at hook motifs


Summary: DNA-binding motifs, first described in one of the HMGA PROTEINS: HMG-I(Y) PROTEIN. They consist of positively charged sequences of nine amino acids centered on the invariant tripeptide glycine-arginine-proline. They act to fasten the protein to an AT RICH SEQUENCE in the DNA.

Top Publications

  1. Shiels B, McKellar S, Katzer F, Lyons K, Kinnaird J, Ward C, et al. A Theileria annulata DNA binding protein localized to the host cell nucleus alters the phenotype of a bovine macrophage cell line. Eukaryot Cell. 2004;3:495-505 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that Theileria parasite molecules that are transported to the leukocyte nucleus have the potential to modulate the phenotype of infected cells...
  2. Cattaruzzi G, Altamura S, Tessari M, Rustighi A, Giancotti V, Pucillo C, et al. The second AT-hook of the architectural transcription factor HMGA2 is determinant for nuclear localization and function. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:1751-60 pubmed
    ..HMGA proteins are overexpressed and rearranged in a variety of tumors; our findings can thus help elucidating their role in neoplastic transformation. ..
  3. Metcalf C, Wassarman D. DNA binding properties of TAF1 isoforms with two AT-hooks. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:30015-23 pubmed publisher
  4. Perales G, Burguete Garcia A, Dimas J, Bahena Román M, Bermudez Morales V, Moreno J, et al. A polymorphism in the AT-hook motif of the transcriptional regulator AKNA is a risk factor for cervical cancer. Biomarkers. 2010;15:470-4 pubmed publisher
    ..01, odds ratio 3.66, 95% confidence interval 1.35-9.94). Therefore, AKNA appears to be an important genetic factor associated with the risk cervical cancer. ..
  5. Senthilkumar R, Mishra R. Novel motifs distinguish multiple homologues of Polycomb in vertebrates: expansion and diversification of the epigenetic toolkit. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:549 pubmed publisher
    ..The signature motifs of PC homologues and insect specific motif identified in this study pave the way to understand the molecular basis of epigenetic mechanisms. ..
  6. Xiao C, Chen F, Yu X, Lin C, Fu Y. Over-expression of an AT-hook gene, AHL22, delays flowering and inhibits the elongation of the hypocotyl in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol Biol. 2009;71:39-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis showed that AHL22 controlled flowering and hypocotyl elongation might result from primarily the regulation of FT and PIF4 expression, respectively. ..
  7. Summer H, Li O, Bao Q, Zhan L, Peter S, Sathiyanathan P, et al. HMGA2 exhibits dRP/AP site cleavage activity and protects cancer cells from DNA-damage-induced cytotoxicity during chemotherapy. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:4371-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study thus identifies an unexpected role for HMGA2 in DNA repair in cancer cells which has important clinical implications for disease diagnosis and therapy. ..
  8. Maffini M, Denes V, Sonnenschein C, SOTO A, Geck P. APRIN is a unique Pds5 paralog with features of a chromatin regulator in hormonal differentiation. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;108:32-43 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that APRIN, in addition to its Pds5 similarity, has the features and localization of a hormone-induced chromatin regulator. ..
  9. Lim P, Kim Y, Breeze E, Koo J, Woo H, Ryu J, et al. Overexpression of a chromatin architecture-controlling AT-hook protein extends leaf longevity and increases the post-harvest storage life of plants. Plant J. 2007;52:1140-53 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, activation of ORE7/ESC also led to a highly extended post-harvest storage life. ..

More Information


  1. Vom Endt D, Soares e Silva M, Kijne J, Pasquali G, Memelink J. Identification of a bipartite jasmonate-responsive promoter element in the Catharanthus roseus ORCA3 transcription factor gene that interacts specifically with AT-Hook DNA-binding proteins. Plant Physiol. 2007;144:1680-9 pubmed
    ..Two of the AT-hook proteins tested had a weak activating effect on JRE-mediated reporter gene expression, suggesting that AT-hook family members may be involved in determining the level of expression of ORCA3 in response to jasmonate. ..
  2. Poland D. Enthalpy distribution functions for protein-DNA complexes: example of the binding of AT-hooks to target DNA. Biophys Chem. 2007;125:497-507 pubmed
    ..We find that the distribution functions for this system clearly show bimodal behavior indicating a two-state transition from complex to non-complex form. ..
  3. Launholt D, Merkle T, Houben A, Schulz A, Grasser K. Arabidopsis chromatin-associated HMGA and HMGB use different nuclear targeting signals and display highly dynamic localization within the nucleus. Plant Cell. 2006;18:2904-18 pubmed
    ..By contrast, the majority of histone H2B is basically immobile within the nucleus, while linker histone H1.2 is relatively mobile. ..
  4. Sato T, Kitahara K, Susa T, Kato T, Kato Y. Pituitary transcription factor Prop-1 stimulates porcine pituitary glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit gene expression. J Mol Endocrinol. 2006;37:341-52 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, the present observations provide a novel view to understand the hypogonadism caused by Prop-1 defects at the molecular level through the regulatory mechanism of alphaGSU and FSHbeta gene expressions. ..
  5. Swan D, Stern R, McKellar S, Phillips K, Oura C, Karagenc T, et al. Characterisation of a cluster of genes encoding Theileria annulata AT hook DNA-binding proteins and evidence for localisation to the host cell nucleus. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:2747-54 pubmed
    ..DNA-binding analysis demonstrated that fusion proteins containing the AT hook region of either TashAT1 or TashAT2 bound preferentially to AT rich DNA...
  6. Su Y, Kwon C, Bezhani S, Huvermann B, Chen C, Peragine A, et al. The N-terminal ATPase AT-hook-containing region of the Arabidopsis chromatin-remodeling protein SPLAYED is sufficient for biological activity. Plant J. 2006;46:685-99 pubmed
    ..The presence of the C-terminal domain in rice SYD suggests that its role is probably conserved in the two classes of flowering plants. ..
  7. Turlure F, Maertens G, Rahman S, Cherepanov P, Engelman A. A tripartite DNA-binding element, comprised of the nuclear localization signal and two AT-hook motifs, mediates the association of LEDGF/p75 with chromatin in vivo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:1653-65 pubmed
  8. Sourmeli S, Papantonis A, Lecanidou R. BmCbZ, an insect-specific factor featuring a composite DNA-binding domain, interacts with BmC/EBPgamma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:1957-65 pubmed
    ..The formation of a BmCbZ-BmC/EBPgamma heterodimer is a prerequisite for binding to specific C/EBP recognition sites on chorion gene promoters, most probably via both major and minor groove interactions. ..
  9. Walters M, Hall K, Whitehouse A. The herpesvirus saimiri open reading frame (ORF) 50 (Rta) protein contains an at hook required for binding to the ORF 50 response element in delayed-early promoters. J Virol. 2004;78:4936-42 pubmed
    ..In addition, p50GFPDeltaAT-hook is capable of functioning as a trans-dominant mutant, leading to a reduction in virus production of approximately 50% compared to that for wild-type ORF 50. ..
  10. Satou W, Suzuki T, Noguchi T, Ogino H, Fujii M, Ayusawa D. AT-hook proteins stimulate induction of senescence markers triggered by 5-bromodeoxyuridine in mammalian cells. Exp Gerontol. 2004;39:173-9 pubmed
    ..Since AT-hook domains can displace chromatin compacting proteins pre-bound on AT-rich sequences, these results suggest that chromatin unpacking is one of the factors stimulating expression of the senescence markers in human cells. ..
  11. Cayuela M, Elías Arnanz M, Peñalver Mellado M, Padmanabhan S, Murillo F. The Stigmatella aurantiaca homolog of Myxococcus xanthus high-mobility-group A-type transcription factor CarD: insights into the functional modules of CarD and their distribution in bacteria. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3527-37 pubmed
    ..Whereas a number of hypothetical proteins homologous to the N-terminal region occur in a diverse array of bacterial species, eukaryotic HMGA-type domains appear to be confined primarily to myxobacteria...
  12. Tamaru H, Selker E. Synthesis of signals for de novo DNA methylation in Neurospora crassa. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2379-94 pubmed
  13. Zhang W, Wu Q, Pwee K, Manjunatha Kini R. Interaction of wheat high-mobility-group proteins with four-way-junction DNA and characterization of the structure and expression of HMGA gene. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;409:357-66 pubmed
    ..Competition binding studies show that proteins share overlapping binding sites on four-way-junction DNA. HMGd does not bind to four-way-junction DNA. ..
  14. Reisdorf Cren M, Carrayol E, Terc Laforgue T, Hirel B. A novel HMG A-like protein binds differentially to the AT-rich regions located in the far distal and proximal parts of a soybean glutamine synthetase gene (GS15) promoter. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002;43:1006-16 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that AT-1SNBP may be an architectural protein involved in maintaining the spatial conformation of the GS15 promoter, thus facilitating the interaction between the distal and proximal regulatory elements...