ethinyl estradiol


Summary: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.

Top Publications

  1. Partridge C, Boettcher A, Jones A. Short-term exposure to a synthetic estrogen disrupts mating dynamics in a pipefish. Horm Behav. 2010;58:800-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, disrupting these processes could have profound effects on the viability of exposed populations. ..
  2. Ferguson S, Law C, Abshire J. Developmental treatment with bisphenol A or ethinyl estradiol causes few alterations on early preweaning measures. Toxicol Sci. 2011;124:149-60 pubmed publisher
    ..5 or 25.0 ?g/kg/day BPA, or 5.0 or 10.0 ?g/kg/day ethinyl estradiol (EE?). Offspring were orally treated on postnatal days (PNDs) 1-21 with the same dose the dam received...
  3. Li J, Jiang L, Xiang X, Xu S, Wen R, Liu X. Competitive sorption between 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol and bisphenol A/4-n-nonylphenol by soils. J Environ Sci (China). 2013;25:1154-63 pubmed
    The sorption of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) in single systems and the sorption of EE2 with different initial aqueous concentrations of BPA or NP were examined using three soils...
  4. Zhang J, Chung E, Yones C, Persson A, Mahnke L, Eley T, et al. The effect of atazanavir/ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate in healthy women. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Raritan, NJ, USA) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of ethinyl estradiol (EE), norgestimate (NGM), ATV and RTV...
  5. Weisberg E, Croxatto H, Findlay J, Burger H, Fraser I. A randomized study of the effect of mifepristone alone or in conjunction with ethinyl estradiol on ovarian function in women using the etonogestrel-releasing subdermal implant, Implanon®. Contraception. 2011;84:600-8 pubmed publisher
    Mifepristone alone or in combination with ethinyl estradiol (EE) can effectively stop an episode of uterine bleeding in women using the etonogestrel-releasing contraceptive implant, Implanon® but could impair contraceptive efficacy...
  6. Joseph L, Zaib Q, Khan I, Berge N, Park Y, Saleh N, et al. Removal of bisphenol A and 17?-ethinyl estradiol from landfill leachate using single-walled carbon nanotubes. Water Res. 2011;45:4056-68 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and 17?-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) from landfill leachate onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was investigated...
  7. Bird S, Delaney J, Etminan M, Brophy J, Hartzema A. Drospirenone and non-fatal venous thromboembolism: is there a risk difference by dosage of ethinyl-estradiol?. J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11:1059-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The larger VTE incidence rate observed in DRSP/EE20 than in DRSP/EE30 and the increasing VTE incidence rate with levonorgestrel between 2007 and 2009 were unexpected. ..
  8. Li J, Fu J, Xiang X, Wu M, Liu X. Kinetics, equilibrium, and mechanisms of sorption and desorption of 17?-ethinyl estradiol in two natural soils and their organic fractions. Sci Total Environ. 2013;452-453:404-10 pubmed publisher
    A study was conducted on the kinetics, equilibrium, and mechanisms of sorption and desorption of 17?-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in six sorbents, which were two natural soils (Bulk1 and Bulk2) and their fractions obtained by alkaline ..
  9. Söffker M, Tyler C. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and sexual behaviors in fish--a critical review on effects and possible consequences. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2012;42:653-68 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Hirakawa I, Miyagawa S, Katsu Y, Kagami Y, Tatarazako N, Kobayashi T, et al. Gene expression profiles in the testis associated with testis-ova in adult Japanese medaka (Oryziaslatipes) exposed to 17?-ethinylestradiol. Chemosphere. 2012;87:668-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Using quantitative RT-PCR we confirmed that Zpc5 gene can be used as a marker for the detection of testis-ova in male medaka. ..
  2. Ågren U, Anttila M, Mäenpää Liukko K, Rantala M, Rautiainen H, Sommer W, et al. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17?-oestradiol compared with one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2011;16:444-57 pubmed publisher
    ..NOMAC/E2 was associated with a greater increase in SHBG. The monophasic COC NOMAC/E2 had less influence on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism than the COC LNG/EE. ..
  3. Scholes D, Hubbard R, Ichikawa L, LaCroix A, Spangler L, Beasley J, et al. Oral contraceptive use and bone density change in adolescent and young adult women: a prospective study of age, hormone dose, and discontinuation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E1380-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Participants included 606 women aged 14-30 yr (50% adolescents aged 14-18 yr): 389 OC users [62% 30-35 ?g ethinyl estradiol (EE)] and 217 age-similar nonusers; there were 172 OC discontinuers. The 24-month retention was 78%...
  4. Ågren U, Anttila M, Mäenpää Liukko K, Rantala M, Rautiainen H, Sommer W, et al. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17?-oestradiol in comparison to one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on markers of endocrine function. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2011;16:458-67 pubmed publisher
    ..NOMAC/E2 has significantly less influence on markers of adrenal and thyroid function and androgens than LNG/EE. The clinical relevance of these findings requires further study. ..
  5. Sevinsky H, Eley T, Persson A, Garner D, Yones C, Nettles R, et al. The effect of efavirenz on the pharmacokinetics of an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate in healthy HIV-negative women. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:149-56 pubmed publisher
    ..of coadministration of efavirenz (600 mg once daily) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the active components (ethinyl estradiol [EE] and 17-deacetyl norgestimate [NGMN]) of Ortho Cyclen(®) (Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc...
  6. Sun K, Ro K, Guo M, Novak J, Mashayekhi H, Xing B. Sorption of bisphenol A, 17?-ethinyl estradiol and phenanthrene on thermally and hydrothermally produced biochars. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:5757-63 pubmed publisher
    Thermal and hydrothermal biochars were characterized, and adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA), 17?-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and phenanthrene (Phen) was determined to investigate the sorption characteristic difference between the two types of ..
  7. Liarte S, Cabas I, Chaves Pozo E, Arizcun M, Meseguer J, Mulero V, et al. Natural and synthetic estrogens modulate the inflammatory response in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) through the activation of endothelial cells. Mol Immunol. 2011;48:1917-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we found that leukocyte adhesion to ECs was enhanced by E(2) treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that estrogens modulate fish leukocyte trafficking during an inflammatory process by activating ECs...
  8. Junge W, Mellinger U, Parke S, Serrani M. Metabolic and haemostatic effects of estradiol valerate/dienogest, a novel oral contraceptive: a randomized, open-label, single-centre study. Clin Drug Investig. 2011;31:573-584 pubmed publisher
    ..E(2)V/DNG had a minimal impact on metabolic and haemostatic parameters, and a more favourable effect than EE/LNG on lipid markers. Identifier: NCT00185224. ..
  9. Cabas I, Chaves Pozo E, Alcázar A, Meseguer J, Mulero V, García Ayala A. Dietary intake of 17?-ethinylestradiol promotes leukocytes infiltration in the gonad of the hermaphrodite gilthead seabream. Mol Immunol. 2011;48:2079-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the dietary intake of EE(2) promoted a dose-dependent up-regulation of the expression of genes coding for cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules correlated with a leukocyte infiltration...
  10. Garg V, van Heeswijk R, Yang Y, Kauffman R, Smith F, Adda N. The pharmacokinetic interaction between an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone and the HCV protease inhibitor telaprevir. J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;52:1574-83 pubmed
    ..of steady-state telaprevir (administered 750 mg every 8 hours) on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and norethindrone (NE) was evaluated in 24 healthy women receiving oral contraceptives (OC) containing ..
  11. Hoffmann F, Kloas W. Estrogens can disrupt amphibian mating behavior. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32097 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest the possibility that EE2 exposure could reduce the reproductive success of EE2 exposed animals and these effects might contribute to the global problem of amphibian decline. ..
  12. Sun K, Jin J, Gao B, Zhang Z, Wang Z, Pan Z, et al. Sorption of 17?-ethinyl estradiol, bisphenol A and phenanthrene to different size fractions of soil and sediment. Chemosphere. 2012;88:577-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The sorption of bisphenol A (BPA), 17?-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and phenanthrene (Phen) by different size fractions of soil and sediment were investigated...
  13. Stanczyk F, Archer D, Bhavnani B. Ethinyl estradiol and 17?-estradiol in combined oral contraceptives: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and risk assessment. Contraception. 2013;87:706-27 pubmed publisher
    ..New progestin formulations combined with lower doses of ethinyl estradiol (EE), the predominant estrogenic component of COCs, have reduced the incidence of venous thromboembolism and ..
  14. Rich P. Hormonal contraceptives for acne management. Cutis. 2008;81:13-8 pubmed
    ..Women with moderate acne vulgaris who seek contraception and teenagers with acne who refuse antibiotics or in whom topical antibiotics are ineffective might be candidates for drospirenone-containing OCs. ..
  15. Rible R, Taylor D, Wilson M, Stanczyk F, Mishell D. Follicular development in a 7-day versus 4-day hormone-free interval with an oral contraceptive containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate. Contraception. 2009;79:182-8 pubmed publisher
    Combined oral contraceptive (COC) formulations with 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE) have a greater incidence of ovarian hormone production and follicular development, which can be managed by shortening the number of hormone-free days per ..
  16. Kroll R, Reape K, Margolis M. The efficacy and safety of a low-dose, 91-day, extended-regimen oral contraceptive with continuous ethinyl estradiol. Contraception. 2010;81:41-8 pubmed publisher of a 91-day extended-regimen, low-dose combination oral contraceptive (OC) consisting of 84 days of ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 mcg/levonorgestrel (LNG) 100 mcg, followed by 7 days of 10 mcg EE in place of placebo...
  17. Ryan B, Hotchkiss A, Crofton K, Gray L. In utero and lactational exposure to bisphenol A, in contrast to ethinyl estradiol, does not alter sexually dimorphic behavior, puberty, fertility, and anatomy of female LE rats. Toxicol Sci. 2010;114:133-48 pubmed publisher
    Many chemicals released into the environment display estrogenic activity including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA)...
  18. Martyniuk C, Xiong H, Crump K, Chiu S, Sardana R, Nadler A, et al. Gene expression profiling in the neuroendocrine brain of male goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol. Physiol Genomics. 2006;27:328-36 pubmed
  19. Torgrimson B, Meendering J, Kaplan P, Minson C. Endothelial function across an oral contraceptive cycle in women using levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H2874-80 pubmed
    Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are a popular contraception method. Currently, lower-dose ethinyl estradiol formulations are most commonly prescribed, although they have been linked to increased arterial vascular risk...
  20. Sänger N, Stahlberg S, Manthey T, Mittmann K, Mellinger U, Lange E, et al. Effects of an oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg dienogest on thyroid hormones and androgen parameters: conventional vs. extended-cycle use. Contraception. 2008;77:420-5 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of an oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 2 mg dienogest on thyroid hormones and androgen parameters...
  21. Lange A, Paull G, Coe T, Katsu Y, Urushitani H, Iguchi T, et al. Sexual reprogramming and estrogenic sensitization in wild fish exposed to ethinylestradiol. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:1219-25 pubmed
    ..In the wild, exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of EE2 during early life has significantly wider implications for the sexual physiology in fish than has thus far been determined...
  22. Naciff J, Khambatta Z, Thomason R, Carr G, Tiesman J, Singleton D, et al. The genomic response of a human uterine endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line to 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol. Toxicol Sci. 2009;107:40-55 pubmed publisher
  23. Fruzzetti F, Perini D, Lazzarini V, Parrini D, Gambacciani M, Genazzani A. Comparison of effects of 3 mg drospirenone plus 20 ?g ethinyl estradiol alone or combined with metformin or cyproterone acetate on classic metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1793-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect was not ameliorated by the addition of metformin. The positive metabolic effects of DRP are abolished by the concomitant use of CPA. ..
  24. Zhang H, Cui D, Wang B, Han Y, Balimane P, Yang Z, et al. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions involving 17alpha-ethinylestradiol: a new look at an old drug. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2007;46:133-57 pubmed
    ..An effort is made to relate this information to known clinical drug-drug interactions. The inhibition and induction of drug-metabolising enzymes by EE is also reviewed. ..
  25. Martyniuk C, Gerrie E, Popesku J, Ekker M, Trudeau V. Microarray analysis in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver and telencephalon after exposure to low concentration of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol. Aquat Toxicol. 2007;84:38-49 pubmed
  26. Nadzialek S, Kestemont P. 17alpha-ethinylestradiol induces an imbalance between apoptosis and cell proliferation to sex steroid disruption in a testis culture of gudgeon, Gobio gobio. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2010;29:881-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study could be the basis conditions for oocyte development within the testis of a common teleost fish under xenoestrogen exposure. ..
  27. Ekman D, Teng Q, Villeneuve D, Kahl M, Jensen K, Durhan E, et al. Investigating compensation and recovery of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol with metabolite profiling. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:4188-94 pubmed
    ..This revealed an apparent ability of the fish to compensate for the presence of EE2 later in the exposure, and to partially recover from its effects after the chemical was removed. ..
  28. Sekar V, Lefebvre E, Guzman S, Felicione E, De Pauw M, Vangeneugden T, et al. Pharmacokinetic interaction between ethinyl estradiol, norethindrone and darunavir with low-dose ritonavir in healthy women. Antivir Ther. 2008;13:563-9 pubmed
    ..with low-dose ritonavir (DRV/r) on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of the oral contraceptives ethinyl estradiol (EE) and norethindrone (NE) (commercial name of the combined drug Ortho-Novum 1/35) in 19 HIV-negative ..
  29. Hoffmann J, Torontali S, Thomason R, Lee D, Brill J, Price B, et al. Hepatic gene expression profiling using Genechips in zebrafish exposed to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol. Aquat Toxicol. 2006;79:233-46 pubmed
    ..Future work will evaluate the use of these genes in zebrafish exposed to weak estrogens to determine if these genes are indicative of exposure to estrogens with varying potencies. ..
  30. Johnson J, Grubb G, Constantine G. Endometrial histology following 1 year of a continuous daily regimen of levonorgestrel 90 micro g/ethinyl estradiol 20 micro g. Contraception. 2007;75:23-6 pubmed
    ..of this study was to evaluate the effect of a continuous daily regimen of levonorgestrel (LNG) 90 micro g/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 micro g on endometrial histology...
  31. Geurts M, de Boer W, De Graaf J, van Ginkel C. Environmental exposure assessment of ethinyl estradiol (EE) from a combined hormonal vaginal contraceptive ring after disposal; leaching from landfills. Sci Total Environ. 2007;377:366-70 pubmed environmental exposure assessment and experiments were carried out to identify the leaching potential of ethinyl estradiol (EE) present in a vaginal contraceptive (NuvaRing) when disposed of in landfills...
  32. Jick S, Kaye J, Li L, Jick H. Further results on the risk of nonfatal venous thromboembolism in users of the contraceptive transdermal patch compared to users of oral contraceptives containing norgestimate and 35 microg of ethinyl estradiol. Contraception. 2007;76:4-7 pubmed
    In 2006, we published a study that indicated that the new transdermal contraceptive patch containing ethinyl estradiol (EE) and the progestin norelgestromin did not increase the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared to oral ..
  33. Blánquez P, Guieysse B. Continuous biodegradation of 17beta-estradiol and 17alpha-ethynylestradiol by Trametes versicolor. J Hazard Mater. 2008;150:459-62 pubmed
    ..8 and 7.3 mg l(-1), respectively. Evidence was found that removal was caused by laccase. This study demonstrates the technical feasibility of fungal treatment of estrogens using continuous bioreactor with suspended fungal biomass...
  34. Meendering J, Torgrimson B, Miller N, Kaplan P, Minson C. A combined oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 3.0 mg drospirenone does not impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Contraception. 2010;82:366-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethinyl estradiol (EE) increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation in young women, but certain progestins paired with EE in combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been shown to antagonize the vasodilatory effects of EE...
  35. Ucar S, Paterson W, Donaldson M, Young D. Ethinyl estradiol treatment for growth limitation in girls with Marfan's syndrome--experience from a single center. Endocr Res. 2009;34:109-20 pubmed publisher
    ..0 (2.1) years, mean (SD) height 155.0 (9.8) cm, and Tanner breast stage B1 in three and B2 in one. Ethinyl estradiol was administered in stepwise incremental regimens, starting at 10 microg/day and reaching 100 microg/day ..
  36. Samuelsson L, Förlin L, Karlsson G, Adolfsson Erici M, Larsson D. Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish. Aquat Toxicol. 2006;78:341-9 pubmed
    ..This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants. ..
  37. Yates M, Li Y, Chlebeck P, Offner H. GPR30, but not estrogen receptor-alpha, is crucial in the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by oral ethinyl estradiol. BMC Immunol. 2010;11:20 pubmed publisher
    ..that 17beta-estradiol can inhibit onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), while ethinyl estradiol (EE) can reduce the severity of established disease...
  38. Loughlin J, Seeger J, Eng P, Foegh M, Clifford C, Cutone J, et al. Risk of hyperkalemia in women taking ethinylestradiol/drospirenone and other oral contraceptives. Contraception. 2008;78:377-83 pubmed publisher
    The oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg/drospirenone 3 mg (EE/DRSP) contains a progestin component that possesses potassium-sparing diuretic activity similar to spironolactone...
  39. Cajthaml T, Křesinová Z, Svobodová K, Möder M. Biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting compounds and suppression of estrogenic activity by ligninolytic fungi. Chemosphere. 2009;75:745-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Attention was paid also to the effects of EDCs on the ligninolytic enzyme activities of the different fungi strains to evaluate their possible stimulation or suppression of activities during the biodegradation processes. ..
  40. Soares C, Arsenio H, Joffe H, Bankier B, Cassano P, Petrillo L, et al. Escitalopram versus ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone acetate for symptomatic peri- and postmenopausal women: impact on depression, vasomotor symptoms, sleep, and quality of life. Menopause. 2006;13:780-6 pubmed
    ..dose, 10-20 mg/day; fixed dose, 10 mg/day for the first 4 weeks) or estrogen plus progestogen therapy (ethinyl estradiol 5 microg/day plus norethindrone acetate 1 mg/day)...
  41. Franks S, Layton A, Glasier A. Cyproterone acetate/ethinyl estradiol for acne and hirsutism: time to revise prescribing policy. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:231-2 pubmed
    ..The combination of the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (2 mg) and ethinyl estradiol (35 microg) (co-cypridiol) is of proven efficacy in management of symptoms of both hyperandrogenism and ..
  42. Duijkers I, Klipping C, Grob P, Korver T. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17 beta-oestradiol on ovarian function in comparison to a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinylestradiol. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2010;15:314-25 pubmed publisher
    ..NOMAC/E2 achieves consistent ovulation inhibition, with suppressive effects on the ovaries at least similar to those of DRSP/EE. ..
  43. Dunne C, Malyuk D, Firoz T. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a woman using the etonogestrel-ethinyl estradiol vaginal contraceptive ring: a case report. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010;32:270-3 pubmed
    The vaginal contraceptive ring is a hormonal contraceptive that releases etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare but serious complication of hormonal contraceptive use...
  44. Lucky A, Koltun W, Thiboutot D, Niknian M, Sampson Landers C, Korner P, et al. A combined oral contraceptive containing 3-mg drospirenone/ 20-microg ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating lesion counts and participant self-assessment. Cutis. 2008;82:143-50 pubmed
    ..the efficacy of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 3-mg drospirenone and 20-microg ethinyl estradiol (3-mg DRSP/20-microg EE) administered in a 24-day active pill/4-day inert pill (24/4) regimen and placebo in ..
  45. Haiyan R, Shulan J, ud din Ahmad N, Dao W, Chengwu C. Degradation characteristics and metabolic pathway of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol by Sphingobacterium sp. JCR5. Chemosphere. 2007;66:340-6 pubmed
  46. Saaristo M, Craft J, Lehtonen K, Lindström K. Exposure to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol impairs courtship and aggressive behaviour of male sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus). Chemosphere. 2010;79:541-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to test how 1-4weeks exposure to 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2, 11ngL(-1)) affects nest building, courtship and aggressive behaviour of male fish...
  47. Trapnell C, Connolly M, Pentikis H, Forbes W, Bettenhausen D. Absence of effect of oral rifaximin on the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol/norgestimate in healthy females. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41:222-8 pubmed
    ..Some analogs induce the cytochrome P450 family of oxidative enzymes. Ethinyl estradiol (EE), commonly found in oral contraceptives (OCs), is a known CYP3A4 substrate...
  48. Pan B, Xing B. Competitive and complementary adsorption of bisphenol A and 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol on carbon nanomaterials. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:8338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) are different with regard to their hydrophobicity and molecular structures, and they were selected as ..
  49. Li H, Song Y, Peng X. Improved synthesis of mestranol and ethinyl estradiol (EE) related degradation products as authentic references. Steroids. 2008;73:488-94 pubmed publisher
    ..chemical methods for the synthesis of 10 degradation or photodecomposition products of mestranol and ethinyl estradiol (EE) are described...
  50. Cole J, Norman H, Doherty M, Walker A. Venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke among transdermal contraceptive system users. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109:339-46 pubmed
    ..contraceptive system users compared with users of norgestimate-containing oral contraceptives with 35 mcg ethinyl estradiol. We began with insurance claims data from UnitedHealthcare...
  51. Santos E, Paull G, Van Look K, Workman V, Holt W, van Aerle R, et al. Gonadal transcriptome responses and physiological consequences of exposure to oestrogen in breeding zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2007;83:134-42 pubmed
    ..The molecular mechanisms mediating some of these effects were identified and included those impacting processes central to gametogenesis in both males and females. ..
  52. Garcia Reyero N, Kroll K, Liu L, Orlando E, Watanabe K, Sepúlveda M, et al. Gene expression responses in male fathead minnows exposed to binary mixtures of an estrogen and antiestrogen. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:308 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that response to estrogens occurs via multiple mechanisms, including canonical binding to soluble estrogen receptors, membrane estrogen receptors, and other mechanisms that are not blocked by pure antiestrogens. ..
  53. Gaussem P, Alhenc Gelas M, Thomas J, Bachelot Loza C, Remones V, Ali F, et al. Haemostatic effects of a new combined oral contraceptive, nomegestrol acetate/17?-estradiol, compared with those of levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol. A double-blind, randomised study. Thromb Haemost. 2011;105:560-7 pubmed publisher
    Use of oral contraceptives (OC) that combine a progestogen with synthetic ethinyl estradiol (EE) is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism...