dialysis

Summary

Summary: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. van Liempd S, Morrison D, Sysmans L, Nelis P, Mortishire Smith R. Development and validation of a higher-throughput equilibrium dialysis assay for plasma protein binding. J Lab Autom. 2011;16:56-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The described method is based on the 48-well format rapid equilibrium dialysis (RED) device in combination with a robotic liquid handling platform and quantitative bioanalysis...
  2. Grodzicki M, Kotulski M, Leonowicz D, Zieniewicz K, Krawczyk M. Results of treatment of acute liver failure patients with use of the prometheus FPSA system. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:3079-81 pubmed publisher
    ..have presented the results of treatment of acute liver failure (ALF) patients with the use of the Prometheus FPSA dialysis system. To January 2009, we performed 278 FPSA procedures in 114 patients, including 52 experience and ALF...
  3. Barraclough K, Hawley C, Playford E, Johnson D. Prevention of access-related infection in dialysis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009;7:1185-200 pubmed publisher
    ..such as exit-site infections, tunnel infections, bacteremia, fungemia and peritonitis, are the Achilles' heel of dialysis, and contribute significantly to morbidity, mortality and excess healthcare costs in hemodialysis and peritoneal ..
  4. Lo L, Go A, Chertow G, McCulloch C, Fan D, Ordonez J, et al. Dialysis-requiring acute renal failure increases the risk of progressive chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2009;76:893-9 pubmed publisher
    ..studied the outcome of patients whose initial kidney function was normal or near normal but who had an episode of dialysis-requiring ARF and did not develop end-stage renal disease within 30 days following hospital discharge...
  5. Chang R, Hsieh C, Myrtle R. The effect of outpatient dialysis global budget cap on healthcare utilization by end-stage renal disease patients. Soc Sci Med. 2011;73:153-9 pubmed publisher
    ..healthcare costs associated with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) services utilization, imposed an outpatient dialysis global budget (ODBG) on outpatient dialysis care...
  6. Xu X, Khan M, Burgess D. A two-stage reverse dialysis in vitro dissolution testing method for passive targeted liposomes. Int J Pharm. 2012;426:211-218 pubmed publisher
    A novel two-stage reverse dialysis method has been developed for in vitro release testing of liposomal drug product with passive targeting characteristics...
  7. Rau S, Wessely M, Lange P, Kupatt C, Steinbeck G, Fischereder M, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in dialysis patients. Nephron Clin Pract. 2012;120:c86-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, dialysis patients were excluded from all previous studies...
  8. Chen J, Yang Y, Lee W, Liou C, Lin T, Chung Y, et al. Sequence-based polymorphisms in the mitochondrial D-loop and potential SNP predictors for chronic dialysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41125 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to investigate the prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the D-loop among chronic dialysis patients and healthy controls. We enrolled 193 chronic dialysis patients and 704 healthy controls...
  9. Mushatt D, Mihm L, Dreisbach A, Simon E. Antibiotic dosing in slow extended daily dialysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:433-7 pubmed publisher
    Slow extended daily dialysis (SLEDD) is the newest form of dialysis that is being used increasingly to replace continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) for critically ill patients; it is less expensive to administer and has similar ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ocak G, Vossen C, Rotmans J, Lijfering W, Rosendaal F, Parlevliet K, et al. Venous and arterial thrombosis in dialysis patients. Thromb Haemost. 2011;106:1046-52 pubmed publisher
    Whether the risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis is increased in dialysis patients as compared to the general population is unknown. In addition, it is unknown which subgroups are at highest risk...
  2. Pagels A, Söderkvist B, Medin C, Hylander B, Heiwe S. Health-related quality of life in different stages of chronic kidney disease and at initiation of dialysis treatment. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2012;10:71 pubmed publisher
    ..quality of life (HRQoL) in patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) up to initiation of dialysis treatment and to explore possible correlating and influencing factors...
  3. Kritsunankul O, Jakmunee J. Simultaneous determination of some food additives in soft drinks and other liquid foods by flow injection on-line dialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography. Talanta. 2011;84:1342-9 pubmed publisher
    Flow injection on-line dialysis was developed for sample pretreatment prior to the simultaneous determination of some food additives by high performance liquid chromatography (FID-HPLC)...
  4. Novelli G, Rossi M, Ferretti G, Pugliese F, Ruberto F, Lai Q, et al. Predictive criteria for the outcome of patients with acute liver failure treated with the albumin dialysis molecular adsorbent recirculating system. Ther Apher Dial. 2009;13:404-12 pubmed publisher
    ..For patients with an improvement of neurological status, cytokines, lactate, and hemodynamic parameters, LTx was no longer necessary and their treatment continued with MARS and standard medical therapy. ..
  5. Imami K, Sugiyama N, Tomita M, Ishihama Y. Quantitative proteome and phosphoproteome analyses of cultured cells based on SILAC labeling without requirement of serum dialysis. Mol Biosyst. 2010;6:594-602 pubmed publisher
    ..We also evaluated 9 other cell lines, including HeLa, HEK293 and Panc1, and found that the influence of serum dialysis on the expression profiles of the proteome and phosphoproteome varied, depending on the cell type...
  6. Martin D, Krishnamoorthy S, Kalb B, Salman K, Sharma P, Carew J, et al. Decreased incidence of NSF in patients on dialysis after changing gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI protocols. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2010;31:440-6 pubmed publisher
    To retrospectively determine the incidence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients on dialysis administered either a lower dose high-relaxivity linear gadolinium-chelate, gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance, MH), compared to a ..
  7. Kong X, Liu L, Zuo L, Yuan P, Li Z, Li W, et al. Association between family members of dialysis patients and chronic kidney disease: a multicenter study in China. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:19 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to investigate the prevalence of CKD among fist-degree relatives and spouses of dialysis patients in China...
  8. Telaku S, Fejza H, Elezi Y, Bicaj T. Hepatitis B and C in dialysis units in Kosova. Virol J. 2009;6:72 pubmed publisher
    ..HBV and HCV prevalence in our HD patients is still high. These data emphasize the need for stricter adherence to infection control, barrier precaution and preventive behaviors with all patients. ..
  9. Fabrizi F, Dixit V, Messa P, Martin P. Meta-analysis: levamisole improves the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in dialysis patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010;32:756-62 pubmed publisher
    Patients undergoing maintenance dialysis often fail to mount protective antibodies to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) following vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
  10. Kritsunankul O, Pramote B, Jakmunee J. Flow injection on-line dialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of some organic acids in wine. Talanta. 2009;79:1042-9 pubmed publisher
    A combined system of flow injection on-line dialysis sample pretreatment and high performance liquid chromatographic separation/detection (FID-HPLC) was developed for simultaneous determination of six organic acids (tartaric, malic, ..
  11. Boonsrirat U, Tiranathanagul K, Srisawat N, Susantitaphong P, Komolmit P, Praditpornsilpa K, et al. Effective bilirubin reduction by single-pass albumin dialysis in liver failure. Artif Organs. 2009;33:648-53 pubmed publisher
    Albumin dialysis is widely accepted as a liver-support technique for patients with liver failure...
  12. Kortgen A, Rauchfuss F, Götz M, Settmacher U, Bauer M, Sponholz C. Albumin dialysis in liver failure: comparison of molecular adsorbent recirculating system and single pass albumin dialysis--a retrospective analysis. Ther Apher Dial. 2009;13:419-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to standard medical treatment, extracorporeal liver support with albumin dialysis is used for this purpose...
  13. Nounou M, El Khordagui L, Khalafallah N, Khalil S. In vitro release of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs from liposomal dispersions and gels. Acta Pharm. 2006;56:311-24 pubmed
    ..rate of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs release from different types of liposomal dispersions and gels using a dialysis method is described...
  14. Fridén M, Bergström F, Wan H, Rehngren M, Ahlin G, Hammarlund Udenaes M, et al. Measurement of unbound drug exposure in brain: modeling of pH partitioning explains diverging results between the brain slice and brain homogenate methods. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011;39:353-62 pubmed publisher
    ..brain in vivo with estimation of brain tissue binding from one of two available in vitro methods: equilibrium dialysis of brain homogenate and the brain slice uptake method...
  15. Shiota J, Izumi N, Kasahara H, Tagawa H, Chiba T, Nihei H. [Relationship between coronary and abdominal calcification score, serum osteoprotegerin (OPG), and serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) -5b in pre-dialysis CKD patients]. Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi. 2010;52:1022-8 pubmed
    ..score (CACS) and abdominal aortic calcification score (AAoCS) by multi-detector computed tomography in 30 pre-dialysis CKD patients (eGFR 20 mL/min on average)...
  16. Lopez Espinosa M, Fitz Simon N, Bloom M, Calafat A, Fletcher T. Comparison between free serum thyroxine levels, measured by analog and dialysis methods, in the presence of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate. Reprod Toxicol. 2012;33:552-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess if there is evidence of differences between human FT4 measurements in serum by an analog and a dialysis method due to the presence of PFOS or perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in a population of 50 adults with typical US ..
  17. Tennankore K, Hingwala J, Watson D, Bargman J, Chan C. Attitudes and perceptions of nephrology nurses towards dialysis modality selection: a survey study. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:192 pubmed publisher
    There is a paucity of information about the views of dialysis nurses towards dialysis modality selection, yet nurses often have the most direct contact time with patients...
  18. Silberzweig J, Chung M. Removal of gadolinium by dialysis: review of different strategies and techniques. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;30:1347-9 pubmed publisher
    ..accepted risk factor for NSF, we provide some suggestions to improve clearance of both free and chelated gadolinium using different dialysis strategies and techniques. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;30:1347-1349. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  19. Su B, Tsai K, Yeh S, Ho Y, Liu S, Rivers P. Risk factor and cost accounting analysis for dialysis patients in Taiwan. Health Serv Manage Res. 2010;23:84-93 pubmed publisher
    ..on 2005 Taiwan national statistics, there were 52,958 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving routine dialysis treatment. This number, which comprised less than 0.2% of the total population and consumed $2...
  20. Kutner N, Johansen K, Kaysen G, Pederson S, Chen S, Agodoa L, et al. The comprehensive dialysis study (CDS): a USRDS special study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4:645-50 pubmed publisher
    The Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS) aimed to understand factors contributing to physical, functional, and nutritional health status among patients starting dialysis...
  21. Aoki M, Matsuda T, Tomo Y, Miyata Y, Inoue M, Kigawa T, et al. Automated system for high-throughput protein production using the dialysis cell-free method. Protein Expr Purif. 2009;68:128-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We have developed a dialysis reactor and a fully automated system for protein production using the dialysis cell-free synthesis method, which ..
  22. Chen Z, Campbell P, Fortin C. Silver binding by humic acid as determined by equilibrium ion-exchange and dialysis. J Phys Chem A. 2012;116:6532-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two independent speciation methods, the equilibrium ion-exchange technique (IET) and equilibrium dialysis (EqD), were used to determine silver binding by standard Suwannee River humic acid...
  23. Takahashi K, Umehara Y, Umehara M, Nishimura A, Narumi S, Toyoki Y, et al. Plasma exchange-based plasma recycling dialysis system as an artificial liver support. Ther Apher Dial. 2008;12:264-70 pubmed publisher
    We developed a plasma recycling dialysis (PRD) system based on plasma exchange (PE)...
  24. Duman D, Demirtunc R, Erdogan B, Sahin G, Karadag B. Dialysis-induced hypotension is associated with impaired aortic elasticity in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Blood Press Monit. 2008;13:73-8 pubmed publisher
    The pathogenesis of dialysis-induced hypotension (DIH) is multifactorial and may include increased aortic stiffness...
  25. D Souza S, DeLuca P. Development of a dialysis in vitro release method for biodegradable microspheres. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2005;6:E323-8 pubmed
    ..Peptide diffusion through the dialysis membrane was rapid at 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C in all buffers and was independent of peptide concentration...
  26. Johansen K, Sakkas G, Doyle J, Shubert T, Dudley R. Exercise counseling practices among nephrologists caring for patients on dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;41:171-8 pubmed
    Patients on dialysis therapy are inactive, are at high risk for conditions that can be prevented or ameliorated by exercise, and often receive most of their care from their nephrologist...
  27. Pesci Bardon C, Fosse T, Madinier I, Serre D. In vitro new dialysis protocol to assay the antiseptic properties of a quaternary ammonium compound polymerized with denture acrylic resin. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2004;39:226-31 pubmed
    ..of a quaternary ammonium compound polymerized with acrylic denture resin base, using experimental resin discs and dialysis membranes. Experimental acrylic resin discs were polymerized with Poly 202063A, an ammonium compound (2-50%)...
  28. Lin Z, Musiano D, Abbot A, Shum L. In vitro plasma protein binding determination of flunarizine using equilibrium dialysis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005;37:757-62 pubmed
    ..Equilibrium dialysis was used for the separation of free (unbound) drug and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) ..
  29. Chaires J. Competition dialysis: an assay to measure the structural selectivity of drug-nucleic acid interactions. Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents. 2005;5:339-52 pubmed
    Competition dialysis is a powerful new tool for the discovery of ligands that bind to nucleic acids with structural- or sequence-selectivity. The method is based on firm thermodynamic principles and is simple to implement...
  30. Ragazzon P, Garbett N, Chaires J. Competition dialysis: a method for the study of structural selective nucleic acid binding. Methods. 2007;42:173-82 pubmed
    Competition dialysis is a powerful new tool for the discovery of ligands that bind to nucleic acids with structural- or sequence-selectivity. The method is based on firm thermodynamic principles and is simple to implement...
  31. Prikis M, Bhasin V, Young M, Gennari F, Rimmer J. Sustained low-efficiency dialysis as a treatment modality in a patient with lymphoma-associated lactic acidosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:2383-5 pubmed
  32. Waters N, Jones R, Williams G, Sohal B. Validation of a rapid equilibrium dialysis approach for the measurement of plasma protein binding. J Pharm Sci. 2008;97:4586-95 pubmed publisher
    Equilibrium dialysis (ED) is one of the most frequently used approaches to investigate drug binding, where the major drawbacks are the time to reach equilibrium (varying between 6 and 24 h), a long assay preparation time and complexity of ..
  33. McGowan T, Vaccaro N, Beaver J, Massarella J, Wolfson M. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of extended dosing of epoetin alfa in anemic patients who have chronic kidney disease and are not on dialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3:1006-14 pubmed publisher
    ..of epoetin alfa administered subcutaneously in anemic patients who had chronic kidney disease and were not on dialysis. Thirty-eight patients, enrolled from nine centers in the United States, were > or =18 yr of age and had ..
  34. Plantinga L, Fink N, Melamed M, Briggs W, Powe N, Jaar B. Serum phosphate levels and risk of infection in incident dialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3:1398-406 pubmed publisher
    Hyperphosphatemia is highly prevalent in dialysis patients and may be associated with immune dysfunction. The association of serum phosphate level with infection remains largely unexamined...
  35. Ragazzon P, Chaires J. Use of competition dialysis in the discovery of G-quadruplex selective ligands. Methods. 2007;43:313-23 pubmed
    ..G-quadruplexes thus represent an attractive target for new small-molecule therapeutic agents. Competition dialysis provides a useful tool for the discovery of small molecules that selectively recognize the unique structural ..
  36. Culp W, Porter T, Xie F, Goertzen T, McCowan T, Vonk B, et al. Microbubble potentiated ultrasound as a method of declotting thrombosed dialysis grafts: experimental study in dogs. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2001;24:407-12 pubmed
    ..We develop a similar method to declot full-size arteriovenous dialysis grafts. Dialysis grafts fashioned in three dogs were cannulated and ligated...
  37. Karvellas C, Bagshaw S, McDermid R, Stollery D, Gibney R. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure treated with single-pass albumin dialysis: report of a case. Int J Artif Organs. 2008;31:450-5 pubmed
    ..One method, single-pass albumin dialysis (SPAD), involves dialyzing blood against an albumin-containing solution across a high-flux membrane to remove ..
  38. Umetsu M, Tsumoto K, Hara M, Ashish K, Goda S, Adschiri T, et al. How additives influence the refolding of immunoglobulin-folded proteins in a stepwise dialysis system. Spectroscopic evidence for highly efficient refolding of a single-chain Fv fragment. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8979-87 pubmed
    The gradual removal of the denaturing reagent guanidine HCl (GdnHCl) using stepwise dialysis with the introduction of an oxidizing reagent and l-arginine resulted in the highly efficient refolding of various denatured single-chain Fv ..
  39. Szeto C, Wong T, Chow K, Leung C, Li P. Oral sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of metabolic acidosis in peritoneal dialysis patients: a randomized placebo-control trial. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14:2119-26 pubmed
    Acidosis causes malnutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The effect of oral bicarbonate in PD patients with Kt/V <2.1 has not been studied. We randomly assigned 60 PD patients with acidosis and Kt/V <2...
  40. Rosu F, De Pauw E, Guittat L, Alberti P, Lacroix L, Mailliet P, et al. Selective interaction of ethidium derivatives with quadruplexes: an equilibrium dialysis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis. Biochemistry. 2003;42:10361-71 pubmed
    ..itself toward different G-quadruplex species, with electrospray mass spectrometry and competitive equilibrium dialysis and evaluated their inhibitory properties against telomerase...
  41. Thomas M. Deprivation and dialysis: pathways to kidney failure in Australian Aborigines. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2005;12:84-7 pubmed
    ..cost-effective: tight blood pressure control at least halves the rate of disease progression, and every year of dialysis deferred for 1 patient could fund the appointment of 2 health workers...
  42. Yang W, Tan H, Lui H, Chow P, Choong H, Wong K. Albumin dialysis in critically ill patients: use versus omission of intradialytic heparin. Artif Organs. 2008;32:411-6 pubmed publisher
    Albumin liver dialysis using the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) (Teraklin AG, Rostock, Germany) is used in severe acute liver failure (ALF)...
  43. Isoniemi H, Koivusalo A, Repo H, Ilonen I, Hockerstedt K. The effect of albumin dialysis on cytokine levels in acute liver failure and need for liver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:1088-90 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly TNFalfa level was normal and did not change during therapy. In theory, MARS albumin dialysis may remove toxic substances from the blood circulation and thereby improve the possibilities of the liver to ..
  44. Coelho Marques F, Wagner M, Poli de Figueiredo C, d Avila D. Quality of life and sexuality in chronic dialysis female patients. Int J Impot Res. 2006;18:539-43 pubmed
    ..sexual conditions, and QOL in 86 healthy women aged 18 or more years (Group 1), and 38 female ESRD patients on dialysis for at least 2 months (Group 2). The effect of several explanatory variables upon QOL components was estimated...
  45. Relini A, Canale C, De Stefano S, Rolandi R, Giorgetti S, Stoppini M, et al. Collagen plays an active role in the aggregation of beta2-microglobulin under physiopathological conditions of dialysis-related amyloidosis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:16521-9 pubmed
    b>Dialysis-related amyloidosis is characterized by the deposition of insoluble fibrils of beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)-m) in the musculoskeletal system...
  46. Sapin R, D Herbomez M, Schlienger J. Free thyroxine measured with equilibrium dialysis and nine immunoassays decreases in late pregnancy. Clin Lab. 2004;50:581-4 pubmed
    ..We used the reference method, equilibrium dialysis, and nine immunoassays. The bias between immunoassay and dialysis results was insignificant or modest...
  47. Krisper P, Haditsch B, Stauber R, Jung A, Stadlbauer V, Trauner M, et al. In vivo quantification of liver dialysis: comparison of albumin dialysis and fractionated plasma separation. J Hepatol. 2005;43:451-7 pubmed
    ..delivered treatment dose of two commercially available devices that use different therapeutic principles: albumin dialysis (AD, MARS) and fractionated plasma separation (FPS, Prometheus)...
  48. Canaud B, Desmeules S, Klouche K, Leray Moragués H, Beraud J. Vascular access for dialysis in the intensive care unit. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2004;18:159-74 pubmed
    ..This 'lifeline' of chronic renal failure patients may be maintained by preventing inflammation, infection and thrombosis of the superficial vessels of the arm and forearm of patient. ..
  49. Yoneda T, Maruyama Y, Uji Y, Motomiya Y, Hashiguchi Y, Miura M, et al. A possible role for leptin in normo- or hypoparathyroid uremic bone in postmenopausal dialysis women. J Bone Miner Metab. 2001;19:119-24 pubmed
    ..Serum leptin, various bone markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were studied in 51 dialysis patients (26 men and 25 women). The serum concentrations of leptin in dialysis patients ranged from 0.7 to 10...
  50. Kalantar Zadeh K, Abbott K, Kronenberg F, Anker S, Horwich T, Fonarow G. Epidemiology of dialysis patients and heart failure patients. Semin Nephrol. 2006;26:118-33 pubmed
    The epidemiology of maintenance dialysis patients and heart failure patients has striking similarities...
  51. Musselman D, Marzec U, Davidoff M, Manatunga A, Gao F, Reemsnyder A, et al. Platelet activation and secretion in patients with major depression, thoracic aortic atherosclerosis, or renal dialysis treatment. Depress Anxiety. 2002;15:91-101 pubmed
    ..comparison subjects (n = 12) and three patient groups: patients diagnosed with DSM-IV major depression (n = 15), dialysis-dependent patients (n = 12), and patients with severe thoracic aortic atherosclerosis (n = 10)...
  52. Putcha N, Allon M. Management of hyperkalemia in dialysis patients. Semin Dial. 2007;20:431-9 pubmed
    ..b>Dialysis is the definitive treatment of hyperkalemia in these patients...
  53. Stange J, Hassanein T, Mehta R, Mitzner S, Bartlett R. The molecular adsorbents recycling system as a liver support system based on albumin dialysis: a summary of preclinical investigations, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial, and clinical experience from 19 centers. Artif Organs. 2002;26:103-10 pubmed
    ..Albumin as a molecular adsorbent in dialysis solution is capable of attracting even tightly albumin-bound toxins from blood into the dialysate if a specific ..