linear energy transfer


Summary: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).

Top Publications

  1. Hada M, Georgakilas A. Formation of clustered DNA damage after high-LET irradiation: a review. J Radiat Res. 2008;49:203-10 pubmed
    ..1)) These data provide the best estimate of human cancer risk over the dose range for low linear energy transfer (LET) radiations, such as X- or gamma-rays...
  2. Genet S, Maeda J, Fujisawa H, Yurkon C, Fujii Y, Romero A, et al. Comparison of cellular lethality in DNA repair-proficient or -deficient cell lines resulting from exposure to 70 MeV/n protons or 290 MeV/n carbon ions. Oncol Rep. 2012;28:1591-6 pubmed publisher
    ..two charged particle treatment modalities with respect to modeled anatomical depth-dependent dose and linear energy transfer (LET) deliveries to cells with either normal or compromised DNA repair phenotypes...
  3. Haro K, Scott A, Scheinberg D. Mechanisms of resistance to high and low linear energy transfer radiation in myeloid leukemia cells. Blood. 2012;120:2087-97 pubmed publisher
    Low linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation (IR) is an important form of therapy for acute leukemias administered externally or as radioimmunotherapy. IR is also a potential source of DNA damage...
  4. Barazzuol L, Jena R, Burnet N, Jeynes J, Merchant M, Kirkby K, et al. In vitro evaluation of combined temozolomide and radiotherapy using X? rays and high-linear energy transfer radiation for glioblastoma. Radiat Res. 2012;177:651-62 pubmed
    High-linear energy transfer radiation offers superior biophysical properties over conventional radiotherapy and may have a great potential for treating radioresistant tumors, such as glioblastoma...
  5. Sowa M, Goetz W, Baulch J, Lewis A, Morgan W. No evidence for a low linear energy transfer adaptive response in irradiated RKO cells. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;143:311-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We have conducted a study of the adaptive response following low-linear energy transfer exposures for human colon carcinoma cells and failed to observe adaption for the endpoints of clonogenic ..
  6. Watanabe R, Wada S, Funayama T, Kobayashi Y, Saito K, Furusawa Y. Monte Carlo simulation of radial distribution of DNA strand breaks along the C and Ne ion paths. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;143:186-90 pubmed publisher
    ..and their yields were simulated by Monte Carlo track structure simulation for C and Ne ions with the same linear energy transfer (LET) around 450 keV/?m. The radial DNA damage distribution shows different pattern for C and Ne ions...
  7. Beuve M, Alphonse G, Maalouf M, Colliaux A, Battiston Montagne P, Jalade P, et al. Radiobiologic parameters and local effect model predictions for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas exposed to high linear energy transfer ions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;71:635-42 pubmed publisher
    ..parameters of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in response to ion irradiation with various linear energy transfer (LET) values and to evaluate the relevance of the local effect model (LEM) in HNSCC...
  8. Stewart R, Yu V, Georgakilas A, Koumenis C, Park J, Carlson D. Effects of radiation quality and oxygen on clustered DNA lesions and cell death. Radiat Res. 2011;176:587-602 pubmed
    ..For low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiations, cells irradiated under normoxic conditions sustain about 2...
  9. Hamada N, Imaoka T, Masunaga S, Ogata T, Okayasu R, Takahashi A, et al. Recent advances in the biology of heavy-ion cancer therapy. J Radiat Res. 2010;51:365-83 pubmed

More Information


  1. Ponomarev A, Huff J, Cucinotta F. The analysis of the densely populated patterns of radiation-induced foci by a stochastic, Monte Carlo model of DNA double-strand breaks induction by heavy ions. Int J Radiat Biol. 2010;86:507-15 pubmed publisher
    To resolve the difficulty in counting merged DNA damage foci in high-LET (linear energy transfer) ion-induced patterns...
  2. Daşu A, Toma Daşu I. What is the clinically relevant relative biologic effectiveness? A warning for fractionated treatments with high linear energy transfer radiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;70:867-74 pubmed
    To study the clinically relevant relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of fractionated treatments with high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and to identify the important factors that might influence the transfer of tolerance and ..
  3. Grassberger C, Trofimov A, Lomax A, Paganetti H. Variations in linear energy transfer within clinical proton therapy fields and the potential for biological treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;80:1559-66 pubmed publisher
    To calculate the linear energy transfer (LET) distributions in patients undergoing proton therapy. These distributions can be used to identify areas of elevated or diminished biological effect...
  4. Sekine E, Okada M, Matsufuji N, Yu D, Furusawa Y, Okayasu R. High LET heavy ion radiation induces lower numbers of initial chromosome breaks with minimal repair than low LET radiation in normal human cells. Mutat Res. 2008;652:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..possible chromosome break and repair process in normal human fibroblasts irradiated with low and high LET (linear energy transfer) heavy ion radiation using the modified premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique utilizing ..
  5. Asaithamby A, Uematsu N, Chatterjee A, Story M, Burma S, Chen D. Repair of HZE-particle-induced DNA double-strand breaks in normal human fibroblasts. Radiat Res. 2008;169:437-46 pubmed publisher
    ..particles is more skewed toward multiply damaged sites or clustered DNA damage than damage induced by low-linear energy transfer (LET) X and gamma rays...
  6. Wang H, Liu S, Zhang P, Zhang S, Naidu M, Wang H, et al. S-phase cells are more sensitive to high-linear energy transfer radiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;74:1236-41 pubmed publisher
    S-phase cells are more resistant to low-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation (IR) than nonsynchronized and G(1)-phase cells, because both nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair can repair DNA ..
  7. Tenhumberg S, Gudowska Nowak E, Nasonova E, Ritter S. Cell cycle arrest and aberration yield in normal human fibroblasts. II: Effects of 11 MeV u-1 C ions and 9.9 MeV u-1 Ni ions. Int J Radiat Biol. 2007;83:501-13 pubmed
    To investigate further the relationship between high linear energy transfer (LET) induced cell cycle arrests and the yield of chromosome aberrations observable in normal human fibroblasts at the first post-irradiation mitosis...
  8. Xue L, Yu D, Furusawa Y, Okayasu R, Tong J, Cao J, et al. Regulation of ATM in DNA double strand break repair accounts for the radiosensitivity in human cells exposed to high linear energy transfer ionizing radiation. Mutat Res. 2009;670:15-23 pubmed publisher
    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation shows different biological effects from low-LET radiation...
  9. Ando K, Kase Y. Biological characteristics of carbon-ion therapy. Int J Radiat Biol. 2009;85:715-28 pubmed publisher
    Radiotherapy using charged and/or high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles has a long history, starting with proton beams up to now carbon-ions...
  10. Lee R, Sommer S, Hartel C, Nasonova E, Durante M, Ritter S. Complex exchanges are responsible for the increased effectiveness of C-ions compared to X-rays at the first post-irradiation mitosis. Mutat Res. 2010;701:52-9 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of the present study was to investigate as to what extent differences in the linear energy transfer (LET) are reflected at the chromosomal level. For this study human lymphocytes were exposed to 9...
  11. Durante M, Loeffler J. Charged particles in radiation oncology. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2010;7:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review considers the present clinical results in the field, and identifies and discusses the research questions that have resulted with this technique. ..
  12. Wang H, Zhang X, Wang P, Yu X, Essers J, Chen D, et al. Characteristics of DNA-binding proteins determine the biological sensitivity to high-linear energy transfer radiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:3245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..High-linear energy transfer (LET) IR (such as high energy charged particles) killing more cells at the same dose as compared with low-..
  13. Li H, Gu Y, Miki J, Hukku B, McLeod D, Hei T, et al. Malignant transformation of human benign prostate epithelial cells by high linear energy transfer alpha-particles. Int J Oncol. 2007;31:537-44 pubmed
    ..This model provides an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular alterations that occur in radiation carcinogenesis in human prostate cells. ..
  14. Wenzl T, Wilkens J. Modelling of the oxygen enhancement ratio for ion beam radiation therapy. Phys Med Biol. 2011;56:3251-68 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be expressed by the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), which decreases with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) suggesting a potential clinical advantage of high-LET radiotherapy with heavy ion beams compared to ..
  15. Mosconi M, Giesen U, Langner F, Mielke C, Dalla Rosa I, Dirks W. 53BP1 and MDC1 foci formation in HT-1080 cells for low- and high-LET microbeam irradiations. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2011;50:345-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary data for proton irradiations are shown and also these indicate a delay for 53BP1 versus MDC1. ..
  16. Brahme A. Accurate description of the cell survival and biological effect at low and high doses and LET's. J Radiat Res. 2011;52:389-407 pubmed publisher
    ..This applies even for radiation resistant tumors, at least when the goal is to maximize tumor cure with minimal adverse reactions in normal tissues. ..
  17. Lopatiuk Tirpak O, Su Z, Li Z, Zeidan O, Meeks S, Maryanski M. Direct response to proton beam linear energy transfer (LET) in a novel polymer gel dosimeter formulation. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2012;11:441-5 pubmed
    b>Linear energy transfer (LET) of clinical proton beams is an important parameter influencing the biological effects of radiation...
  18. Li Y, Qian H, Wang Y, Cucinotta F. A stochastic model of DNA fragments rejoining. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44293 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our work suggests that inhibiting the Ku-dependent NHEJ may significantly contribute to the increased efficiency for cell death and mutation observed for high LET radiation. ..
  19. Monzen S, Yoshino H, Kasai Eguchi K, Kashiwakura I. Characteristics of myeloid differentiation and maturation pathway derived from human hematopoietic stem cells exposed to different linear energy transfer radiation types. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59385 pubmed publisher
    ..HSPCs) to ionizing radiation causes a marked suppression of mature functional blood cell production in a linear energy transfer (LET)- and/or dose-dependent manner...
  20. Aravindan N, Veeraraghavan J, Madhusoodhanan R, Herman T, Natarajan M. Curcumin regulates low-linear energy transfer ?-radiation-induced NF?B-dependent telomerase activity in human neuroblastoma cells. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;79:1206-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, curcumin enhanced the IR-induced inhibition of cell survival. These results strongly suggest that curcumin inhibits IR-induced TA in an NF?B dependent manner in human neuroblastoma cells. ..
  21. Asaithamby A, Hu B, Delgado O, Ding L, Story M, Minna J, et al. Irreparable complex DNA double-strand breaks induce chromosome breakage in organotypic three-dimensional human lung epithelial cell culture. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:5474-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that downregulation of multiple DNA repair pathway genes in differentiated cells renders them vulnerable to DSBs, promoting genome instability that may lead to carcinogenesis...
  22. Meador J, Ghandhi S, Amundson S. p53-independent downregulation of histone gene expression in human cell lines by high- and low-let radiation. Radiat Res. 2011;175:689-99 pubmed
    ..These results show that both high- and low-LET radiation exposure negatively regulate histone gene expression in human lymphoblastoid and colon cancer cell lines independent of p53 status. ..
  23. Pachnerová Brabcová K, Ambrožová I, Spurny F. Spectrometry of linear energy transfer with track-etched detectors in carbon ion beams, MONO and SOBP. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;143:440-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Ltd--TD1 and Baryotrak. Spectra of linear energy transfer and depth-dose distributions were obtained. Besides, differences among PADCs are discussed.
  24. Wedenberg M, Lind B, Toma Daşu I, Rehbinder H, Brahme A. Analytical description of the LET dependence of cell survival using the repairable-conditionally repairable damage model. Radiat Res. 2010;174:517-25 pubmed publisher
    ..radiation therapy, both the dose and the local energy spectrum, which is often characterized with the linear energy transfer (LET), must be considered...
  25. Datta K, Suman S, Trani D, Doiron K, Rotolo J, Kallakury B, et al. Accelerated hematopoietic toxicity by high energy (56)Fe radiation. Int J Radiat Biol. 2012;88:213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicate that there is selective enhanced toxicity to bone marrow progenitor cells, which are typically resistant to ? rays, and bone marrow stem cells, because intestinal crypt cells did not show increased HZE toxicity. ..
  26. Wenzl T, Wilkens J. Theoretical analysis of the dose dependence of the oxygen enhancement ratio and its relevance for clinical applications. Radiat Oncol. 2011;6:171 pubmed publisher
    ..01 and 20 mmHg as present in clinical situations in vivo. Our work comprises the analysis for both low linear energy transfer (LET) treatment with photons or protons and high-LET treatment with heavy ions...
  27. Franken N, Hovingh S, Ten Cate R, Krawczyk P, Stap J, Hoebe R, et al. Relative biological effectiveness of high linear energy transfer ?-particles for the induction of DNA-double-strand breaks, chromosome aberrations and reproductive cell death in SW-1573 lung tumour cells. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:769-74 pubmed publisher cell death and formation of chromosome rearrangements is less clear, especially for high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation...
  28. Suit H, Delaney T, Goldberg S, Paganetti H, Clasie B, Gerweck L, et al. Proton vs carbon ion beams in the definitive radiation treatment of cancer patients. Radiother Oncol. 2010;95:3-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We recommend trials of (1)H vs(12)C with one variable, i.e. LET. The resultant TCP vs NTCP relationship will indicate which beam yields higher TCP for a specified NTCP at a defined dose fractionation. ..
  29. Imai R, Kamada T, Tsuji H, Sugawara S, Serizawa I, Tsujii H, et al. Effect of carbon ion radiotherapy for sacral chordoma: results of Phase I-II and Phase II clinical trials. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77:1470-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Two patients experienced severe skin or soft-tissue complications requiring skin grafts. Carbon ion radiotherapy appears effective and safe in the treatment of patients with sacral chordoma and offers a promising alternative to surgery. ..
  30. George K, Hada M, Jackson L, Elliott T, Kawata T, Pluth J, et al. Dose response of gamma rays and iron nuclei for induction of chromosomal aberrations in normal and repair-deficient cell lines. Radiat Res. 2009;171:752-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences found between AT and NBS cells at lower doses suggest important questions about the applicability of observations of radiation sensitivity at high doses to low-dose exposures. ..
  31. Ståhl S, Fung E, Adams C, Lengqvist J, Mörk B, Stenerlow B, et al. Proteomics and pathway analysis identifies JNK signaling as critical for high linear energy transfer radiation-induced apoptosis in non-small lung cancer cells. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009;8:1117-29 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we show that high linear energy transfer (LET) IR induces apoptosis in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line, U-1810, whereas low LET IR does not...
  32. Kurpinski K, Jang D, Bhattacharya S, Rydberg B, Chu J, So J, et al. Differential effects of x-rays and high-energy 56Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;73:869-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to compare the biological effects of X-rays and of high-linear energy transfer (LET) (56)Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC)...
  33. Aravindan N, Madhusoodhanan R, Natarajan M, Herman T. Alteration of apoptotic signaling molecules as a function of time after radiation in human neuroblastoma cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;310:167-79 pubmed
    ..Serum-starved human SK-N-MC cells were exposed to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (2 Gy) and incubated for 15, 30, 45 min, and 48 h...
  34. Jones B. The apparent increase in the {beta}-parameter of the linear quadratic model with increased linear energy transfer during fast neutron irradiation. Br J Radiol. 2010;83:433-6 pubmed publisher
    The issue of whether the beta-parameter of the linear quadratic model changes with linear energy transfer (LET) remains controversial...
  35. Bassler N, Jäkel O, Søndergaard C, Petersen J. Dose- and LET-painting with particle therapy. Acta Oncol. 2010;49:1170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, treatment planning based on simultaneous dose and LET optimisation has a potential to achieve higher tumour control and/or reduced normal tissue control probability (NTCP). ..
  36. Persaud R, Zhou H, Baker S, Hei T, Hall E. Assessment of low linear energy transfer radiation-induced bystander mutagenesis in a three-dimensional culture model. Cancer Res. 2005;65:9876-82 pubmed
    ..hybrid (A(L)) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in multicellular clusters was used to investigate low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation-induced bystander genotoxicity...
  37. Suzuki M, Kase Y, Yamaguchi H, Kanai T, Ando K. Relative biological effectiveness for cell-killing effect on various human cell lines irradiated with heavy-ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) carbon-ion beams. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;48:241-50 pubmed
    ..biological effectiveness (RBE) values of various human cell lines for carbon-ion beams with 2 different linear energy transfer (LET) beams and to investigate the relationship between the cell-killing effect and the biophysical ..
  38. Britten R, Peters L, Murray D. Biological factors influencing the RBE of neutrons: implications for their past, present and future use in radiotherapy. Radiat Res. 2001;156:125-35 pubmed
    ..In the future, fast-neutron therapy might be prescribed based upon the relative status of appropriate molecular parameters that have a differential impact upon radiosensitivity to photons compared to fast neutrons. ..
  39. Stenerlow B, Karlsson K, Cooper B, Rydberg B. Measurement of prompt DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells without including heat-labile sites: results for cells deficient in nonhomologous end joining. Radiat Res. 2003;159:502-10 pubmed
    ..A study of cells deficient in nonhomologous end joining reveals that the residual fast repair response typically seen in such cells is solely due to repair at heat-labile sites and is not due to repair of prompt DSBs...
  40. Cucinotta F, Wu H, Shavers M, George K. Radiation dosimetry and biophysical models of space radiation effects. Gravit Space Biol Bull. 2003;16:11-8 pubmed
    ..Physical measurements of space radiation include the absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra...
  41. Leatherbarrow E, Harper J, Cucinotta F, O Neill P. Induction and quantification of gamma-H2AX foci following low and high LET-irradiation. Int J Radiat Biol. 2006;82:111-8 pubmed
    ..of the histone protein H2AX (gamma-H2AX) as an indicator of DSB, exposed to low doses of either low linear energy transfer (LET) (60)Co gamma-rays or high LET a-particles...
  42. Hada M, Sutherland B. Spectrum of complex DNA damages depends on the incident radiation. Radiat Res. 2006;165:223-30 pubmed
    ..The yields (damages/Mbp Gy(-1)) of all damages decreased with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation...
  43. Ding L, Shingyoji M, Chen F, Chatterjee A, Kasai K, Chen D. Gene expression changes in normal human skin fibroblasts induced by HZE-particle radiation. Radiat Res. 2005;164:523-6 pubmed
    ..The results support our hypothesis since the number of genes that commonly changed after exposure to both radiations increased as a function of particle energy. ..
  44. Weyrather W, Kraft G. RBE of carbon ions: experimental data and the strategy of RBE calculation for treatment planning. Radiother Oncol. 2004;73 Suppl 2:S161-9 pubmed
    ..In a theoretical approach, the local effect model (LEM), this dependence is used to calculate clinical RBE. Examples for clinical RBEs are given that have been applied to patient treatments. ..
  45. Jakob B, Rudolph J, Gueven N, Lavin M, Taucher Scholz G. Live cell imaging of heavy-ion-induced radiation responses by beamline microscopy. Radiat Res. 2005;163:681-90 pubmed
  46. Ponomarev A, Cucinotta F. Chromatin loops are responsible for higher counts of small DNA fragments induced by high-LET radiation, while chromosomal domains do not affect the fragment sizes. Int J Radiat Biol. 2006;82:293-305 pubmed
    To apply a polymer model of DNA damage induced by high-LET (linear energy transfer) radiation and determine the influence of chromosomal domains and loops on fragment length distribution...
  47. Stenerlow B, Hoglund E, Elmroth K, Karlsson K, Radulescu I. Radiation quality dependence of DNA damage induction. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2002;99:137-41 pubmed
    ..micron-1). The amount of DNA less than 1.1 Mbp decreased with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) for all three ions...
  48. Kramer M, Kraft G. Track structure and DNA damage. Adv Space Res. 1994;14:151-9 pubmed
    ..The result of this calculation is compared to other models and used for a qualitative interpretation of the induction of DNA damage by particles. ..
  49. Kronenberg A. Mutation induction in human lymphoid cells by energetic heavy ions. Adv Space Res. 1994;14:339-46 pubmed
    ..The action cross section for induction of hprt-deficient mutants by energetic Fe ions is more than 10-fold lower for lymphoblastoid cells than for fibroblasts. ..
  50. Ito A, Nakano H, Kusano Y, Hirayama R, Furusawa Y, Murayama C, et al. Contribution of indirect action to radiation-induced mammalian cell inactivation: dependence on photon energy and heavy-ion LET. Radiat Res. 2006;165:703-12 pubmed
    ..4 keV to 1.25 MeV and for heavy ions over the linear energy transfer (LET) range from 20 keV/microm to 440 keV/microm by applying competition kinetics analysis using the OH ..
  51. Goodhead D. Energy deposition stochastics and track structure: what about the target?. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;122:3-15 pubmed
  52. Weyrather W, Ritter S, Scholz M, Kraft G. RBE for carbon track-segment irradiation in cell lines of differing repair capacity. Int J Radiat Biol. 1999;75:1357-64 pubmed
    ..The carbon RBE LET relationship for inactivation is shifted to higher LET values compared with protons and alpha-particles. RBE correlated with the repair capacity of the cells. ..
  53. Cucinotta F, Nikjoo H, Goodhead D. Applications of amorphous track models in radiation biology. Radiat Environ Biophys. 1999;38:81-92 pubmed