proton pump inhibitors


Summary: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.

Top Publications

  1. Tornese G, Maschio M, Marchetti F, Ventura A. To GERD or not to GERD, this is the question. J Pediatr. 2009;155:601; author reply 601-2 pubmed publisher
  2. Li M, Li Q, Sun M, Liu L. Comparative effectiveness and acceptability of the FDA-licensed proton pump inhibitors for erosive esophagitis: A PRISMA-compliant network meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8120 pubmed publisher
    ..compared the effectiveness and acceptability of all Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended dose proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in erosive esophagitis (EE): Dexlansoprazole 60?mg, Esomeprazole 40?mg, Esomeprazole 20?mg, ..
  3. Freedberg D, Kim L, Yang Y. The Risks and Benefits of Long-term Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors: Expert Review and Best Practice Advice From the American Gastroenterological Association. Gastroenterology. 2017;152:706-715 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the risks associated with long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), focusing on long-term use of PPIs for three common indications: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's ..
  4. Prag C, Prag M, Fredlund H. Proton pump inhibitors as a risk factor for norovirus infection. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:1617-1623 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce gastric acidity, which is an important protection against microorganisms...
  5. Jankowski J, Barr H, Wang K, Delaney B. Diagnosis and management of Barrett's oesophagus. BMJ. 2010;341:c4551 pubmed publisher
  6. Imaeda T, Ono K, Nakai K, Hori Y, Matsukawa J, Takagi T, et al. Discovery, synthesis, and structure-activity relations of 3,4-dihydro-1H-spiro(naphthalene-2,2'-piperidin)-1-ones as potassium-competitive acid blockers. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:3719-3735 pubmed publisher
    With the aim to discover a gastric antisecretory agent more potent than the existing proton pump inhibitors, novel 3,4-dihydro-1H-spiro(naphthalene-2,2'-piperidin)-1-one derivatives, which could occupy two important lipophilic pockets (..
  7. Furuta G, Katzka D. Eosinophilic Esophagitis. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:1640-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Nishida H, Arikawa Y, Hirase K, Imaeda T, Inatomi N, Hori Y, et al. Identification of a novel fluoropyrrole derivative as a potassium-competitive acid blocker with long duration of action. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:3298-3314 pubmed publisher
    ..long-lasting potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB) that would perfectly overcome the limitations of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), we tried various approaches based on pyrrole derivative 1b as a lead compound...
  9. Klepser D, Collier D, Cochran G. Proton pump inhibitors and acute kidney injury: a nested case-control study. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:150 pubmed publisher
    b>Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are a widely-used class of drugs for the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and other acid-related disorders of the gastrointestinal tract...

More Information


  1. Johnson D, Oldfield E. Reported side effects and complications of long-term proton pump inhibitor use: dissecting the evidence. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;11:458-64; quiz e37-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Lokeshwari D, Rekha N, Srinivasan B, Vivek H, Kariyappa A. Design, synthesis of novel furan appended benzothiazepine derivatives and in vitro biological evaluation as potent VRV-PL-8a and H+/K+ ATPase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:3048-3054 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding presents a promising series of lead molecules that can serve as prototypes for the treatment of inflammatory related disorder that can mitigate the ulcer inducing side effect shown by other NSAIDs. ..
  3. Vanclooster A, van Deursen C, Jaspers R, Cassiman D, Koek G. Proton Pump Inhibitors Decrease Phlebotomy Need in HFE Hemochromatosis: Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Gastroenterology. 2017;153:678-680.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Retrospective studies have suggested proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce the need for phlebotomy in this population...
  4. Tanabe H, Ando K, Sato K, Ito T, Goto M, Sato T, et al. Efficacy of Vonoprazan-Based Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Multicenter Study and a Review of the Literature. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:3069-3076 pubmed publisher
    ..Vonoprazan-based triple therapy was effective and safe for Helicobacter pylori eradication in real-world experience, confirmed by a multicenter study and a review of the pertinent literature. ..
  5. Leandro J, Beato J, Pedrosa A, Pinheiro Costa J, Falcão M, Falcao Reis F, et al. The Charles Bonnet Syndrome in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Association With Proton Pump Inhibitors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4138-4142 pubmed publisher
    ..CBS) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and analyze the role of oral proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and other potential risk factors...
  6. Martinucci I, Blandizzi C, Bodini G, Marabotto E, Savarino V, Marchi S, et al. Vonoprazan fumarate for the management of acid-related diseases. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2017;18:1145-1152 pubmed publisher
    b>Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) display a number of limitations and unmet clinical needs that have prompted the development of novel drugs to improve the outcomes of acid-related diseases, including the eradication of H. pylori...
  7. Lanas Gimeno A, Lanas A. Risk of gastrointestinal bleeding during anticoagulant treatment. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2017;16:673-685 pubmed publisher
    ..upper GIB has decreased with the decreased incidence of peptic ulcers due to the broad use of proton pump inhibitors and the decreased prevalence of H. pylori infections...
  8. Othman F, Crooks C, Card T. Community acquired pneumonia incidence before and after proton pump inhibitor prescription: population based study. BMJ. 2016;355:i5813 pubmed publisher
    ..91, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.99).Conclusion The association between the use of PPIs and risk of community acquired pneumonia is likely to be due entirely to confounding factors. ..
  9. Naito M, Yamamoto T, Shimamoto C, Miwa Y. Retrospective Analysis of the Risk Factors for Grade IV Neutropenia in Oesophageal Cancer Patients Treated with a Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil Regimen. Chemotherapy. 2017;62:215-224 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and 88.2%, respectively). Our findings suggest that a platelet count is the most significant predictor of grade IV neutropenia. ..
  10. McPartlin A, Swaminath A, Wang R, Pintilie M, Brierley J, Kim J, et al. Long-Term Outcomes of Phase 1 and 2 Studies of SBRT for Hepatic Colorectal Metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2017;99:388-395 pubmed publisher
    ..Survival was associated with smaller tumor volume, absence of extrahepatic disease, performance status of 0 or 1, and local control of treated liver lesions. ..
  11. Talley N, Ford A. Functional Dyspepsia. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:1853-63 pubmed publisher
  12. Park H, Park Y, Kim J, Lee H, Kim H, Ahn C, et al. Effectiveness of proton pump inhibitor in unexplained chronic cough. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185397 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effectiveness and appropriate dose of PPI therapy in chronic cough...
  13. Chandra S, Agarwal D, Surana A. Risk of Clostridium difficile infection with acid-suppressive therapy; pitfalls in accurate estimation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:277-8 pubmed publisher
  14. Davies I, Burman Roy S, Murphy M. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in children: NICE guidance. BMJ. 2015;350:g7703 pubmed publisher
  15. Hsu P, Tsai F, Kao S, Hsu W, Cheng J, Peng N, et al. Ten-Day Quadruple Therapy Comprising Proton Pump Inhibitor, Bismuth, Tetracycline, and Levofloxacin is More Effective than Standard Levofloxacin Triple Therapy in the Second-Line Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Randomized Controlled Tri. Am J Gastroenterol. 2017;112:1374-1381 pubmed publisher
    ..0% vs. 52.6%; P=0.003). Ten-day PPI-bismuth-tetracycline-levofloxacin quadruple therapy is a good option for rescue treatment of H. pylori infection following failure of standard triple or non-bismuth quadruple therapy. ..
  16. Abraham N, Hlatky M, Antman E, Bhatt D, Bjorkman D, Clark C, et al. ACCF/ACG/AHA 2010 expert consensus document on the concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors and thienopyridines: a focused update of the ACCF/ACG/AHA 2008 expert consensus document on reducing the gastrointestinal risks of antiplatelet therapy and N. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:2051-66 pubmed publisher
  17. Pesek R, Rettiganti M, O Brien E, Beckwith S, Daniel C, Luo C, et al. Effects of allergen sensitization on response to therapy in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017;119:177-183 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies are needed to further understand the effect of environmental allergens on EoE. identifier: NCT01779154. ..
  18. Regolisti G, Cabassi A, Parenti E, Maggiore U, Fiaccadori E. Severe hypomagnesemia during long-term treatment with a proton pump inhibitor. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;56:168-74 pubmed publisher
  19. Ramsay E, Pratt N, Ryan P, Roughead E. Proton pump inhibitors and the risk of pneumonia: a comparison of cohort and self-controlled case series designs. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013;13:82 pubmed publisher series (SCCS) design using the risk of hospitalisation for pneumonia in those dispensed proton pump inhibitors compared to those unexposed as a case study...
  20. García Rayado G, Sostres C, Lanas A. Aspirin and omeprazole for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients at risk for aspirin-associated gastric ulcers. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017;10:875-888 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, some adverse effects have been described with proton pump inhibitors long term use...
  21. Saleh L, Samantar R, Garrelds I, van den Meiracker A, Visser W, Danser A. Low Soluble Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1, Endoglin, and Endothelin-1 Levels in Women With Confirmed or Suspected Preeclampsia Using Proton Pump Inhibitors. Hypertension. 2017;70:594-600 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) decrease trophoblast sFlt-1 and endoglin secretion in vitro...
  22. Lau Y, Gu W, Lin T, Viraswami Appanna K, Cai C, Scott J, et al. Assessment of drug-drug interaction potential between ceritinib and proton pump inhibitors in healthy subjects and in patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017;79:1119-1128 pubmed publisher
    The impact of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy of ceritinib was evaluated...
  23. Zhang D, Ke L, Ni Z, Chen Y, Zhang L, Zhu S, et al. Berberine containing quadruple therapy for initial Helicobacter pylori eradication: An open-label randomized phase IV trial. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7697 pubmed publisher
    ..The berberine-containing quadruple regimen was not inferior to bismuth-containing quadruple regimen and can be recommended as an alternative regimen for H pylori eradication in the local region. ..
  24. Kagolanu D, Sayedy N, Haseeb S, Shah S, Lam P, Munnangi S, et al. Usefulness of PA32540 in Protecting the Gastric Layer While Providing Secondary Prevention for Coronary Artery Disease. Am J Cardiol. 2017;120:1118-1121 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PA32540 could be an effective therapy for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease as studies are showing similar efficacy in preventing MACE with reduced GI side effects. ..
  25. Katz M. Failing the acid test: benefits of proton pump inhibitors may not justify the risks for many users. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:747-8 pubmed publisher
  26. Griswold M, Localio A, Mulrow C. Propensity score adjustment with multilevel data: setting your sites on decreasing selection bias. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:393-5 pubmed publisher
  27. Bi Y, Might M, Vankayalapati H, Kuberan B. Repurposing of Proton Pump Inhibitors as first identified small molecule inhibitors of endo-?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase) for the treatment of NGLY1 deficiency, a rare genetic disease. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:2962-2966 pubmed publisher
    ..Several Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs), a series of substituted 1H-benzo [d] imidazole, and 1H-imidazo [4,5-b] pyridines, among other ..
  28. Raghu G. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: increased survival with "gastroesophageal reflux therapy": fact or fallacy?. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184:1330-2 pubmed publisher
  29. Camiré E, Moyen E, Stelfox H. Medication errors in critical care: risk factors, prevention and disclosure. CMAJ. 2009;180:936-43 pubmed publisher
  30. Taddio A, Bersanini C, Basile L, Fontana M, Ventura A. Gastroesophageal reflux disease at any cost: a dangerous paediatric attitude. Acta Paediatr. 2011;100:e178-80 pubmed publisher
  31. Kapur S, Barbhaiya C, Deneke T, Michaud G. Esophageal Injury and Atrioesophageal Fistula Caused by Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation. Circulation. 2017;136:1247-1255 pubmed publisher
    ..Outcomes for esophageal stenting are poor in AEF. Aggressive intervention with skilled cardiac and thoracic surgeons may improve chances of stroke-free survival for all types of esophageal perforation. ..
  32. Mahoney L, Nurko S, Rosen R. The Prevalence of Rome IV Nonerosive Esophageal Phenotypes in Children. J Pediatr. 2017;189:86-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional heartburn is the most common Rome IV nonerosive esophageal phenotype in children. Neither microscopic esophagitis nor PPI responsiveness can predict phenotype in pediatric patients. ..
  33. Naunton M, Peterson G, Bleasel M. Overuse of proton pump inhibitors. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2000;25:333-40 pubmed
    There have been concerns raised about the potential adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors, especially with long-term use...
  34. Goldstein F, Steenland K, Zhao L, Wharton W, Levey A, Hajjar I. Proton Pump Inhibitors and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017;65:1969-1974 pubmed publisher
    To examine the risk associated with the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) of conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD). Observational, longitudinal study...
  35. Kim J, Lim K, Min Y, Lee H, Min B, Rhee P, et al. Proton pump inhibitors do not increase the risk for recurrent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;32:1064-1070 pubmed publisher
  36. Abdelfatah M, Nayfe R, El Zoghbi M, Gallegos P, Shill M, Kandil H. Proton pump inhibitors impact on post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2015;44:680-1 pubmed publisher
  37. Eisa N, Bazerbachi F, Alraiyes A, Alraies M. Q: do all hospitalized patients need stress ulcer prophylaxis?. Cleve Clin J Med. 2014;81:23-5 pubmed publisher
  38. Gold B, Pilmer B, Kierkus J, Hunt B, Perez M, Gremse D. Dexlansoprazole for Heartburn Relief in Adolescents with Symptomatic, Nonerosive Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:3059-3068 pubmed publisher
    b>Proton pump inhibitors are commonly used to treat gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and nonerosive GERD (NERD) in adolescents and adults...
  39. Vange P, Bruland T, Doseth B, Fossmark R, Sousa M, Beisvag V, et al. The cytoprotective protein clusterin is overexpressed in hypergastrinemic rodent models of oxyntic preneoplasia and promotes gastric cancer cell survival. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184514 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results indicate that clusterin is overexpressed in hypergastrinemic rodent models of oxyntic preneoplasia and stimulates gastric cancer cell survival. ..
  40. Freedberg D, Salmasian H, Abrams J, Green R. Orders for intravenous proton pump inhibitors after implementation of an electronic alert. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175:452-4 pubmed publisher
  41. Sherwood M, Melloni C, Jones W, Washam J, Hasselblad V, Dolor R. Individual Proton Pump Inhibitors and Outcomes in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease on Dual Antiplatelet Therapy: A Systematic Review. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    Observational studies evaluating the possible interaction between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and clopidogrel have shown mixed results...
  42. Ishimura N, Ishihara S, Kinoshita Y. Sustained Acid Suppression by Potassium-Competitive Acid Blocker (P-CAB) May Be An Attractive Treatment Candidate for Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016;111:1203-4 pubmed publisher
  43. Clausen J, Kjellerup L, Cohrt K, Hansen J, Dalby Brown W, Winther A. Elucidation of antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action by N-substituted carbazole derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:4564-4570 pubmed publisher
  44. Zhou W, Jia L, Chen D, Liu Y, Liu J, Jiang S, et al. The effects of paroxetine and amitriptyline on the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure and its natural history in globus pharyngeus. Dig Liver Dis. 2017;49:757-763 pubmed publisher
    ..Apart from the clinical benefits, paroxetine and amitriptyline can potentially decrease UES pressure. ..
  45. Maruyama M, Tanaka N, Kubota D, Miyajima M, Kimura T, Tokutake K, et al. Vonoprazan-Based Regimen Is More Useful than PPI-Based One as a First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;2017:4385161 pubmed publisher
    ..3% in VPZ group versus 37.7% in PPI group, P = 0.15). Conclusion. VPZ-based regimen is more useful than that PPI-based regimen as a first-line H. pylori eradication therapy. ..
  46. Spechler S, Sharma P, Souza R, Inadomi J, Shaheen N. American Gastroenterological Association technical review on the management of Barrett's esophagus. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:e18-52; quiz e13 pubmed publisher
  47. Ksiądzyna D, Szelag A, Paradowski L. Overuse of proton pump inhibitors. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2015;125:289-98 pubmed
    b>Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the most effective drugs inhibiting hydrochloric acid secretion...
  48. Yamada A, Niikura R, Maki K, Nakamura M, Watabe H, Fujishiro M, et al. Proton pump inhibitor therapy did not increase the prevalence of small-bowel injury: A propensity-matched analysis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182586 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have reported that the suppression of acid secretion by using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) results in dysbiosis of the small-bowel microbiota, leading to exacerbated small-bowel injuries, including erosions and ulcers...
  49. Corbet C, Feron O. Tumour acidosis: from the passenger to the driver's seat. Nat Rev Cancer. 2017;17:577-593 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, recent advances in the different therapeutic modalities aiming to either block pH-regulatory systems or exploit acidosis will be discussed. ..
  50. Lochhead P, Hagan K, Joshi A, Khalili H, Nguyen L, Grodstein F, et al. Association Between Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Cognitive Function in Women. Gastroenterology. 2017;153:971-979.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data do not support the suggestion that PPI use increases dementia risk. Because our primary hypothesis related to PPI use, our findings for H2RAs should be interpreted with caution. ..
  51. Vaezi M, Yang Y, Howden C. Complications of Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy. Gastroenterology. 2017;153:35-48 pubmed publisher
    Safety issues associated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have recently attracted widespread media and lay attention. Gastroenterologists are frequently asked about the appropriateness of PPI therapy for specific patients...
  52. Kinoshita Y, Hongo M, Kusano M, Furuhata Y, Miyagishi H, Ikeuchi S. Therapeutic Response to Twice-daily Rabeprazole on Health-related Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients with Refractory Reflux Esophagitis: A Multicenter Observational Study. Intern Med. 2017;56:1131-1139 pubmed publisher
    ..Conclusion Twice-daily treatment with rabeprazole improved the subjective symptoms and health-related quality of life in patients with refractory reflux esophagitis more effectively than the standard once-daily dose. ..
  53. Lucendo A, Arias A, González Cervera J, Olalla J, Molina Infante J. Dual response to dietary/topical steroid and proton pump inhibitor therapy in adult patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137:931-4.e2 pubmed publisher