Ma J, Bellon M, Wishart J, Young R, Blackshaw L, Jones K, et al. Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretin hormone release in healthy subjects. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G735-9 pubmed publisher
    ..4 mM (73.7+/-3.1 min) or 4 mM (76.7+/-3.1 min) and saline. We conclude that sucralose, delivered by intragastric infusion, does not stimulate insulin, GLP-1, or GIP release or slow gastric emptying in healthy humans. ..
  29. Hare K, Knop F, Asmar M, Madsbad S, Deacon C, Holst J, et al. Preserved inhibitory potency of GLP-1 on glucagon secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:4679-87 pubmed publisher
    ..001]. The diabetic alpha-cell appears to be highly sensitive to the inhibitory action of GLP-1 both during high and near-normalized PG levels, but responds with a short, nevertheless significant delay. ..
  30. Campos G, Rabl C, Peeva S, Ciovica R, Rao M, Schwarz J, et al. Improvement in peripheral glucose uptake after gastric bypass surgery is observed only after substantial weight loss has occurred and correlates with the magnitude of weight lost. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010;14:15-23 pubmed publisher
    ..68, p = 0.02). Improvement in peripheral glucose uptake following RYGB was observed only after substantial weight loss had occurred and correlated with the magnitude of weight lost. ..
  31. Wolnerhanssen B, Beglinger C. Therapeutic potential of gut peptides. Forum Nutr. 2010;63:54-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses several gut hormones and ligands for their receptors as potential anti-obesity treatments. ..
  32. Brown A, Desai M, Taneja D, Tannock L. Managing highly insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus: weight loss approaches and medical management. Postgrad Med. 2010;122:163-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews these different treatment options and provides practical advice on weight loss, use of insulin sensitizers, and use of U-500 insulin. ..
  33. Amato A, Cinci L, Rotondo A, Serio R, Faussone Pellegrini M, Vannucchi M, et al. Peripheral motor action of glucagon-like peptide-1 through enteric neuronal receptors. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:664-e203 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that GLP-1 is able to act in the enteric nervous system by decreasing the excitatory cholinergic neurotransmission through presynaptic GLP-1Rs, which modulate NO release. ..
  34. Meier J, Ritter P, Jacob A, Menge B, Deacon C, Schmidt W, et al. Impact of exogenous hyperglucagonemia on postprandial concentrations of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:4061-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a decline in circulating glucagon levels may exert a permissive effect on GLP-1 release. This might contribute to the reduction in GLP-1 concentrations found in some patients with T2DM. ..
  35. Asmar M, Højberg P, Deacon C, Hare K, Holst J, Madsbad S. Pancreatic beta-cell responses to GLP-1 after near-normalization of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Regul Pept. 2010;160:175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Near-normoglycaemia reduced proinsulin/C-peptide ratio during stimulation with GLP-1, suggesting that strict glycaemic control might ameliorate some of the disturbances in beta-cell function characterizing T2DM. ..
  36. Andrews C, Bharucha A, Camilleri M, Low P, Seide B, Burton D, et al. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 and sympathetic stimulation on gastric accommodation in humans. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2007;19:716-23 pubmed
    ..Yohimbine stimulates central sympathetic activity and in combination with GLP-1, augments postprandial accommodation in humans. ..
  37. Li D, Jing X, Salehi A, Collins S, Hoppa M, Rosengren A, et al. Suppression of sulfonylurea- and glucose-induced insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo in mice lacking the chloride transport protein ClC-3. Cell Metab. 2009;10:309-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The data establish the importance of granular Cl(-) fluxes in granule priming and provide direct evidence for the involvement of ClC-3 in the process. ..
  38. Hanato J, Kuriyama K, Mizumoto T, Debari K, Hatanaka J, Onoue S, et al. Liposomal formulations of glucagon-like peptide-1: improved bioavailability and anti-diabetic effect. Int J Pharm. 2009;382:111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon these findings, anionic liposomal formulation of GLP-1 would provide the improved pharmacokinetics and insulinotropic action, possibly leading to efficacious anti-diabetic medication. ..
  39. Seino Y, Nakajima H, Miyahara H, Kurita T, Bush M, Yang F, et al. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of albiglutide, a long-acting GLP-1-receptor agonist, in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25:3049-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Weekly and biweekly albiglutide improved glycemic control and were well-tolerated in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. ..
  40. Jacobo S, Guerra M, Jarrard R, Przybyla J, Liu G, Watts V, et al. The intracellular II-III loops of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 uncouple L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels from glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiation of insulin secretion in INS-1 cells via displacement from lipid rafts. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;330:283-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the II-III interdomain loops of Ca(v)1.2, and possibly Ca(v)1.3, direct these channels to membrane microdomains in which the proteins that mediate potentiation of GSIS by GLP-1 and 8-Br-cAMP assemble. ..
  41. Li C, Huan Y, Shen N, Ji L, Sun S, Liu S, et al. A novel GLP-1 analog, BPI3006, with potent DPP IV resistance and good glucoregulatory effect. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;400:563-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus it may be a new candidate for T2DM treatment and its novel modification may provide valuable guidance for the future development of long-acting GLP-1 analogs. ..
  42. Parlevliet E, de Leeuw van Weenen J, Romijn J, Pijl H. GLP-1 treatment reduces endogenous insulin resistance via activation of central GLP-1 receptors in mice fed a high-fat diet. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299:E318-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of central GLP-1Rs contributes substantially to the inhibition of endogenous glucose production by GLP-1 treatment in this animal model. ..
  43. Zhang Y, Wang Q, Zhang J, Lei X, Xu G, Ye W. Protection of exendin-4 analogue in early experimental diabetic retinopathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;247:699-706 pubmed publisher
    ..E4a administration can reverse the changes of ERG, prevent the retinal cell death and maintain normal retinal thickness in diabetic rats. Therefore, this is a potent approach for treatment of early DR. ..
  44. Pols T, Auwerx J, Schoonjans K. Targeting the TGR5-GLP-1 pathway to combat type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2010;34:270-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These new observations suggest that TGR5 agonists may constitute a novel approach to treat type 2 diabetes, as well as complications of diabetes, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. ..
  45. Westerterp Plantenga M, Lejeune M, Smeets A, Luscombe Marsh N. Sex differences in energy homeostatis following a diet relatively high in protein exchanged with carbohydrate, assessed in a respiration chamber in humans. Physiol Behav. 2009;97:414-9 pubmed publisher
  46. Kimura R, Okouchi M, Fujioka H, Ichiyanagi A, Ryuge F, Mizuno T, et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) protects against methylglyoxal-induced PC12 cell apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/GCLc/redox signaling pathway. Neuroscience. 2009;162:1212-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The GLP-1-induced redox restoration was also attenuated by rapamycin. In conclusion, the neuroprotective effect of GLP-1 is due to an enhancement of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/GCLc/redox signaling...
  47. Vedtofte L, Bodvarsdottir T, Gotfredsen C, Karlsen A, Knudsen L, Heller R. Liraglutide, but not vildagliptin, restores normoglycaemia and insulin content in the animal model of type 2 diabetes, Psammomys obesus. Regul Pept. 2010;160:106-14 pubmed publisher
    ..obesus by increasing their insulin content and improving the function of the beta-cells. In contrast, vildagliptin does not improve glycaemic control in P. obesus nor affect beta-cell insulin content...
  48. Montanya E, Sesti G. A review of efficacy and safety data regarding the use of liraglutide, a once-daily human glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Ther. 2009;31:2472-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Once-daily liraglutide was effective and well tolerated when used as monotherapy or in combination with OADs in patients with type 2 DM, and is therefore a promising new treatment option for the management of type 2 DM. ..
  49. Eiki J, Saeki K, Nagano N, Iino T, Yonemoto M, Takayenoki Iino Y, et al. A selective small molecule glucagon-like peptide-1 secretagogue acting via depolarization-coupled Ca(2+) influx. J Endocrinol. 2009;201:361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Identifying a specific target molecule for compound A will reveal a selective regulatory pathway that leads to depolarization-mediated GLP-1 secretion. ..
  50. Ong W, Gribble F, Reimann F, Lynch M, Houslay M, Baillie G, et al. The role of the PDE4D cAMP phosphodiesterase in the regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 release. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;157:633-44 pubmed publisher
    ..PDE4D may play an important role in regulating intracellular cAMP linked to the regulation of GLP-1 release. ..
  51. Chen D, Lee S, Peterfreund R. New therapeutic agents for diabetes mellitus: implications for anesthetic management. Anesth Analg. 2009;108:1803-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Anesthesia providers caring for patients with diabetes mellitus will need to understand the implications of these new therapies in perioperative settings, particularly with respect to side effects and interactions. ..
  52. Chen L, Yang W, Zheng J, Yue L, Hu X. [The effect of high-fat diet and catch-up growth on gastric emptying and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 concentration in rats]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2009;48:655-9 pubmed
    ..53 pmol/L vs 10.00 pmol/L). Although both high-fat diet and catch-up growth affect the gastrointestinal function, the latter has a greater impact, which could account for some pathophysiological changes caused by catch-up growth. ..
  53. Jahn E, Sausele T. [Liraglutide: a human GLP-1 analogue for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2]. Med Monatsschr Pharm. 2009;32:402-7 pubmed