Summary: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.

Top Publications

  1. Dankers A, Sweep F, Pertijs J, Verweij V, van den Heuvel J, Koenderink J, et al. Localization of breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) in endocrine organs and inhibition of its transport activity by steroid hormones. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;349:551-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the interaction of various steroid hormones with human BCRP activity was studied...
  2. Scully S, Yan W, Bentley B, Cao Q, Shao R. Inhibitory activity of YKL-40 in mammary epithelial cell differentiation and polarization induced by lactogenic hormones: a role in mammary tissue involution. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25819 pubmed publisher
    ..in vivo, we grew a mammary epithelial cell line 76N MECs in a 3-D Matrigel system in the presence of lactogenic hormones including prolactin, hydrocortisone, and insulin...
  3. Riggs P, Vaida F, Rossi S, Sorkin L, Gouaux B, Grant I, et al. A pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men. Brain Res. 2012;1431:46-52 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there are no controlled observations directly linking THC to changes of most of the appetite hormones. We took the opportunity afforded by a placebo-controlled trial of smoked medicinal cannabis for HIV-associated ..
  4. Arora M, Yadav A, Saini V. Role of hormones in acne vulgaris. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:1035-1040 pubmed publisher
    To elucidate the role of endogenous hormones like testosterone, progesterone, estrogen, insulin-like growth factor, insulin and glucocorticoids in a common skin condition acne vulgaris...
  5. Gao Y, Ottaway N, Schriever S, Legutko B, García Cáceres C, de la Fuente E, et al. Hormones and diet, but not body weight, control hypothalamic microglial activity. Glia. 2014;62:17-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that diet type, adipokines, and gut signals, but not body weight, affect the presence and activity levels of hypothalamic microglia in obesity...
  6. Lucassen E, Zhao X, Rother K, Mattingly M, Courville A, De Jonge L, et al. Evening chronotype is associated with changes in eating behavior, more sleep apnea, and increased stress hormones in short sleeping obese individuals. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56519 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Evening types had more sleep apnea and higher stress hormones. Thus, eveningness in obese, chronically sleep-deprived individuals compounds the cardiovascular risk associated ..
  7. Steiger A, Dresler M, Kluge M, Schussler P. Pathology of sleep, hormones and depression. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2013;46 Suppl 1:S30-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect is absent in depressed patients who are at least 30 years old, and is probably related to elevated glucocorticoid levels. ..
  8. Mueller S. Magnetic resonance imaging in paediatric psychoneuroendocrinology: a new frontier for understanding the impact of hormones on emotion and cognition. J Neuroendocrinol. 2013;25:762-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Although an influence of steroid hormones on mood and anxiety disorders has been demonstrated in adults, very little is known about how steroid hormones ..
  9. Maggio M, Colizzi E, Fisichella A, Valenti G, Ceresini G, Dall Aglio E, et al. Stress hormones, sleep deprivation and cognition in older adults. Maturitas. 2013;76:22-44 pubmed publisher
    ..cause modification in hormonal balance with acute and chronic changes such as increase in cortisol and thyroid hormones, and simultaneous alterations in dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone and insulin like growth factor-1 ..

More Information


  1. Doyon W, Dong Y, Ostroumov A, Thomas A, Zhang T, Dani J. Nicotine decreases ethanol-induced dopamine signaling and increases self-administration via stress hormones. Neuron. 2013;79:530-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that nicotine recruits neuroendocrine systems to influence neurotransmission and behavior associated with alcohol reinforcement. ..
  2. Trotman H, Holtzman C, Ryan A, Shapiro D, Macdonald A, Goulding S, et al. The development of psychotic disorders in adolescence: a potential role for hormones. Horm Behav. 2013;64:411-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, gonadal and adrenal hormones are beginning to play a more prominent role in conceptualizations of adolescent brain development, as well as in ..
  3. Choi J, Min S, Kim Y, Choi J, Seo S, Chang S. Changes in pain perception and hormones pre- and post-kumdo competition. Horm Behav. 2013;64:618-23 pubmed publisher
    The psychological stress of competition is a powerful stimulus affecting numerous hormones, which in turn change how pain is perceived...
  4. Blair B, Crago J, Hedman C, Treguer R, Magruder C, Royer L, et al. Evaluation of a model for the removal of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and hormones from wastewater. Sci Total Environ. 2013;444:515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..were assessed from raw influent, primary effluent, secondary effluent, and final effluent for 54 PPCPs and hormones over six dates...
  5. Yan X, Chen Z, Sun J, Matsumura K, Wu R, Qian P. Transcriptomic analysis of neuropeptides and peptide hormones in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite: evidence of roles in larval settlement. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46513 pubmed publisher
    ..and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking...
  6. Persky V, Piorkowski J, Turyk M, Freels S, Chatterton R, Dimos J, et al. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant. Environ Health. 2012;11:57 pubmed
    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines...
  7. Slattery M, John E, Torres Mejía G, Lundgreen A, Herrick J, Baumgartner K, et al. Genetic variation in genes involved in hormones, inflammation and energetic factors and breast cancer risk in an admixed population. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:1512-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher Native American ancestry was associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Breast cancer risk differed by genetic ancestry along with genetic variation in genes involved in inflammation, insulin, and energy homeostasis. ..
  8. Almasi B, Roulin A, Korner Nievergelt F, Jenni Eiermann S, Jenni L. Coloration signals the ability to cope with elevated stress hormones: effects of corticosterone on growth of barn owls are associated with melanism. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:1189-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Stress hormones, mainly glucocorticoids, play an important orchestrating role in this trade-off...
  9. Armstrong S, Brickman T, Suhadolc R. Involvement of multiple distinct Bordetella receptor proteins in the utilization of iron liberated from transferrin by host catecholamine stress hormones. Mol Microbiol. 2012;84:446-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Catecholamine hormones also induce bfeA transcription and B...
  10. Armario A, Daviu N, Muñoz Abellán C, Rabasa C, Fuentes S, Belda X, et al. What can we know from pituitary-adrenal hormones about the nature and consequences of exposure to emotional stressors?. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2012;32:749-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Peripheral hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones (ACTH and corticosterone) are also able to reflect fear conditioning...
  11. Bartelt Hunt S, Snow D, Damon Powell T, Miesbach D. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities. J Contam Hydrol. 2011;123:94-103 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities...
  12. Modesitt S, Geffel D, Via J, L Weltman A. Morbidly obese women with and without endometrial cancer: are there differences in measured physical fitness, body composition, or hormones?. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;124:431-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives were to examine differences in activity, body composition, and hormones in overweight/obese women with and without endometrial cancer...
  13. Sikalidis A, Varamini B. Roles of hormones and signaling molecules in describing the relationship between obesity and colon cancer. Pathol Oncol Res. 2011;17:785-90 pubmed publisher
    ..A brief review of these hormones and signaling molecules and their action in colon cancer development is described...
  14. Singh M, Chaudhry P, Asselin E. Bridging endometrial receptivity and implantation: network of hormones, cytokines, and growth factors. J Endocrinol. 2011;210:5-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Implantation is a very intricate process, which is controlled by a number of complex molecules like hormones, cytokines, and growth factors and their cross talk...
  15. Behera S, Kim H, Oh J, Park H. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics, hormones and several other pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants of the largest industrial city of Korea. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:4351-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Occurrence and removal efficiencies of 20 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) including antibiotics, hormones, and several other miscellaneous pharmaceuticals (analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics, antihypertensives, ..
  16. Schouwers S, Brandt I, Willemse J, Van Regenmortel N, Uyttenbroeck W, Wauters A, et al. Influence of separator gel in Sarstedt S-Monovette® serum tubes on various therapeutic drugs, hormones, and proteins. Clin Chim Acta. 2012;413:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Later on statistically significant differences appeared but except for the stability of fT4 and transferrin they all remained clinically insignificant. ..
  17. Cooley A, Matthews L, Zelivianski S, Hardy A, Jeruss J. Effect of infertility treatment and pregnancy-related hormones on breast cell proliferation in vitro. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:146-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to hormones during infertility treatment may have a mutagenic effect on normal mammary epithelial cells, high-risk breast ..
  18. Rone M, Midzak A, Issop L, Rammouz G, Jagannathan S, Fan J, et al. Identification of a dynamic mitochondrial protein complex driving cholesterol import, trafficking, and metabolism to steroid hormones. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1868-82 pubmed publisher
    Steroid hormones are critical for organismal development and health...
  19. West D, Phillips S. Associations of exercise-induced hormone profiles and gains in strength and hypertrophy in a large cohort after weight training. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:2693-702 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that the acute exercise-induced systemic hormonal responses of cortisol and GH are weakly correlated with resistance training-induced changes in fibre CSA and LBM (cortisol only), but not with changes in strength. ..
  20. Gong R. The renaissance of corticotropin therapy in proteinuric nephropathies. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011;8:122-8 pubmed publisher
  21. Henley C, Nunez A, Clemens L. Hormones of choice: the neuroendocrinology of partner preference in animals. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2011;32:146-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Available data from rats, mice, and ferrets point to the importance of perinatal exposure to steroid hormones in the development of partner preferences, as well as the importance of activational effects in adulthood...
  22. Berenbaum S, Beltz A. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2011;32:183-200 pubmed publisher
    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species...
  23. Ulrich L. Endometrial cancer, types, prognosis, female hormones and antihormones. Climacteric. 2011;14:418-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, the different types of endometrial cancer, staging, prognosis, diagnosis, prevention, treatment and their relationship to estrogen and other female hormones are reviewed.
  24. Santos V, Nunes C, Pereira M, Gontijo N. Mechanisms of pH control in the midgut of Lutzomyia longipalpis: roles for ingested molecules and hormones. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:1411-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Aqueous extracts of midgut tissue containing putative hormones from intestinal endocrine cells slightly alkalized the midgut lumen when applied to dissected intestines, as did ..
  25. Hahn D. Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;172:423-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and ..
  26. Cortez M, Bueso Ramos C, Ferdin J, Lopez Berestein G, Sood A, Calin G. MicroRNAs in body fluids--the mix of hormones and biomarkers. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2011;8:467-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we explore the concept that miRNAs could function as hormones.
  27. Kalsbeek A, van der Spek R, Lei J, Endert E, Buijs R, Fliers E. Circadian rhythms in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;349:20-9 pubmed publisher
    The pronounced daily variation in the release of adrenal hormones has been at the heart of the deciphering and understanding of the circadian timing system...
  28. Shah K, Armamento Villareal R, Parimi N, Chode S, Sinacore D, Hilton T, et al. Exercise training in obese older adults prevents increase in bone turnover and attenuates decrease in hip bone mineral density induced by weight loss despite decline in bone-active hormones. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:2851-9 pubmed publisher
    ..addition of ET to weight loss therapy among obese older adults prevents weight loss-induced increase in bone turnover and attenuates weight loss-induced reduction in hip BMD despite weight loss-induced decrease in bone-active hormones.
  29. Guo S. The endometrial epigenome and its response to steroid hormones. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;358:185-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes are driven mainly by steroid hormones and orchestrated by a myriad of genes - many of which have been identified recently as being epigenetically ..
  30. Jones B, Tan T, Bloom S. Minireview: Glucagon in stress and energy homeostasis. Endocrinology. 2012;153:1049-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings seem more in keeping with glucagon having some role as a hormone enhancing the response to stress. ..
  31. Yusuf J, Khan M, Cheema Y, Bhattacharya S, Weber K. Disturbances in calcium metabolism and cardiomyocyte necrosis: the role of calcitropic hormones. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2012;55:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in cardiomyocytes these calcitropic hormones concurrently promote cytosolic free [Ca(2+)](i) and mitochondrial [Ca(2+)](m) overloading...
  32. Banks W. Brain meets body: the blood-brain barrier as an endocrine interface. Endocrinology. 2012;153:4111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this does not prevent hormones from entering the brain, but shifts the main control of entry to the BBB...
  33. Dicembrini I, Mannucci E, Rotella C. Bone: incretin hormones perceiver or receiver?. Exp Diabetes Res. 2012;2012:519784 pubmed publisher
    ..In the last few years, the interest on the relationship of gut hormones with bone metabolism in diabetes has been increasing...
  34. Diaz Guerra E, Lillo M, Santamaría S, Garcia Sanz J. Intrinsic cues and hormones control mouse mammary epithelial tree size. FASEB J. 2012;26:3844-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism might have strong implications for the understanding of mammary tumorigenesis, since the expansion of the mammary stem cell pool precedes the generation of breast tumors. ..
  35. Ying S, Wang Z, Wang C, Nie H, He D, Jia R, et al. Effect of different levels of short-term feed intake on folliculogenesis and follicular fluid and plasma concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, and hormones in Hu sheep during the luteal phase. Reproduction. 2011;142:699-710 pubmed publisher
    ..This may not be due to the variation of intrafollicular insulin level but rather due to decreased circulating levels of glucose, insulin, and glucagon. ..
  36. Stange D, Sieratowicz A, Horres R, Oehlmann J. Freshwater mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) estrogen receptor: identification and expression analysis under exposure to (xeno-)hormones. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012;75:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..antipodarum and to investigate if this receptor is differentially expressed under exposure to (xeno-)hormones (17?-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A and 17?-methyltestosterone)...
  37. Camacho L, Latendresse J, Muskhelishvili L, Patton R, Bowyer J, Thomas M, et al. Effects of acrylamide exposure on serum hormones, gene expression, cell proliferation, and histopathology in male reproductive tissues of Fischer 344 rats. Toxicol Lett. 2012;211:135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..AA caused significant changes in serum hormones, histopathology, testicular gene expression, and cell proliferation, especially at the highest dose...