Summary: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.

Top Publications

  1. Li T, Ma J, Hosler J, Davidson V, Liu A. Detection of transient intermediates in the metal-dependent nonoxidative decarboxylation catalyzed by alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:9278-9 pubmed
  2. Sullivan S, Holyoak T. Structures of rat cytosolic PEPCK: insight into the mechanism of phosphorylation and decarboxylation of oxaloacetic acid. Biochemistry. 2007;46:10078-88 pubmed
    ..GTP) complexes provide insight into the mechanism of phosphoryl transfer and decarboxylation mediated by this enzyme...
  3. Lamers Y, Williamson J, Gilbert L, Stacpoole P, Gregory J. Glycine turnover and decarboxylation rate quantified in healthy men and women using primed, constant infusions of [1,2-(13)C2]glycine and [(2)H3]leucine. J Nutr. 2007;137:2647-52 pubmed
    ..Based on breath (13)CO2 measurement, glycine decarboxylation (190 +/- 41 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) accounted for 39 +/- 6% of whole body glycine flux...
  4. Fogle E, Liu W, Woon S, Keller J, Toney M. Role of Q52 in catalysis of decarboxylation and transamination in dialkylglycine decarboxylase. Biochemistry. 2005;44:16392-404 pubmed
    Dialkylglycine decarboxylase (DGD) is a pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzyme that catalyzes both decarboxylation and transamination in its normal catalytic cycle...
  5. Wang S, Lin S, Hsieh T, Chan S. Thermal behavior and thermal decarboxylation of 10-hydroxycamptothecin in the solid state. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43:457-63 pubmed
    ..In addition, the thermal-induced decarboxylation of the solid-state 10-HCPT when the temperature is beyond 226 degrees C was proven by the appearance of a new ..
  6. Porter D, Short S. Yeast orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase: steady-state and pre-steady-state analysis of the kinetic mechanism of substrate decarboxylation. Biochemistry. 2000;39:11788-800 pubmed
    ..During the decarboxylation of OMP, the fluorescence of E(2) was quenched over 20%...
  7. Yoshida T, Hayakawa Y, Matsui T, Nagasawa T. Purification and characterization of 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase reversibly catalyzing nonoxidative decarboxylation. Arch Microbiol. 2004;181:391-7 pubmed
    ..The purified decarboxylase catalyzed the nonoxidative decarboxylation of 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate without requiring any cofactors...
  8. Ruszczycky M, Anderson V. Tartrate dehydrogenase reductive decarboxylation: stereochemical generation of diastereotopically deuterated hydroxymethylenes. Bioorg Chem. 2004;32:51-61 pubmed
    Tartrate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reductive decarboxylation of meso-tartrate to glycerate. Concomitant with the ketonization of the intermediate enolate the C3 hydroxymethylene of glycerate necessarily acquires a proton from solvent...
  9. Stratford M, Plumridge A, Archer D. Decarboxylation of sorbic acid by spoilage yeasts is associated with the PAD1 gene. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:6534-42 pubmed
    ..The gene responsible was identified as PAD1, previously associated with the decarboxylation of the aromatic carboxylic acids cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid to styrene, 4-vinylguaiacol, ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Corrie J, Munasinghe V, Trentham D, Barth A. Studies of decarboxylation in photolysis of alpha-carboxy-2-nitrobenzyl (CNB) caged compounds. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2008;7:84-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The extent to which the latter pathway contributes is affected by the nature of buffer salts in the irradiated solution. It was more prominent in an amine-based buffer (MOPS) than in phosphate buffer. ..
  2. Kaminaga Y, Schnepp J, Peel G, Kish C, Ben Nissan G, Weiss D, et al. Plant phenylacetaldehyde synthase is a bifunctional homotetrameric enzyme that catalyzes phenylalanine decarboxylation and oxidation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:23357-66 pubmed
    ..2 mM. PAAS is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the unprecedented efficient coupling of phenylalanine decarboxylation to oxidation, generating phenylacetaldehyde, CO2, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide in stoichiometric amounts.
  3. Liu A, Zhang H. Transition metal-catalyzed nonoxidative decarboxylation reactions. Biochemistry. 2006;45:10407-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, ACMSD represents a type of decarboxylation reaction that has been so far uncharacterized in biological systems...
  4. Schiesser S, Hackner B, Pfaffeneder T, Muller M, Hagemeier C, Truss M, et al. Mechanism and stem-cell activity of 5-carboxycytosine decarboxylation determined by isotope tracing. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012;51:6516-20 pubmed publisher
    Eraserhead: Stem cells seem to erase epigenetic information by decarboxylation of the newly discovered epigenetic base 5-carboxycytosine (caC; see picture)...
  5. Lucas P, Blancato V, Claisse O, Magni C, Lolkema J, Lonvaud Funel A. Agmatine deiminase pathway genes in Lactobacillus brevis are linked to the tyrosine decarboxylation operon in a putative acid resistance locus. Microbiology. 2007;153:2221-30 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that the agmatine deiminase and tyrosine catabolic pathways belong to a genomic region that provides acid resistance and that is exchanged horizontally as a whole between LAB. ..
  6. Dimroth P, von Ballmoos C. ATP synthesis by decarboxylation phosphorylation. Results Probl Cell Differ. 2008;45:153-84 pubmed
    ..Less familiar are fermentation reactions performed by anaerobic bacteria, wherein the free energy of the decarboxylation of certain metabolites is converted into an electrochemical gradient of Na(+) ions across the membrane (..
  7. Kim M, Kim M, Lee S, Suh J. Peptide-cleaving catalyst selective for melanin-concentrating hormone: Oxidative decarboxylation of N-terminal aspartate catalyzed by Co(III)cyclen. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2006;11:867-75 pubmed
    ..with the catalyst, the N-terminal Asp residue of MCH was converted to the pyruvate residue by oxidative decarboxylation. Detailed kinetics analysis revealed the catalytic nature of the action of the catalyst...
  8. Torres A. The cad locus of Enterobacteriaceae: more than just lysine decarboxylation. Anaerobe. 2009;15:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, their expression is associated with decarboxylation of lysine and production of the polyamine cadaverine and CO(2)...
  9. Lewis C, Wolfenden R. Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylation as a benchmark for the catalytic proficiency of enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17328-33 pubmed publisher
    ..the extent to which one such enzyme, human uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, enhances the rate of substrate decarboxylation, we examined the rate of spontaneous decarboxylation of pyrrolyl-3-acetate...
  10. Pereira C, Matos D, San Romão M, Crespo M. Dual role for the tyrosine decarboxylation pathway in Enterococcus faecium E17: response to an acid challenge and generation of a proton motive force. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:345-52 pubmed publisher
    In this work we investigated the role of the tyrosine decarboxylation pathway in the response of Enterococcus faecium E17 cells to an acid challenge...
  11. Sommer M, Brautigam A, Weber A. The dicotyledonous NAD malic enzyme C4 plant Cleome gynandra displays age-dependent plasticity of C4 decarboxylation biochemistry. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2012;14:621-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a revised model of NAD-ME type C(4) photosynthesis in C. gynandra, in which both AspAT catalysed reactions take place in mitochondria and PEPCK catalyses an alternative decarboxylating pathway...
  12. Yin L, Kanai M, Shibasaki M. Nucleophile generation via decarboxylation: asymmetric construction of contiguous trisubstituted and quaternary stereocenters through a Cu(I)-catalyzed decarboxylative Mannich-type reaction. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:9610-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this is a general catalytic asymmetric method for the synthesis of beta(2,2,3)-amino acid derivatives, a group of important chiral building blocks for pharmaceutical lead compounds. ..
  13. Berthold H, Giesen T, Gouni Berthold I. The stable isotope ketoisocaproic acid breath test as a measure of hepatic decarboxylation capacity: a quantitative analysis in normal subjects after oral and intravenous administration. Liver Int. 2009;29:1356-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The comparison between oral and intravenous results provides robust evidence that the KIC breath test measures predominantly hepatic and not muscle decarboxylation and is thus a highly specific liver function test.
  14. Plumridge A, Melin P, Stratford M, Novodvorska M, Shunburne L, Dyer P, et al. The decarboxylation of the weak-acid preservative, sorbic acid, is encoded by linked genes in Aspergillus spp. Fungal Genet Biol. 2010;47:683-92 pubmed publisher
    ..been shown to require the activity of a phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase (encoded by padA1) for the decarboxylation of the weak-acid preservative sorbic acid (2,4-hexadienoic acid) to 1,3-pentadiene...
  15. Mukai N, Masaki K, Fujii T, Kawamukai M, Iefuji H. PAD1 and FDC1 are essential for the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biosci Bioeng. 2010;109:564-9 pubmed publisher
    ..acid decarboxylase, YDR538W) and FDC1 (ferulic acid decarboxylase, YDR539W) genes are essential for the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acids in S. cerevisiae...
  16. Lamberti C, Purrotti M, Mazzoli R, Fattori P, Barello C, Coisson J, et al. ADI pathway and histidine decarboxylation are reciprocally regulated in Lactobacillus hilgardii ISE 5211: proteomic evidence. Amino Acids. 2011;41:517-27 pubmed publisher
    Amine production by amino acid decarboxylation is a common feature that is used by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to complement lactic fermentation, since it is coupled with a proton-extruding antiport system which leads to both metabolic ..
  17. Furbank R. Evolution of the C(4) photosynthetic mechanism: are there really three C(4) acid decarboxylation types?. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:3103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent molecular, biochemical, and physiological data indicate that these three decarboxylation types may not be rigidly genetically determined, that the possibility of flexibility between the pathways ..
  18. Fujikawa K, Fujioka Y, Kobayashi A, Amii H. A new method for aromatic difluoromethylation: copper-catalyzed cross-coupling and decarboxylation sequence from aryl iodides. Org Lett. 2011;13:5560-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The subsequent hydrolysis of aryldifluoroacetates and KF-promoted decarboxylation afforded a variety of difluoromethyl aromatics.
  19. Danielsen E, Smith D, Andersen F, Gee A, Bender D, Hansen S, et al. FDOPA metabolism in the adult porcine brain: influence of tracer circulation time and VOI selection on estimates of striatal DOPA decarboxylation. J Neurosci Methods. 2001;111:157-68 pubmed total sequence length increased from 60 to 120 min circulation. The method of VOI selection had no significant effect on the striatum decarboxylation index of FDOPA calculated relative to the radioactivity in cerebellum (k(3)(S)).
  20. Habuchi S, Cotlet M, Gensch T, Bednarz T, Haber Pohlmeier S, Rozenski J, et al. Evidence for the isomerization and decarboxylation in the photoconversion of the red fluorescent protein DsRed. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:8977-84 pubmed
    ..spectroscopy as well as mass spectrometry suggest that a cis-to-trans isomerization of the chromophore and decarboxylation of a glutamate (E215) take place upon irradiation to form SR...
  21. Wolken W, Lucas P, Lonvaud Funel A, Lolkema J. The mechanism of the tyrosine transporter TyrP supports a proton motive tyrosine decarboxylation pathway in Lactobacillus brevis. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2198-206 pubmed
    ..The two genes potentially form a proton motive tyrosine decarboxylation pathway. The putative tyrosine transporter gene of L...
  22. Fu Z, Wang M, Paschke R, Rao K, Frerman F, KIM J. Crystal structures of human glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase with and without an alternate substrate: structural bases of dehydrogenation and decarboxylation reactions. Biochemistry. 2004;43:9674-84 pubmed
    ..GCD) is unique: in addition to the alpha,beta-dehydrogenation reaction, common to all ACDs, GCD catalyzes decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to produce CO(2) and crotonyl-CoA...
  23. Yoshida T, Fujita K, Nagasawa T. Novel reversible indole-3-carboxylate decarboxylase catalyzing nonoxidative decarboxylation. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66:2388-94 pubmed
    ..The indole-3-carboxylate decarboxylase of A. nicotianae FI1612 catalyzed the nonoxidative decarboxylation of indole-3-carboxylate into indole, and efficiently carboxylated indole and 2-methylindole by the reverse ..
  24. Kuge O, Yamakawa Y, Nishijima M. Enhancement of transport-dependent decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine by S100B protein in permeabilized Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:23700-6 pubmed publisher
    Phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis through the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) decarboxylation pathway requires PtdSer transport from the endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondrial-associated membrane to the mitochondrial inner membrane in ..
  25. Bell A, Stoner Ma D, Wachter R, Tonge P. Light-driven decarboxylation of wild-type green fluorescent protein. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:6919-26 pubmed
    ..As reported previously [van Thor, Nat. Struct. Biol. 2002, 9, 37-41], irradiation of GFP results in decarboxylation of E222...
  26. Obel L, Andersen K, Bak L, Schousboe A, Waagepetersen H. Effects of adrenergic agents on intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and metabolism of glucose in astrocytes with an emphasis on pyruvate carboxylation, oxidative decarboxylation and recycling: implications for glutamate neurotransmission and excitotoxicit. Neurotox Res. 2012;21:405-17 pubmed publisher
    ..glutamate, aspartate, malate and citrate confirmed important roles for pyruvate carboxylation and oxidative decarboxylation in astrocytic glucose metabolism...
  27. McCarron P, Kilcoyne J, Miles C, Hess P. Formation of Azaspiracids-3, -4, -6, and -9 via decarboxylation of carboxyazaspiracid metabolites from shellfish. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:160-9 pubmed publisher
    ..experiments, and kinetic studies demonstrated that a carboxylated AZA analogue, AZA17, undergoes rapid decarboxylation when heated to produce AZA3...
  28. Zabinski R, Toney M. Metal ion inhibition of nonenzymatic pyridoxal phosphate catalyzed decarboxylation and transamination. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:193-8 pubmed
    ..The decarboxylation of 2-methyl-2-aminomalonate is unaffected by metalation with Al(3+), while the decarboxylation of 2-..
  29. Takemoto M, Achiwa K. Synthesis of styrenes through the biocatalytic decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acids by plant cell cultures. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001;49:639-41 pubmed
    ..When trans-cinnamic acid was incubated with plant cell cultures at room temperature, styrene was obtained. 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (2a), 3-nitrostyrene (2f) and furan (2g) were synthesized quantitatively. ..
  30. Moya García A, Ruiz Pernía J, Martí S, Sanchez Jimenez F, Tuñón I. Analysis of the decarboxylation step in mammalian histidine decarboxylase. A computational study. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12393-401 pubmed publisher
    ..By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we traced the potential of mean force corresponding to the decarboxylation reaction of the adduct both in the active site of the enzyme and in aqueous solution...
  31. Chen Y, Hertz L. Noradrenaline effects on pyruvate decarboxylation: correlation with calcium signaling. J Neurosci Res. 1999;58:599-606 pubmed
    ..The noradrenaline-induced stimulation of pyruvate decarboxylation was abolished in the presence of 10 mM magnesium chloride in the medium, combined with the omission of ..
  32. Che T, Bonomo R, Shanmugam S, Bethel C, Pusztai Carey M, Buynak J, et al. Carboxylation and decarboxylation of active site Lys 84 controls the activity of OXA-24 ?-lactamase of Acinetobacter baumannii: Raman crystallographic and solution evidence. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:11206-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The new population remains unchanged indicating (i) that the OXA-24 is no longer active and (ii) that the decarboxylation of Lys84 occurred during the first reaction cycle...
  33. Stratford M, Plumridge A, Pleasants M, Novodvorska M, Baker Glenn C, Pattenden G, et al. Mapping the structural requirements of inducers and substrates for decarboxylation of weak acid preservatives by the food spoilage mould Aspergillus niger. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012;157:375-83 pubmed publisher
    Moulds are able to cause spoilage in preserved foods through degradation of the preservatives using the Pad-decarboxylation system...
  34. Patel H, Nemeria N, Brammer L, Freel Meyers C, Jordan F. Observation of thiamin-bound intermediates and microscopic rate constants for their interconversion on 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase: 600-fold rate acceleration of pyruvate decarboxylation by D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:18374-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and pyruvate (C2?-lactylThDP or LThDP) in the absence of D-GAP, while addition of D-GAP enhanced the rate of decarboxylation by at least 600-fold...
  35. Han B, Gopalan V, Ezeji T. Acetone production in solventogenic Clostridium species: new insights from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of acetoacetate. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;91:565-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The acetoacetate decarboxylase (aadc) gene encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase (AADC), which catalyzes the decarboxylation of acetoacetate into acetone and CO(2), was successfully disrupted by homologous recombination in ..
  36. Schmidt M, Tachon G, Devilliers C, Muller G, Hekimian G, Bréchot N, et al. Blood oxygenation and decarboxylation determinants during venovenous ECMO for respiratory failure in adults. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:838-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, the rate of sweep gas flow through the membrane lung determined blood decarboxylation, while PaCO2 (arterial carbon dioxide tension) was unaffected when the ECMO blood flow and FiO(2ECMO) were ..
  37. Westover J, Goodman S, Frerman F. Binding, hydration, and decarboxylation of the reaction intermediate glutaconyl-coenzyme A by human glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Biochemistry. 2001;40:14106-14 pubmed
    Glutaconyl-coenzyme A (CoA) is the presumed enzyme-bound intermediate in the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA that is catalyzed by glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase...
  38. van Thor J, Gensch T, Hellingwerf K, Johnson L. Phototransformation of green fluorescent protein with UV and visible light leads to decarboxylation of glutamate 222. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:37-41 pubmed
    ..Here we show that this photoconversion of GFP is a one-photon process that is paralleled by decarboxylation of Glu 222...
  39. Zeng A, Modak J, Deckwer W. Nonlinear dynamics of eucaryotic pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex: decarboxylation rate, oscillations, and multiplicity. Biotechnol Prog. 2002;18:1265-76 pubmed
    ..Depending on the pyruvate and enzyme levels or the operation mode, either a steady state with high pyruvate decarboxylation rate or a steady state with significantly lower decarboxylation rate can be achieved under otherwise ..
  40. Cellini B, Bertoldi M, Borri Voltattorni C. Treponema denticola cystalysin catalyzes beta-desulfination of L-cysteine sulfinic acid and beta-decarboxylation of L-aspartate and oxalacetate. FEBS Lett. 2003;554:306-10 pubmed
    ..sulfinic acid, k(cat) and K(m), are 89+/-7 s(-1) and 49+/-9 mM, respectively, whereas those for beta-decarboxylation of L-aspartate are 0.8+/-0.1 s(-1) and 280+/-70 mM...
  41. Bleijerveld O, Brouwers J, Vaandrager A, Helms J, Houweling M. The CDP-ethanolamine pathway and phosphatidylserine decarboxylation generate different phosphatidylethanolamine molecular species. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:28362-72 pubmed
    ..phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) is mainly synthesized via the CDP-ethanolamine (Kennedy) pathway and by decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)...
  42. Lee B, Suh S. Crystal structure of the schiff base intermediate prior to decarboxylation in the catalytic cycle of aspartate alpha-decarboxylase. J Mol Biol. 2004;340:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..structure represents the enzyme-substrate Schiff base intermediate that was proposed to form prior to the decarboxylation step in the catalytic cycle of ADC...
  43. Richard J, Amyes T. On the importance of being zwitterionic: enzymatic catalysis of decarboxylation and deprotonation of cationic carbon. Bioorg Chem. 2004;32:354-66 pubmed
    ..with decreasing dielectric constant of the reaction medium, for deprotonation of cationic carbon acids and decarboxylation to form related ylides...
  44. Martynowski D, Eyobo Y, Li T, Yang K, Liu A, Zhang H. Crystal structure of alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconate-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase: insight into the active site and catalytic mechanism of a novel decarboxylation reaction. Biochemistry. 2006;45:10412-21 pubmed
    ..These data enable us to propose possible catalytic mechanisms for ACMSD which appear to be unprecedented among all currently characterized decarboxylases. ..
  45. Vuralhan Z, Luttik M, Tai S, Boer V, Morais M, Schipper D, et al. Physiological characterization of the ARO10-dependent, broad-substrate-specificity 2-oxo acid decarboxylase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:3276-84 pubmed
    ..The results reported here indicate the involvement of posttranscriptional regulation and/or a second protein in the ARO10-dependent, broad-substrate-specificity decarboxylase activity. ..
  46. Majamaa K, Hanauske Abel H, Gunzler V, Kivirikko K. The 2-oxoglutarate binding site of prolyl 4-hydroxylase. Identification of distinct subsites and evidence for 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylation in a ligand reaction at the enzyme-bound ferrous ion. Eur J Biochem. 1984;138:239-45 pubmed
    ..The sp3 rehybridization of C2 within the chelating moiety of the cosubstrate appears to be a crucial event during decarboxylation that proceeds in the form of a ligand reaction inside the Fe2+ coordination sphere.
  47. Dimroth P, Schink B. Energy conservation in the decarboxylation of dicarboxylic acids by fermenting bacteria. Arch Microbiol. 1998;170:69-77 pubmed
    b>Decarboxylation of dicarboxylic acids (oxalate, malonate, succinate, glutarate, and malate) can serve as the sole energy source for the growth of fermenting bacteria...
  48. Cumming P, Gjedde A. Compartmental analysis of dopa decarboxylation in living brain from dynamic positron emission tomograms. Synapse. 1998;29:37-61 pubmed
    The trapping of decarboxylation products of radiolabelled dopa analogs in living human brain occurs as a function of the activity of dopa decarboxylase...
  49. van Berkel W, Eppink M, Middelhoven W, Vervoort J, Rietjens I. Catabolism of 4-hydroxybenzoate in Candida parapsilosis proceeds through initial oxidative decarboxylation by a FAD-dependent 4-hydroxybenzoate 1-hydroxylase. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1994;121:207-15 pubmed
    ..parapsilosis proceeds through initial oxidative decarboxylation to give 1,4-dihydroxybenzene...
  50. Burnell J, Hatch M. Photosynthesis in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants: pathways of C4 acid decarboxylation in bundle sheath cells of Urochloa panicoides. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1988;260:187-99 pubmed
    The mechanism of C4 acid decarboxylation was studied in bundle sheath cell strands from Urochloa panicoides, a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK)-type C4 plant...
  51. Arroyave F, Reynolds J. 3,4-Propylenedioxypyrrole-based conjugated oligomers via Pd-mediated decarboxylative cross coupling. Org Lett. 2010;12:1328-31 pubmed publisher
    ..No copper salt or other transmetalating agent was required. The reaction conditions employed displayed relatively low sensitivity toward the presence of water. ..
  52. Kurosawa N, Hirata T, Suzuki H. Characterization of putative tryptophan monooxygenase from Ralstonia solanacearum [corrected]. J Biochem. 2009;146:23-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results lead to the conclusion that PTMO and PTMOp belong to proPAO and PAO, respectively. ..
  53. Kluger R, Ikeda G, Hu Q, Cao P, Drewry J. Accelerating unimolecular decarboxylation by preassociated acid catalysis in thiamin-derived intermediates: implicating Brønsted acids as carbanion traps in enzymes. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:15856-64 pubmed
    ..Although MT is the functional equivalent of the enzymic intermediate, it is 106-fold less reactive in decarboxylation. Furthermore, upon loss of carbon dioxide, it undergoes a fragmentation reaction that is about 102-fold ..