ghrelin

Summary

Summary: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.

Top Publications

  1. Wren A, Small C, Ward H, Murphy K, Dakin C, Taheri S, et al. The novel hypothalamic peptide ghrelin stimulates food intake and growth hormone secretion. Endocrinology. 2000;141:4325-8 pubmed
    b>Ghrelin, a novel 28 amino acid peptide found in hypothalamus and stomach, was recently identified as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). We have now found that both intracerebroventricular (i.c.v...
  2. Mani B, Uchida A, Lee Y, Osborne Lawrence S, Charron M, Unger R, et al. Hypoglycemic Effect of Combined Ghrelin and Glucagon Receptor Blockade. Diabetes. 2017;66:1847-1857 pubmed publisher
    ..glycemia in a setting devoid of insulin and glucagon function remain unclear but may include the hormone ghrelin. Not only is ghrelin release controlled by glucose but also ghrelin has many actions that can raise or reduce ..
  3. Menzies M, Seim I, Josh P, Nagaraj S, Lees M, Walpole C, et al. Cloning and tissue distribution of novel splice variants of the ovine ghrelin gene. BMC Vet Res. 2014;10:211 pubmed publisher
    The ghrelin axis is involved in the regulation of metabolism, energy balance, and the immune, cardiovascular and reproductive systems...
  4. Barington M, Brorson M, Hofman Bang J, Rasmussen A, Holst B, Feldt Rasmussen U. Ghrelin-mediated inhibition of the TSH-stimulated function of differentiated human thyrocytes ex vivo. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184992 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced mainly in the gastrointestinal tract known to regulate several physiological functions including gut motility, adipose tissue accumulation and hunger sensation leading to increased bodyweight...
  5. Aoki H, Nakato J, Mizushige T, Iwakura H, Sato M, Suzuki H, et al. Lacto-ghrestatin, a novel bovine milk-derived peptide, suppresses ghrelin secretion. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:2121-2130 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin, an endogenous peptide isolated from the stomach, is known to stimulate food intake after peripheral administration...
  6. Sominsky L, Ziko I, Spencer S. Neonatal overfeeding disrupts pituitary ghrelin signalling in female rats long-term; Implications for the stress response. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0173498 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ghrelin, traditionally known for its role in energy homeostasis, has been recently recognised for its role in ..
  7. Foradori C, Whitlock B, Daniel J, Zimmerman A, Jones M, Read C, et al. Kisspeptin Stimulates Growth Hormone Release by Utilizing Neuropeptide Y Pathways and Is Dependent on the Presence of Ghrelin in the Ewe. Endocrinology. 2017;158:3526-3539 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, blockade of systemic ghrelin release or antagonism of the ghrelin receptor eliminated or reduced the ability of kisspeptin to induce GH ..
  8. St Jean M, Boudreau F, Carpentier A, Hivert M. HNF1? defect influences post-prandial lipid regulation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177110 pubmed publisher
    ..6 hours, we measured post-meal responses of insulin regulation (blood glucose, c-peptide, insulin), gut hormones (ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1) and lipids (non-esterified fatty acids [..
  9. Fothergill L, Callaghan B, Hunne B, Bravo D, Furness J. Costorage of Enteroendocrine Hormones Evaluated at the Cell and Subcellular Levels in Male Mice. Endocrinology. 2017;158:2113-2123 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work, coexpression of 5-HT, CgA, secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, and glucagonlike peptide (GLP)-1 in mouse duodenum was quantified at a cellular and subcellular level by ..

More Information

Publications49

  1. Orlova E, Shirshev S. Role of PKA and PI3K in Leptin and Ghrelin Regulation of Adaptive Subpopulations of Regulatory CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Formation. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2017;82:1061-1072 pubmed publisher
    The role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase A (PKA) in leptin and ghrelin regulation of formation of adaptive (a) subpopulations of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper (h) cells producing interleukin-17A) (aT?17) and of T-..
  2. Chen S, Chen H, Zhou J, Pradhan G, Sun Y, Pan H, et al. Ghrelin receptors mediate ghrelin-induced excitation of agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y but not pro-opiomelanocortin neurons. J Neurochem. 2017;142:512-520 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin increases food intake and body weight by stimulating orexigenic agouti-related protein (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons and inhibiting anorexic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus...
  3. Zhang M, Li F, Wang J. Correlation analysis of serum obestatin expression with insulin resistance in childhood obesity. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher
    ..245, P < 0.001), and triglyceride level (r = 0.25, P = 0.04). Our study demonstrated that obestatin is negatively correlated with fasting insulin and leptin levels, and positively correlated with insulin resistance in obese children. ..
  4. Argiles J, López Soriano F, Stemmler B, Busquets S. Novel targeted therapies for cancer cachexia. Biochem J. 2017;474:2663-2678 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, some promising targeted therapeutic approaches include ghrelin agonists, selective androgen receptor agonists, ?-blockers and antimyostatin peptides...
  5. Holliday A, Blannin A. Appetite, food intake and gut hormone responses to intense aerobic exercise of different duration. J Endocrinol. 2017;235:193-205 pubmed publisher
    ..of subjective appetite and blood samples were obtained throughout the morning, with plasma analyzed for acylated ghrelin, total polypeptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and total glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations...
  6. McGovern Gooch K, Mahajani N, Garagozzo A, Schramm A, Hannah L, Sieburg M, et al. Synthetic Triterpenoid Inhibition of Human Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase: The Involvement of a Functionally Required Cysteine Provides Mechanistic Insight into Ghrelin Acylation. Biochemistry. 2017;56:919-931 pubmed publisher
    The peptide hormone ghrelin plays a key role in regulating hunger and energy balance within the body...
  7. Abizaid A, Anisman H. Gut feelings about depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2014;39:364-6 pubmed
  8. Yilmaz H, Gerdan V, Kozaci D, Solmaz D, Akar S, Can G, et al. Ghrelin and adipokines as circulating markers of disease activity in patients with Takayasu arteritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R272 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated circulating levels of unacylated and acylated ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin and their relationships with disease activity in patients with TA...
  9. Charron C, Hou J, McFarland M, Dhanvantari S, Kovacs M, Luyt L. Structure-Activity Study of Ghrelin(1-8) Resulting in High Affinity Fluorine-Bearing Ligands for the Ghrelin Receptor. J Med Chem. 2017;60:7256-7266 pubmed publisher
    The ghrelin receptor, also known as the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a), is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is differentially expressed in healthy tissue and several cancers, including prostate, testicular, and ..
  10. Wu G, Cai X, Xing J, Zhong G, Chen J. Circulating motilin, ghrelin, and GLP-1 and their correlations with gastric slow waves in patients with chronic kidney disease. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2017;313:R149-R157 pubmed publisher
    ..to study effects of HD on GI symptoms and gastric slow waves; and 2) to investigate possible roles of ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1): the study recruited 13 healthy controls, 20 CKD patients without HD (CKD ..
  11. Francis D, Thanuthong T, Senadheera S, Paolucci M, Coccia E, De Silva S, et al. n-3 LC-PUFA deposition efficiency and appetite-regulating hormones are modulated by the dietary lipid source during rainbow trout grow-out and finishing periods. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2014;40:577-93 pubmed publisher
    ..of n-3 LC-PUFA and the circulating blood plasma concentrations of the appetite-regulating hormones, leptin and ghrelin, during the grow-out and finishing phases in rainbow trout culture...
  12. Meyer C. Final answer: ghrelin can suppress insulin secretion in humans, but is it clinically relevant?. Diabetes. 2010;59:2726-8 pubmed publisher
  13. Hashiguchi H, Sheng Z, Routh V, Gerzanich V, Simard J, Bryan J. Direct versus indirect actions of ghrelin on hypothalamic NPY neurons. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184261 pubmed publisher
    Assess direct versus indirect action(s) of ghrelin on hypothalamic NPY neurons. Electrophysiology was used to measure ion channel activity in NPY-GFP neurons in slice preparations...
  14. Santacruz C, Quintairos A, Righy C, Crippa I, Couto L, Imbault V, et al. Is There a Role for Enterohormones in the Gastroparesis of Critically Ill Patients?. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:1696-1701 pubmed publisher
    ..A pathophysiologic role of the enterohormones peptide YY and ghrelin is supported by preclinical data...
  15. Mao Y, Li Z, Chen K, Yu H, Zhang S, Jiang M, et al. Antinociceptive Effect of Ghrelin in a Rat Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Involves TRPV1/Opioid Systems. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;43:518-530 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ghrelin is a brain-gut hormone, which has been reported to show antinociceptive effects in peripheral pain...
  16. Ho Y, Nakato J, Mizushige T, Kanamoto R, Tanida M, Akiduki S, et al. l-Ornithine stimulates growth hormone release in a manner dependent on the ghrelin system. Food Funct. 2017;8:2110-2114 pubmed publisher
    ..after intraduodenal administration of l-Orn was blocked by [d-Lys3]-GHRP-6, an antagonist of the ghrelin receptor; however, l-Orn (100 ?M) has no affinity for the ghrelin receptor, suggesting that the GH-releasing ..
  17. Maksud F, Kakehasi A, Guimarães M, Machado C, Barbosa A. Ghrelin plasma levels, gastric ghrelin cell density and bone mineral density in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2017;50:e5977 pubmed publisher
    ..The peptide ghrelin has demonstrated to positively affect osteoblasts in vitro and has anti-inflammatory actions, but the studies ..
  18. Wang L, Chen Q, Ke D, Li G. Ghrelin inhibits atherosclerotic plaque angiogenesis and promotes plaque stability in a rabbit atherosclerotic model. Peptides. 2017;90:17-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on intraplaque angiogenesis and plaque instability in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis...
  19. Kim S, Kim J, Byun J, Jeong J, Kim B, Lee K. Plasma ghrelin level and plasma ghrelin/obestatin ratio are related to intestinal metaplasia in elderly patients with functional dyspepsia. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175231 pubmed publisher
    Whether plasma ghrelin/obestatin levels are associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, subtypes of functional dyspepsia (FD), and gastric mucosal histology has not yet been established in elderly patients...
  20. NASS R, Gaylinn B, Rogol A, Thorner M. Ghrelin and growth hormone: story in reverse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8501-2 pubmed publisher
  21. Lin Y, Wan Q, Peng Y, He F, Shen J. [Effect of Electroacupuncture at "Zusanli" (ST 36), etc. on Gastrointestinal Motility and Expression of Ghrelin mRNA and Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor mRNA in Diabetic Gastroparesis Rats]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2015;40:290-5 pubmed
    ..quot;Liangmen" (ST 21) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) on gastrointestinal motility and expression of ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) mRNA in diabetic gastroparesis (diabetic gastroparesis, DGP) rats,..
  22. Grönberg M, Ahlin C, Naeser Y, Janson E, Holmberg L, Fjällskog M. Ghrelin is a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176059 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin and obestatin are gastrointestinal peptides, encoded by the same preproghrelin gene. Both are expressed in breast cancer tissue and ghrelin has been implicated in breast cancer tumorigenesis...
  23. Allam M, El Gohary O. Gastroprotective effect of ghrelin against indomethacin-induced gastric injury in rats: possible role of heme oxygenase-1 pathway. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2017;36:321-330 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin has been shown to ameliorate gastric injury by several mechanisms in experimental animal models...
  24. Steculorum S, Colldén G, Coupé B, Croizier S, Lockie S, Andrews Z, et al. Neonatal ghrelin programs development of hypothalamic feeding circuits. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:846-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The stomach-derived hormone ghrelin stimulates appetite through interactions with neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH)...
  25. Chondronikola M, Porter C, Malagaris I, Nella A, Sidossis L. Brown adipose tissue is associated with systemic concentrations of peptides secreted from the gastrointestinal system and involved in appetite regulation. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017;177:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..020), while cold-induced BAT activation was significantly associated with lower serum ghrelin concentration (P?=?0.029)...
  26. Edwards A, Abizaid A. Clarifying the Ghrelin System's Ability to Regulate Feeding Behaviours Despite Enigmatic Spatial Separation of the GHSR and Its Endogenous Ligand. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin is a hormone predominantly produced in and secreted from the stomach. Ghrelin is involved in many physiological processes including feeding, the stress response, and in modulating learning, memory and motivational processes...
  27. Kim S, Jang S, Kim J, Kim B, Lee K, Kim Y, et al. Serum Adipocytokine Levels as Surrogate Markers for Disease Activity of Crohn's Disease. Am J Med Sci. 2017;353:439-444 pubmed publisher
    ..Fasting serum leptin, adiponectin, obestatin and ghrelin levels were measured, and their correlation with clinical features of the patients was analyzed...
  28. Guillory B, Chen J, Patel S, Luo J, Splenser A, Mody A, et al. Deletion of ghrelin prevents aging-associated obesity and muscle dysfunction without affecting longevity. Aging Cell. 2017;16:859-869 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that lifelong deletion of ghrelin prevents development of obesity associated with aging by modulating food intake and energy expenditure...
  29. Matu J, Deighton K, Ispoglou T, Duckworth L. The effect of moderate versus severe simulated altitude on appetite, gut hormones, energy intake and substrate oxidation in men. Appetite. 2017;113:284-292 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-exercise area under the curve values for acylated ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide and composite appetite score were lower (all P < 0...
  30. Tung N, Nakajima K, Uto T, Hai N, Long D, Ohta T, et al. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Phytother Res. 2017;31:1457-1460 pubmed publisher
    ..2 and 11.7 ?M. In addition, compounds 1-3 showed inhibitory effect on ghrelin activity. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  31. Wang Q, Lin P, Li P, Feng L, Ren Q, Xie X, et al. Ghrelin protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury via inhibition of TLR4/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Life Sci. 2017;186:50-58 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of ghrelin against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into Sham, I/R and I/R+ghrelin groups...
  32. Wang H, Qin M, Liang Z, Chang R, Fu H, Wei Y, et al. Serum ghrelin, but not obestatin, is a potential predictor of acute pancreatitis severity. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7963 pubmed publisher
    The roles of ghrelin and obestatin in AP remain controversial.This study investigates the effects and the predictive value of serum ghrelin and obestatin levels in the early stage of AP...
  33. Maciejewska Paszek I, Grochowska Niedworok E, Siwiec A, Gruenpeter A, Dul L, Irzyniec T. Influence of etanercept on leptin and ghrelin secretion in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Int Med Res. 2017;45:525-532 pubmed publisher
    Objective To assess possible changes in leptin and ghrelin secretion due to etanercept in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)...
  34. Yu C, Chu S, Chen P, Hsieh Y, Kuo D. Participation of ghrelin signalling in the reciprocal regulation of hypothalamic NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control in amphetamine-treated rats. Appetite. 2017;113:30-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated whether ghrelin signalling is associated with changes in NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control...
  35. Hill N, Murphy K, Saeed S, Phadke R, Chambers D, Wilson D, et al. Impact of ghrelin on body composition and muscle function in a long-term rodent model of critical illness. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182659 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesise that treatment with the orexigenic and anti-inflammatory gastric hormone, ghrelin may attenuate the loss of body mass following critical illness and improve recovery...
  36. Xu J, Zhu J, Tian X, Sun Q, Xu J, Huang Y, et al. Ghrelin Protects the Thymic Epithelium From Conditioning-Regimen-Induced Damage and Promotes the Restoration of CD4+ T Cells in Mice After Bone Marrow Transplantation. Transplantation. 2017;101:e293-e300 pubmed publisher
    ..We established a model of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in mice and administered ghrelin (GRL) 7 days before the conditioning regimen or the day after BMT to explore the effect of GRL on thymus...
  37. Tsuchiya T, Iwakura H, Minamino N, Kangawa K, Sasaki K. Endogenous peptide profile for elucidating biosynthetic processing of the ghrelin precursor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1142-1146 pubmed publisher
    b>Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide primarily produced by gastric endocrine cells. The biosynthetic cleavage site of ghrelin has been well documented, but how its downstream region undergoes proteolytic processing remains poorly explored...
  38. Bianchi E, Boekelheide K, Sigman M, Hall S, Hwang K. Ghrelin modulates testicular damage in a cryptorchid mouse model. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177995 pubmed publisher
    ..This study elucidated the effects of endogenous ghrelin or growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) deletion on mouse reproductive performance and evaluated the ..
  39. Andarini S, Kangsaputra F, Handayani D. Pre- and postprandial acylated ghrelin in obese and normal weight men. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017;26:S85-S91 pubmed publisher
    The prevalence of obesity in Indonesia has increasing. We have assessed the relationship between plasma acylated ghrelin hormone and self-reported appetite ratings (hunger and desire to eat) in obese and normal weight men...
  40. von Haehling S, Stepney R, Anker S. Advances in understanding and treating cardiac cachexia: highlights from the 5th Cachexia Conference. Int J Cardiol. 2010;144:347-9 pubmed publisher
    ..but are not limited to the type 4 melanocortin receptor antagonist SNT 207979, the appetite promoting synthetic ghrelin SUN11031, the soluble myostatin decoy receptor ActRIIB-Fc, the fast skeletal muscle troponin activating substance ..