Summary: The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.

Top Publications

  1. Deng S, Yu G, Ting Y. Production of a bioflocculant by Aspergillus parasiticus and its application in dye removal. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2005;44:179-86 pubmed
    ..The amino and amide groups in the bioflocculant molecule are believed to play an important role in flocculation from the viewpoint of electrostatic interaction.
  2. Zheng H, Gao Z, Yin J, Tang X, Ji X, Huang H. Harvesting of microalgae by flocculation with poly (?-glutamic acid). Bioresour Technol. 2012;112:212-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Conditions for flocculation of marine Chlorella vulgaris and freshwater Chlorella protothecoides were optimized by response surface ..
  3. More T, Yan S, Hoang N, Tyagi R, Surampalli R. Bacterial polymer production using pre-treated sludge as raw material and its flocculation and dewatering potential. Bioresour Technol. 2012;121:425-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Maximum flocculation activity of 79.1% and increased dewatering by 52...
  4. Kregiel D, Berlowska J, Szubzda B. Novel permittivity test for determination of yeast surface charge and flocculation abilities. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;39:1881-6 pubmed publisher
    Yeast flocculation has been found to be important in many biotechnological processes. It has been suggested that flocculation is promoted by decreasing electrostatic repulsion between cells...
  5. Wan C, Zhao X, Guo S, Asraful Alam M, Bai F. Bioflocculant production from Solibacillus silvestris W01 and its application in cost-effective harvest of marine microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica by flocculation. Bioresour Technol. 2013;135:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..90% flocculating efficiency on marine microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica, and no metal ion was required for the flocculation process. Chemical analysis of the purified bioflocculant indicated that it is a proteoglycan composed of 75...
  6. Matsuzawa T, Kageyama Y, Ooishi K, Kawamukai M, Takegawa K. The zinc finger protein Gsf1 regulates Gsf2-dependent flocculation in fission yeast. FEMS Yeast Res. 2013;13:259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a novel gene designated gsf1(+) found to be a negative regulator of nonsexual flocculation. We identified gsf1(+) as a multicopy suppressor of a sam2 mutation, which caused growth sensitivity to Ca(2+) ..
  7. Yang Z, Yang H, Jiang Z, Cai T, Li H, Li H, et al. Flocculation of both anionic and cationic dyes in aqueous solutions by the amphoteric grafting flocculant carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide. J Hazard Mater. 2013;254-255:36-45 pubmed publisher
    ..its precursors, chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan, CMC-g-PAM11 showed higher removal efficiencies and wider flocculation windows...
  8. Vandamme D, Foubert I, Fraeye I, Meesschaert B, Muylaert K. Flocculation of Chlorella vulgaris induced by high pH: role of magnesium and calcium and practical implications. Bioresour Technol. 2012;105:114-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we explore the potential of flocculation induced by high pH for harvesting Chlorella vulgaris...
  9. Wu Z, Zhu Y, Huang W, Zhang C, Li T, Zhang Y, et al. Evaluation of flocculation induced by pH increase for harvesting microalgae and reuse of flocculated medium. Bioresour Technol. 2012;110:496-502 pubmed publisher
    b>Flocculation induced by pH increase for harvesting microalgae and reuse of flocculated medium were evaluated...

More Information


  1. Kwon E, Laderoute A, Chatfield Reed K, Vachon L, Karagiannis J, Chua G. Deciphering the transcriptional-regulatory network of flocculation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003104 pubmed publisher
    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the transcriptional-regulatory network that governs flocculation remains poorly understood...
  2. Zamalloa C, Boon N, Verstraete W. Decentralized two-stage sewage treatment by chemical-biological flocculation combined with microalgae biofilm for nutrient immobilization in a roof installed parallel plate reactor. Bioresour Technol. 2013;130:152-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The design involves a relatively low capital and operating cost which is in the order of 0.5€/m(3) wastewater treated. These aspects suggest that the A/I process can be used as a decentralized domestic wastewater treatment system. ..
  3. Vandamme D, Foubert I, Muylaert K. Flocculation as a low-cost method for harvesting microalgae for bulk biomass production. Trends Biotechnol. 2013;31:233-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flocculation is seen as a promising low-cost harvesting method...
  4. Lee J, Cho D, Ramanan R, Kim B, Oh H, Kim H. Microalgae-associated bacteria play a key role in the flocculation of Chlorella vulgaris. Bioresour Technol. 2013;131:195-201 pubmed publisher
    b>Flocculation is most preferred method for harvesting microalgae, however, the role of bacteria in microalgal flocculation process is still unknown...
  5. Li R, Li X, Sun L, Chen F, Liu Z, Gu Y, et al. Reduction of ribosome level triggers flocculation of fission yeast cells. Eukaryot Cell. 2013;12:450-9 pubmed publisher
    Deletion of ribosomal protein L32 genes resulted in a nonsexual flocculation of fission yeast. Nonsexual flocculation also occurred when two other ribosomal protein genes, rpl21-2 and rpl9-2, were deleted...
  6. Wang J, Yuan S, Wang Y, Yu H. Synthesis, characterization and application of a novel starch-based flocculant with high flocculation and dewatering properties. Water Res. 2013;47:2643-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Flocculation process is one of the most widely used techniques for water and wastewater treatment, and also for sludge dewatering...
  7. Calgua B, Fumian T, Rusinol M, Rodriguez Manzano J, Mbayed V, Bofill Mas S, et al. Detection and quantification of classic and emerging viruses by skimmed-milk flocculation and PCR in river water from two geographical areas. Water Res. 2013;47:2797-810 pubmed publisher
    ..method applied for virus concentration in fresh water samples is a one-step procedure based on a skimmed-milk flocculation procedure described previously for seawater...
  8. Calera J, Calderone R. Flocculation of hyphae is associated with a deletion in the putative CaHK1 two-component histidine kinase gene from Candida albicans. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 6):1431-42 pubmed
    ..5). The flocculation occurs by an interaction along the hyphal surfaces, probably because of the altered expression of one or more ..
  9. Holle A, Machado M, Soares E. Flocculation in ale brewing strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: re-evaluation of the role of cell surface charge and hydrophobicity. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;93:1221-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Flocculation is an eco-friendly process of cell separation, which has been traditionally exploited by the brewing industry...
  10. Mabinya L, Cosa S, Mkwetshana N, Okoh A. Halomonas sp. OKOH--a marine bacterium isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay--produces a polysaccharide bioflocculant: partial characterization and biochemical analysis of its properties. Molecules. 2011;16:4358-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, initial pH of 7.0 and Ca²? supported optimal production of the bioflocculant with flocculating activities of 87% respectively. Chemical analyses revealed the bioflocculant to be a polysaccharide...
  11. Govender P, Domingo J, Bester M, Pretorius I, Bauer F. Controlled expression of the dominant flocculation genes FLO1, FLO5, and FLO11 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:6041-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we assess molecular strategies to optimize the flocculation behavior of S. cerevisiae...
  12. Li X, Yang Q, Huang K, Zeng G, Liao D, Liu J, et al. Screening and characterization of a bioflocculant produced by Aeromonas sp. Biomed Environ Sci. 2007;20:274-8 pubmed
    ..To isolate the bioflocculant-producing bacteria from activated sludge and investigate the flocculating characteristics of the newly isolated bioflocculant...
  13. Coulon J, Matoub L, Dossot M, Marchand S, Bartosz G, Leroy P. Potential relationship between glutathione metabolism and flocculation in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. FEMS Yeast Res. 2007;7:93-101 pubmed
    Reduced glutathione (GSH) is involved in biochemical and physiological processes in cells. Flocculation is an important mechanism in microorganisms...
  14. Barany S, Szepesszentgyörgyi A. Flocculation of cellular suspensions by polyelectrolytes. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2004;111:117-29 pubmed
    The regularities, kinetics and mechanisms of flocculation of Escherichia coli and B. thuringiensis var...
  15. Teunissen A, van den Berg J, Steensma H. Localization of the dominant flocculation genes FLO5 and FLO8 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 1995;11:735-45 pubmed
    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae three dominant flocculation genes, FLO1, FLO5 and FLO8 have been described. Until now only the FLO1 gene, which is located at chromosome I, has been cloned and sequenced...
  16. Wyatt N, Gloe L, Brady P, Hewson J, Grillet A, Hankins M, et al. Critical conditions for ferric chloride-induced flocculation of freshwater algae. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2012;109:493-501 pubmed publisher
    The effects of algae concentration, ferric chloride dose, and pH on the flocculation efficiency of the freshwater algae Chlorella zofingiensis can be understood by considering the nature of the electrostatic charges on the algae and ..
  17. Moghaddam S, Moghaddam M, Arami M. Coagulation/flocculation process for dye removal using sludge from water treatment plant: optimization through response surface methodology. J Hazard Mater. 2010;175:651-7 pubmed publisher
    ..purpose, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize three operating variables of coagulation/flocculation process including initial pH, coagulant dosage and initial dye concentration...
  18. Liu X, Sheng G, Yu H. Physicochemical characteristics of microbial granules. Biotechnol Adv. 2009;27:1061-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our growing knowledge on such characteristics might facilitate the engineering and optimization of microbial granulation as one of the most promising techniques in biological wastewater treatment. ..
  19. Li Z, Zhong S, Lei H, Chen R, Yu Q, Li H. Production of a novel bioflocculant by Bacillus licheniformis X14 and its application to low temperature drinking water treatment. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:3650-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2% and 95.6%, respectively, which were better than conventional chemical flocculants. Charge neutralization and bridging were proposed as the reasons for the enhanced performance based upon the experimental observations. ..
  20. Dietvorst J, Brandt A. Flocculation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is repressed by the COMPASS methylation complex during high-gravity fermentation. Yeast. 2008;25:891-901 pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of the large flocs was dependent on calcium ions and was inhibited by mannose. The flocculation displayed by mutants defective in COMPASS was due to increased amounts of FLO1, FLO5 and FLO9 transcripts...
  21. Zheng Y, Ye Z, Fang X, Li Y, Cai W. Production and characteristics of a bioflocculant produced by Bacillus sp. F19. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:7686-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Cation supplement had no positive effects on the flocculating activity whereas the presence of Fe3+ inhibited flocculation. Influences of pH and bioflocculant dosage on the flocculation were also examined.
  22. Karthik M, Dafale N, Pathe P, Nandy T. Biodegradability enhancement of purified terephthalic acid wastewater by coagulation-flocculation process as pretreatment. J Hazard Mater. 2008;154:721-30 pubmed
    In this work, the coagulation-flocculation process was used as pretreatment for purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater with the objective of improving its overall biodegradability...
  23. Verduzco Luque C, Alp B, Stephens G, Markx G. Construction of biofilms with defined internal architecture using dielectrophoresis and flocculation. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003;83:39-44 pubmed
    ..was developed for the construction of biofilms with defined internal architecture using AC electrokinetics and flocculation. Artificial structured microbial consortia (ASMC) consisting of localized layered microcolonies of different ..
  24. Johnsson M, Wagenaar A, Engberts J. Sugar-based gemini surfactant with a vesicle-to-micelle transition at acidic pH and a reversible vesicle flocculation near neutral pH. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:757-60 pubmed
    ..We find that the flocculation correlates with low vesicle zeta-potentials and the behavior is thus well predicted by the classical DLVO ..
  25. Sampermans S, Mortier J, Soares E. Flocculation onset in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of nutrients. J Appl Microbiol. 2005;98:525-31 pubmed
    To examine the role of the nutrients on the onset of flocculation in an ale-brewing strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 1195. Flocculation was evaluated using the method of Soares, E.V. and Vroman, A...
  26. Li Y, He N, Guan H, Du G, Chen J. A novel polygalacturonic acid bioflocculant REA-11 produced by Corynebacterium glutamicum: a proposed biosynthetic pathway and experimental confirmation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;63:200-6 pubmed
  27. Nontembiso P, Sekelwa C, Leonard M, Anthony O. Assessment of bioflocculant production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert, a marine bacterium isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:1232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..2 of the production medium; and Mg²? as cation. Chemical analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed the compound to be a polysaccharide. ..
  28. Landazuri N, Gupta M, Le Doux J. Rapid concentration and purification of retrovirus by flocculation with Polybrene. J Biotechnol. 2006;125:529-39 pubmed
    ..We conclude that flocculation of retroviruses with a single cationic polymer (PB) is a useful method for rapidly concentrating and purifying ..
  29. Soares E. Flocculation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a review. J Appl Microbiol. 2011;110:1-18 pubmed publisher
    The present work reviews and critically discusses the aspects that influence yeast flocculation, namely the chemical characteristics of the medium (pH and the presence of bivalent ions), fermentation conditions (oxygen, sugars, growth ..
  30. Bauer J, WENDLAND J. Candida albicans Sfl1 suppresses flocculation and filamentation. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:1736-44 pubmed
    ..albicans homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SFL1 (suppressor of flocculation) gene. Deletion of CaSFL1 results in flocculation (i.e...
  31. Amuda O, Amoo I. Coagulation/flocculation process and sludge conditioning in beverage industrial wastewater treatment. J Hazard Mater. 2007;141:778-83 pubmed
    Attempts were made in this study to examine the effectiveness of coagulation and flocculation process using ferric chloride and polyelectrolyte (non-ionic polyacrylamide) for the treatment of beverage industrial wastewater...
  32. Dietvorst J, Brandt A. Histone modifying proteins Gcn5 and Hda1 affect flocculation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during high-gravity fermentation. Curr Genet. 2010;56:75-85 pubmed publisher
    ..fermentations, is affected by complex proteins associated with Set1 (COMPASS) resulting in the induction of flocculation and improved maltose fermentation capacity during the early stages of high-gravity fermentation...
  33. Bortz D, Jackson T, Taylor K, Thompson A, Younger J. Klebsiella pneumoniae flocculation dynamics. Bull Math Biol. 2008;70:745-68 pubmed
    ..an effort to better understand bacterial proliferation in the host bloodstream, we develop a PDE model for the flocculation dynamics of Klebsiella pneumoniae in suspension...
  34. Li X, Yang S. Influence of loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on the flocculation, sedimentation and dewaterability of activated sludge. Water Res. 2007;41:1022-30 pubmed
    ..polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS), on biomass flocculation, sludge settlement and dewaterability...
  35. Pallier V, Feuillade Cathalifaud G, Serpaud B, Bollinger J. Effect of organic matter on arsenic removal during coagulation/flocculation treatment. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2010;342:26-32 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of organic matter on arsenic removal by coagulation/flocculation on both a model water with low mineral content and a natural water sample...
  36. Sarika R, Kalogerakis N, Mantzavinos D. Treatment of olive mill effluents Part II. Complete removal of solids by direct flocculation with poly-electrolytes. Environ Int. 2005;31:297-304 pubmed
    The pre-treatment of three different olive oil processing effluents by means of direct flocculation (i.e. without prior coagulation) was investigated...
  37. Machado M, Santos M, Gouveia C, Soares H, Soares E. Removal of heavy metals using a brewer's yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the flocculation as a separation process. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:2107-15 pubmed
    ..The solid-liquid separation process was carried out using the flocculation ability of the strain...
  38. Braid M, Daniels L, Kitts C. Removal of PCR inhibitors from soil DNA by chemical flocculation. J Microbiol Methods. 2003;52:389-93 pubmed
    ..In this study, chemical flocculation using multivalent cations was investigated as a potential method for eliminating soil-based inhibitors during ..
  39. Powell C, Quain D, Smart K. The impact of brewing yeast cell age on fermentation performance, attenuation and flocculation. FEMS Yeast Res. 2003;3:149-57 pubmed
    ..during alcoholic beverage production, influencing sugar uptake, alcohol and flavour production and also the flocculation properties of the yeast strain...
  40. Gong W, Wang S, Sun X, Liu X, Yue Q, Gao B. Bioflocculant production by culture of Serratia ficaria and its application in wastewater treatment. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:4668-74 pubmed
    ..4% was obtained. It was found to be effective for flocculation of a kaolin suspension over weakly acidic pH (5-7); divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) enhanced the flocculating ..
  41. Goossens K, Stassen C, Stals I, Donohue D, Devreese B, De Greve H, et al. The N-terminal domain of the Flo1 flocculation protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae binds specifically to mannose carbohydrates. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:110-7 pubmed publisher
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells possess a remarkable capacity to adhere to other yeast cells, which is called flocculation. Flocculation is defined as the phenomenon wherein yeast cells adhere in clumps and sediment rapidly from the medium ..
  42. Sterling M, Bonner J, Ernest A, Page C, Autenrieth R. Application of fractal flocculation and vertical transport model to aquatic sol-sediment systems. Water Res. 2005;39:1818-30 pubmed
    In estuarine and coastal environments, flocculation occurs between particles of different fractal dimensions and of different densities...
  43. Xiong Y, Wang Y, Yu Y, Li Q, Wang H, Chen R, et al. Production and characterization of a novel bioflocculant from Bacillus licheniformis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:2778-82 pubmed publisher
    ..76 x 10(6) Da. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the bioflocculant showed an irregular structure with netted texture. Its efficient flocculation capabilities suggest potential applications in industry.
  44. Goossens K, Willaert R. Flocculation protein structure and cell-cell adhesion mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol Lett. 2010;32:1571-85 pubmed publisher
    Cell-cell adhesion occurs in a broad spectrum of biological processes, of which yeast flocculation is an area of interest for evolutionary scientists to brewers and winemakers...
  45. Tang Y, Zhang H, Liu X, Cai D, Feng H, Miao C, et al. Flocculation of harmful algal blooms by modified attapulgite and its safety evaluation. Water Res. 2011;45:2855-62 pubmed publisher
    Natural attapulgite (N-AT) and modified attapulgite (M-AT) were used in this study to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies and mechanisms in freshwater containing harmful algal blooms through conventional jar test procedure...
  46. Cosa S, Mabinya L, Olaniran A, Okoh O, Bernard K, Deyzel S, et al. Bioflocculant production by Virgibacillus sp. Rob isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Molecules. 2011;16:2431-42 pubmed publisher
    ..4%) and peptone (70.4%) as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, alkaline pH (12) (74%); and the presence of Fe2+ (74%). Chemical analysis of the bioflocculant revealed it to be a polysaccharide. ..
  47. Gao J, Bao H, Xin M, Liu Y, Li Q, Zhang Y. Characterization of a bioflocculant from a newly isolated Vagococcus sp. W31. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2006;7:186-92 pubmed
    ..Infrared spectra showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and methoxyl group in its molecules. The present results suggested that MBFW31 had potential application in wastewater treatment. ..
  48. Matsuzawa T, Morita T, Tanaka N, Tohda H, Takegawa K. Identification of a galactose-specific flocculin essential for non-sexual flocculation and filamentous growth in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:1531-44 pubmed publisher
    Although various mutant strains of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe exhibit non-sexual flocculation, little is known about the mechanistic basis for this phenomenon, nor have genes encoding the implicated flocculin been ..
  49. Rangel J, Lopez B, Mejia M, Mendoza C, Luby S. A novel technology to improve drinking water quality: a microbiological evaluation of in-home flocculation and chlorination in rural Guatemala. J Water Health. 2003;1:15-22 pubmed
    ..A product incorporating precipitation, coagulation, flocculation, and chlorination technology (combined product) to reduce microbial, organic and heavy metal contaminants in ..
  50. Xie H, Tkachenko A, Glomm W, Ryan J, Brennaman M, Papanikolas J, et al. Critical flocculation concentrations, binding isotherms, and ligand exchange properties of peptide-modified gold nanoparticles studied by UV-visible, fluorescence, and time-correlated single photon counting spectroscopies. Anal Chem. 2003;75:5797-805 pubmed
    ..counting spectroscopy (TCSPC) in order to quantify peptide-BSA binding isotherms, exchange rates, critical flocculation concentrations, and the composition of mixed peptide-BSA monolayers on gold nanoparticles...
  51. Gregori C, Glaser W, Frohner I, Reinoso Martin C, Rupp S, Schüller C, et al. Efg1 Controls caspofungin-induced cell aggregation of Candida albicans through the adhesin Als1. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:1694-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present the discovery of a novel CASP-induced flocculation phenotype of C. albicans, which formed large cell aggregates in the presence of CASP...
  52. Bester M, Pretorius I, Bauer F. The regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLO gene expression and Ca2+ -dependent flocculation by Flo8p and Mss11p. Curr Genet. 2006;49:375-83 pubmed
    ..starch degradation, the formation of pseudohyphae and haploid invasive growth, also acts as a strong inducer of flocculation. The data indicate that Mss11p induces flocculation together with Flo8p, and that FLO1 is the dominant target ..
  53. Deng S, Bai R, Hu X, Luo Q. Characteristics of a bioflocculant produced by Bacillus mucilaginosus and its use in starch wastewater treatment. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;60:588-93 pubmed
    ..After 5 min of settling, the removal rate of SS and chemical oxygen demand were up to 85.5% and 68.5%, respectively, which is better than traditional chemical flocculants...