trypsin inhibitors


Summary: Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.

Top Publications

  1. Cheung A, Ng T. Isolation and characterization of a trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor from the seeds of green lentil (Lens culinaris). Protein Pept Lett. 2007;14:859-64 pubmed
    ..There was no suppressive action on several fungal species including Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. It slightly inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, with an IC50 of 30 mM...
  2. Lahti J, Silverman A, Cochran J. Interrogating and predicting tolerated sequence diversity in protein folds: application to E. elaterium trypsin inhibitor-II cystine-knot miniprotein. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000499 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that the combination of directed evolution with sequence and covariance analyses can be a powerful tool for rational protein engineering...
  3. Patil D, Chaudhary A, Sharma A, Tomar S, Kumar P. Structural basis for dual inhibitory role of tamarind Kunitz inhibitor (TKI) against factor Xa and trypsin. FEBS J. 2012;279:4547-64 pubmed publisher
  4. Manship B, Walker A, Jones L, Davies A. Blood feeding in juvenile Paragnathia formica (Isopoda: Gnathiidae): biochemical characterization of trypsin inhibitors, detection of anticoagulants, and molecular identification of fish hosts. Parasitology. 2012;139:744-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Three trypsin inhibitors (18 kDa, 21 kDa, and 22 kDa) were also detected using reverse zymography...
  5. Mannocci L, Melkko S, Buller F, Molnàr I, Bianké J, Dumelin C, et al. Isolation of potent and specific trypsin inhibitors from a DNA-encoded chemical library. Bioconjug Chem. 2010;21:1836-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that DNA-encoded libraries can be used for the facile "affinity maturation" of suboptimal binding compounds, thus facilitating drug development. ..
  6. Nakajima S, Hira T, Tsubata M, Takagaki K, Hara H. Potato extract (Potein) suppresses food intake in rats through inhibition of luminal trypsin activity and direct stimulation of cholecystokinin secretion from enteroendocrine cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:9491-6 pubmed publisher
    Dietary proteins and trypsin inhibitors are known to stimulate the secretion of the satiety hormone cholecystokinin (CCK). A potato extract (Potein) contains 60% carbohydrate and 20% protein including trypsin inhibitory proteins...
  7. Chan L, Wang C, Major J, Greenwood K, Lewis R, Craik D, et al. Isolation and characterization of peptides from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:1453-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the cell lines tested, MCoCC-1 is the most toxic against a human melanoma cell line (MM96L) and is nonhemolytic to human erythrocytes. The role of these peptides within the plant remains to be determined...
  8. Koga Y, Fujita M, Tsuruta R, Koda Y, Nakahara T, Yagi T, et al. Urinary trypsin inhibitor suppresses excessive superoxide anion radical generation in blood, oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial injury in forebrain ischemia/reperfusion rats. Neurol Res. 2010;32:925-32 pubmed publisher
    ..UTI suppressed jugular venous O??· generation, oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial activation in FBI/R rats. Therefore, UTI might be a useful agent for the therapy of the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion pathophysiology. ..
  9. Seo J, Lim J, Yoon J, Kim H. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediates the expression of integrin alpha5 and beta1 in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial AGS cells. Digestion. 2009;80:40-9 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. PAR2 may have an important role in gastric cell adhesion and possibly carcinogenesis associated with H. pylori. ..

More Information


  1. Kimura R, Levin A, Cochran F, Cochran J. Engineered cystine knot peptides that bind alphavbeta3, alphavbeta5, and alpha5beta1 integrins with low-nanomolar affinity. Proteins. 2009;77:359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data validate EETI-II as a scaffold for protein engineering, and highlight the development of unique integrin-binding peptides with potential for translational applications in cancer...
  2. Kawamura K, Yamada T, Kurihara K, Tamada T, Kuroki R, Tanaka I, et al. X-ray and neutron protein crystallographic analysis of the trypsin-BPTI complex. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2011;67:140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the first neutron crystallographic structure of the Michaelis complex state of trypsin-BPTI is presented...
  3. de Paula C, Coulson Thomas V, Ferreira J, Maza P, Suzuki E, Nakahata A, et al. Enterolobium contortisiliquum trypsin inhibitor (EcTI), a plant proteinase inhibitor, decreases in vitro cell adhesion and invasion by inhibition of Src protein-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:170-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that EcTI inhibits the invasion of gastric cancer cells through alterations in integrin-dependent cell signaling pathways. ..
  4. Dirksen A, Piitulainen E, Parr D, Deng C, Wencker M, Shaker S, et al. Exploring the role of CT densitometry: a randomised study of augmentation therapy in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Eur Respir J. 2009;33:1345-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with alpha(1)-AT deficiency, CT is a more sensitive outcome measure of emphysema-modifying therapy than physiology and health status, and demonstrates a trend of treatment benefit from alpha(1)-AT augmentation. ..
  5. Chen Z, Hu Y, Yang W, He Y, Feng J, Wang B, et al. Hg1, novel peptide inhibitor specific for Kv1.3 channels from first scorpion Kunitz-type potassium channel toxin family. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:13813-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to their function as trypsin inhibitors with dissociation constants of 140 nM for recombinant LmKTT-1a, 160 nM for LmKTT-1b, 124 nM for LmKTT-1c, ..
  6. Smith M, Kocher H, Hunt B. Aprotinin in severe acute pancreatitis. Int J Clin Pract. 2010;64:84-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesise that a well-powered study with adequate aprotinin dosing may clarify its clinical benefit in severe acute pancreatitis. ..
  7. Yuan C, He Q, Peng K, Diao J, Jiang L, Tang X, et al. Discovery of a distinct superfamily of Kunitz-type toxin (KTT) from tarantulas. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3414 pubmed publisher
  8. Ye X, Ng T. A trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor with antiproliferative activity from small glossy black soybeans. Planta Med. 2009;75:550-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It exhibited an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors. It inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 0...
  9. Uemura K, Murakami Y, Hayashidani Y, Sudo T, Hashimoto Y, Ohge H, et al. Randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy of ulinastatin for postoperative pancreatitis following pancreaticoduodenectomy. J Surg Oncol. 2008;98:309-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Prophylactic administration of ulinastatin reduced the levels of serum and drain amylase and the incidence of postoperative pancreatitis following pancreaticoduodenectomy. ..
  10. Noguchi H, Ueda M, Hayashi S, Kobayashi N, Okitsu T, Iwanaga Y, et al. Comparison of trypsin inhibitors in preservation solution for islet isolation. Cell Transplant. 2009;18:541-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that ET-Kyoto with ulinastatin was the better combination for pancreas preservation than ET-Kyoto with Pefabloc. Based on these data, we now use ET-Kyoto solution with ulinastatin for clinical islet transplantation. ..
  11. Sun Z, Yu T, Chen J, Sun X, Gao F, Zhao X, et al. Effects of ulinastatin and cyclophosphamide on the growth of xenograft breast cancer and expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in cancers. J Int Med Res. 2010;38:967-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, both UTI and CTX can significantly inhibit xenograft tumours, and the UTI + CTX combination exhibited an additive effect that was superior to both CTX and UTI monotherapy. ..
  12. Komarnytsky S, Cook A, Raskin I. Potato protease inhibitors inhibit food intake and increase circulating cholecystokinin levels by a trypsin-dependent mechanism. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011;35:236-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provided evidence that PPIC is effective in reducing food intake and body weight gain in healthy rats when administered orally by increasing circulating CCK levels through a trypsin-dependent mechanism. ..
  13. Nakahata A, Mayer B, Ries C, de Paula C, Karow M, Neth P, et al. The effects of a plant proteinase inhibitor from Enterolobium contortisiliquum on human tumor cell lines. Biol Chem. 2011;392:327-36 pubmed publisher
  14. Zhao R, Dai H, Qiu S, Li T, He Y, Ma Y, et al. SdPI, the first functionally characterized Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from scorpion venom. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27548 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, SdPI is the first functionally characterized Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor derived from scorpion venom, and it represents a new class of Kunitz-type venom peptides. ..
  15. Schwarzenberger A, Kuster C, von Elert E. Molecular mechanisms of tolerance to cyanobacterial protease inhibitors revealed by clonal differences in Daphnia magna. Mol Ecol. 2012;21:4898-911 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon exposure to dietary trypsin inhibitors, all D. magna genotypes showed increased gene expression of digestive trypsins and chymotrypsins...
  16. Junker Y, Zeissig S, Kim S, Barisani D, Wieser H, Leffler D, et al. Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors drive intestinal inflammation via activation of toll-like receptor 4. J Exp Med. 2012;209:2395-408 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify the ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) CM3 and 0...
  17. Li Y, Zhang Z, Wang Z, Wang H, Zhang L, Zhu L. rBTI induces apoptosis in human solid tumor cell lines by loss in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and caspase activation. Toxicol Lett. 2009;189:166-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that rBTI can induce the apoptosis in several types of human solid tumor cells and promotes apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. ..
  18. Cheung A, Wong J, Ng T. Trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitors from Vigna mungo seeds. Protein Pept Lett. 2009;16:277-84 pubmed
    ..Two of the inhibitors slightly inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, with an IC50 in the millimolar range. ..
  19. Cemazar M, Daly N, Häggblad S, Lo K, Yulyaningsih E, Craik D. Knots in rings. The circular knotted protein Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor-II folds via a stable two-disulfide intermediate. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:8224-32 pubmed
    ..cyclized protein was found to be similar to that of linear cystine knot proteins from the squash family of trypsin inhibitors. However, the pathway differs in an important way from that of the cyclotide kalata B1, in that the ..
  20. Kowalska J, Pszczoła K, Wilimowska Pelc A, Lorenc Kubis I, Zuziak E, Ługowski M, et al. Trypsin inhibitors from the garden four o'clock (Mirabilis jalapa) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) seeds: isolation, characterization and chemical synthesis. Phytochemistry. 2007;68:1487-96 pubmed
    Five serine proteinase inhibitors (Mirabilis jalapa trypsin inhibitors, MJTI I and II and Spinacia oleracea trypsin inhibitors, SOTI I, II, and III) from the garden four-o'clock (M. jalapa) and spinach (S. oleracea) seeds were isolated...
  21. Yakoby N, Raskin I. A simple method to determine trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2004;59:241-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, the modified method represents a significant improvement in speed, sensitivity and reproducibility over the gel activity method. ..
  22. do Socorro M Cavalcanti M, Oliva M, Fritz H, Jochum M, Mentele R, Sampaio M, et al. Characterization of a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor with one disulfide bridge purified from Swartzia pickellii. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;291:635-9 pubmed
    ..Three forms of SWTI were actually defined: two glycosylated forms a 20,204 kDa (Arg 165) and 20,185 kDa (His 165) and one deglycosylated form 19,016 kDa (Arg 165), all of them contain a Met residue at position 130. ..
  23. Foissac X, Edwards M, Du J, Gatehouse A, Gatehouse J. Putative protein digestion in a sap-sucking homopteran plant pest (rice brown plant hopper; Nilaparvata lugens: Delphacidae)--identification of trypsin-like and cathepsin B-like proteases. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;32:967-78 pubmed
    ..Breed. 5 (1999) 1). It is suggested that digestive proteolysis may be widespread in sap-sucking homoptera, and can make a significant contribution to nutrition. ..
  24. Zavala J, Patankar A, Gase K, Hui D, Baldwin I. Manipulation of endogenous trypsin proteinase inhibitor production in Nicotiana attenuata demonstrates their function as antiherbivore defenses. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:1181-90 pubmed
    ..T. notatus showed higher preference for genotypes with low or no TPI activity than for genotypes with high TPI levels. We conclude that endogenous TPIs are an effective defense against these native herbivores. ..
  25. Szmola R, Kukor Z, Sahin Toth M. Human mesotrypsin is a unique digestive protease specialized for the degradation of trypsin inhibitors. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:48580-9 pubmed enigmatic minor human trypsin isoform, which has been recognized for its peculiar resistance to natural trypsin inhibitors such as soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) or human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (SPINK1)...
  26. Craik D, Daly N, Mulvenna J, Plan M, Trabi M. Discovery, structure and biological activities of the cyclotides. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2004;5:297-315 pubmed
    ..Because of their highly stable peptide framework they might make useful templates in drug design programs, and their insecticidal activity opens the possibility of applications in crop protection. ..
  27. Cai M, Gong Y, Wen L, Krishnamoorthi R. Correlation of binding-loop internal dynamics with stability and function in potato I inhibitor family: relative contributions of Arg(50) and Arg(52) in Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V as studied by site-directed mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 2002;41:9572-9 pubmed
  28. Jassbi A, Gase K, Hettenhausen C, Schmidt A, Baldwin I. Silencing geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase in Nicotiana attenuata dramatically impairs resistance to tobacco hornworm. Plant Physiol. 2008;146:974-86 pubmed
    ..We conclude that HGL-DTGs or other minor undetected diterpenoids derived from GGPP function as direct defenses for N. attenuata and are more potent than nicotine or trypsin protease inhibitors against attack by hornworm larvae. ..
  29. Bhattacharyya A, Rai S, Babu C. A trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor from Caesalpinia bonduc seeds: isolation, partial characterization and insecticidal properties. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2007;45:169-77 pubmed
    ..75 x 10(-10)M and 0.95 x 10(-10)M against trypsin and chymotrypsin activity respectively. Preliminary investigations on the toxicological nature of CbTI revealed it to be a promising bioinsecticidal candidate...
  30. Kang J, Wang L, Giri A, Baldwin I. Silencing threonine deaminase and JAR4 in Nicotiana attenuata impairs jasmonic acid-isoleucine-mediated defenses against Manduca sexta. Plant Cell. 2006;18:3303-20 pubmed
    ..6 mumol) of JA-Ile treatment suggests that TD's defensive role can be attributed more to signaling than to antinutritive defense. ..
  31. Nishiyama T, Yokoyama T, Yamashita K. Effects of a protease inhibitor, ulinastatin, on coagulation and fibrinolysis in abdominal surgery. J Anesth. 2006;20:179-82 pubmed
    ..AT was decreased in the control group but not in the ulinastatin group, with significant differences between the two groups. Ulinastatin could inhibit coagulation and fibrinolysis in abdominal surgery. ..
  32. Volpicella M, Ceci L, Cordewener J, America T, Gallerani R, Bode W, et al. Properties of purified gut trypsin from Helicoverpa zea, adapted to proteinase inhibitors. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:10-9 pubmed
    ..The same inhibitors inhibited HzTrypsin-C with apparent equilibrium dissociation constants ranging from 1 nm to 30 nm. Thus, HzTrypsin-S seems to allow the insect to overcome different defensive proteinase inhibitors in plants. ..
  33. Bell H, Fitches E, Down R, Ford L, Marris G, Edwards J, et al. Effect of dietary cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) on the growth and development of the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and on the success of the gregarious ectoparasitoid Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2001;57:57-65 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in relation to the potential impact of transgenic crops on beneficial biological control agents. ..
  34. Dodo H, Viquez O, Maleki S, Konan K. cDNA clone of a putative peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) trypsin inhibitor has homology with peanut allergens Ara h 3 and Ara h 4. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:1404-9 pubmed
    b>Trypsin inhibitors are pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, which play an important role in the plant defense mechanism against insects and pathogens. Peanut trypsin inhibitors are low molecular mass seed storage proteins...
  35. Ito K, Mizutani A, Kira S, Mori M, Iwasaka H, Noguchi T. Effect of Ulinastatin, a human urinary trypsin inhibitor, on the oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in rats via the inhibition of activated leukocytes. Injury. 2005;36:387-94 pubmed
    ..Leukocytes play a critical role in the development of OA-induced lung injury. It was suggested that UTI contributed to the reduction in the OA-induced lung injury by inhibiting TNF-alpha and thereby suppressing leukocyte. ..
  36. Pastorello E, Farioli L, Conti A, Pravettoni V, Bonomi S, Iametti S, et al. Wheat IgE-mediated food allergy in European patients: alpha-amylase inhibitors, lipid transfer proteins and low-molecular-weight glutenins. Allergenic molecules recognized by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007;144:10-22 pubmed
    ..The alpha-amylase inhibitor was confirmed to be the most important wheat allergen in food allergy and to play a role in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, too. Other important allergens were LTP and the LMW glutenin subunits. ..
  37. Yano T, Anraku S, Nakayama R, Ushijima K. Neuroprotective effect of urinary trypsin inhibitor against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Anesthesiology. 2003;98:465-73 pubmed
    ..05). Intravenous pretreatment with 300,000 U/kg UTI reduces focal ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat brain, potentially opening a novel therapeutic avenue for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. ..
  38. Kobayashi H, Suzuki M, Kanayama N, Terao T. A soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor suppresses ovarian cancer cell invasion by blocking urokinase upregulation. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2004;21:159-66 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, KTI, but not BBI, could inhibit cell invasiveness at least through suppression of uPA signaling cascade, although the mechanisms of KTI may be different from those of bikunin. ..
  39. Sato N, Endo S, Kimura Y, Ikeda K, Aoki K, Iwaya T, et al. Influence of a human protease inhibitor on surgical stress induced immunosuppression. Dig Surg. 2002;19:300-5 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that a protease-modulating therapy may be a new strategy for the treatment of surgical stress induced immune dysfunction. ..
  40. Johansson S, Goransson U, Luijendijk T, Backlund A, Claeson P, Bohlin L. A neutrophil multitarget functional bioassay to detect anti-inflammatory natural products. J Nat Prod. 2002;65:32-41 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of trypsin by the extract of Reseda luteola was high (97%). Orders such as Lamiales and Brassicales were shown to include a comparably high proportion of plants with inhibitory extracts...
  41. Ye X, Ng T. A new peptidic protease inhibitor from Vicia faba seeds exhibits antifungal, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibiting and mitogenic activities. J Pept Sci. 2002;8:656-62 pubmed
    ..In addition, the trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor elicited a mitogenic response from mouse splenocytes and inhibited the activity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase. ..
  42. Lopes A, Juliano M, Juliano L, Terra W. Coevolution of insect trypsins and inhibitors. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2004;55:140-52 pubmed
    ..Primary sequences interacting with PIs are around the active site, with some forming part of the S1 (188, 217, 219 and 228) or S4 (99, 215) pockets. ..
  43. Weder J, Hinkers S. Complete amino acid sequence of the lentil trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor LCI-1.7 and a discussion of atypical binding sites of Bowman-Birk inhibitors. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:4219-26 pubmed
    ..A concept to reduce the action of these inhibitors against human enzymes by genetic engineering was proposed...
  44. Sahin Toth M. Human mesotrypsin defies natural trypsin inhibitors: from passive resistance to active destruction. Protein Pept Lett. 2005;12:457-64 pubmed
    More than twenty years ago Rinderknecht et al. identified a minor trypsin isoform resistant to natural trypsin inhibitors in the human pancreatic juice...
  45. Damle M, Giri A, Sainani M, Gupta V. Higher accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in flowers than leaves and fruits as a possible basis for differential feeding preference of Helicoverpa armigera on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, Cv. Dhanashree). Phytochemistry. 2005;66:2659-67 pubmed
    ..Bioassay using H. armigera larvae fed on artificial diet containing tomato PIs revealed adverse effect on larval growth, pupae development, adult formation and fecundity. ..
  46. Gomes C, Barbosa A, Macedo L, Pitanga J, Moura F, Oliveira A, et al. Effect of trypsin inhibitor from Crotalaria pallida seeds on Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly). Plant Physiol Biochem. 2005;43:1095-102 pubmed
    ..The larvae were more affected at lower concentrations, causing 27% mortality and 44.4% mass decrease. The action was constant at 2-4% (w/w) with 15% mortality and 38% mass decrease...
  47. Pugia M, Valdes R, Jortani S. Bikunin (urinary trypsin inhibitor): structure, biological relevance, and measurement. Adv Clin Chem. 2007;44:223-45 pubmed
    ..Analysis of Bik may provide a rapid approach in assessing various conditions involving the inflammatory processes. ..
  48. Wang L, Halitschke R, Kang J, Berg A, Harnisch F, Baldwin I. Independently silencing two JAR family members impairs levels of trypsin proteinase inhibitors but not nicotine. Planta. 2007;226:159-67 pubmed
    ..We conclude that both JAR4 and JAR6 conjugate JA to Ile, Val, and Leu, and that both positively regulate TPI activity. ..
  49. Zhou X, Jin Y, Lu Q, Li D, Zhu S, Wang W, et al. Purification, characterization and primary structure of a chymotrypsin inhibitor from Naja atra venom. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;137:219-24 pubmed
    ..NA-CI shared great similarity with the chymotrypsin inhibitor from Naja naja venom (identities=89.5%) and other snake venom protease inhibitors. ..
  50. Haq S, Khan R. Characterization of a proteinase inhibitor from Cajanus cajan (L.). J Protein Chem. 2003;22:543-54 pubmed
    ..N-terminal sequence homology suggests that it belongs to the Kunitz inhibitor family. Structural analysis by circular dichroism shows that the inhibitor possesses a largely disordered structure...
  51. Wong R, Fong W, Ng T. Multiple trypsin inhibitors from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds, the Chinese drug mubiezhi. Peptides. 2004;25:163-9 pubmed
    Five trypsin inhibitors, with N-terminal sequences demonstrating homology to each other and exhibiting a molecular weight of 5100, 4800, 4400, 4100, and 3900, respectively, were isolated from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds with a ..
  52. Zavala J, Baldwin I. Fitness benefits of trypsin proteinase inhibitor expression in Nicotiana attenuata are greater than their costs when plants are attacked. BMC Ecol. 2004;4:11 pubmed
    ..sexta performance translates into a fitness benefit for the plant. ..
  53. Baggio R, Burgstaller P, Hale S, Putney A, Lane M, Lipovsek D, et al. Identification of epitope-like consensus motifs using mRNA display. J Mol Recognit. 2002;15:126-34 pubmed
    ..The wild-type sequences, PRILMR for the first loop of EETI-II and QKLISE for the 9E10 epitope, were selected with the highest frequency, and in each case the complete wild-type epitope was selected from the library. ..