Summary: A reaction that introduces an aminoacyl group to a molecule. TRANSFER RNA AMINOACYLATION is the first step in GENETIC TRANSLATION.

Top Publications

  1. Jestin J, Soulé C. Symmetries by base substitutions in the genetic code predict 2(') or 3(') aminoacylation of tRNAs. J Theor Biol. 2007;247:391-4 pubmed
  2. Kumar R, Yarus M. RNA-catalyzed amino acid activation. Biochemistry. 2001;40:6998-7004 pubmed
    ..The appearance of translation in an RNA world is therefore supported. ..
  3. Dreher T. Role of tRNA-like structures in controlling plant virus replication. Virus Res. 2009;139:217-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Three natural aminoacylation identities are represented: valine, histidine, and tyrosine...
  4. Tamura K. Origin of amino acid homochirality: relationship with the RNA world and origin of tRNA aminoacylation. Biosystems. 2008;92:91-8 pubmed publisher
    The origin of homochirality of l-amino acids has long been a mystery. Aminoacylation of tRNA might have provided chiral selectivity, since it is the first process encountered by amino acids and RNA...
  5. Wakasugi K. Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase binds with heme to enhance its aminoacylation activity. Biochemistry. 2007;46:11291-8 pubmed
    Mammalian tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases (TrpRSs) are Zn2+-binding proteins that catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNATrp. The cellular expression level of human TrpRS is highly upregulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)...
  6. Beebe K, Waas W, Druzina Z, Guo M, Schimmel P. A universal plate format for increased throughput of assays that monitor multiple aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase activities. Anal Biochem. 2007;368:111-21 pubmed
    ..Four activities are measured by these assays: active site titration, amino acid activation, aminoacylation, and posttransfer editing (deacylation)...
  7. Tan M, Yan W, Liu R, Wang M, Chen X, Zhou X, et al. A naturally occurring nonapeptide functionally compensates for the CP1 domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase to modulate aminoacylation activity. Biochem J. 2012;443:477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The quality control for aminoacylation is achieved by editing activity, which is usually carried out by a discrete editing domain...
  8. Xu X, Shi Y, Zhang H, Swindell E, Marshall A, Guo M, et al. Unique domain appended to vertebrate tRNA synthetase is essential for vascular development. Nat Commun. 2012;3:681 pubmed publisher
  9. Fender A, Gaudry A, Jühling F, Sissler M, Florentz C. Adaptation of aminoacylation identity rules to mammalian mitochondria. Biochimie. 2012;94:1090-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the reasons for non-aminoacylation by a bacterial enzyme of a mitochondrial tRNA have been explored...

More Information


  1. Herring S, Ambrogelly A, Polycarpo C, Soll D. Recognition of pyrrolysine tRNA by the Desulfitobacterium hafniense pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:1270-8 pubmed
    ..The activation and aminoacylation properties of D...
  2. Naganuma M, Sekine S, Fukunaga R, Yokoyama S. Unique protein architecture of alanyl-tRNA synthetase for aminoacylation, editing, and dimerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..we solved the crystal structures of 2 halves of Archaeoglobus fulgidus AlaRS: AlaRS-DeltaC, comprising the aminoacylation, tRNA-recognition, and editing domains, and AlaRS-C, comprising the dimerization domain...
  3. Santra M, Bagchi B. Catalysis of tRNA aminoacylation: single turnover to steady-state kinetics of tRNA synthetases. J Phys Chem B. 2012;116:11809-17 pubmed publisher
    ..There are two classes of such synthetases that perform tRNA-aminoacylation reaction...
  4. Evilia C, Hou Y. Acquisition of an insertion peptide for efficient aminoacylation by a halophile tRNA synthetase. Biochemistry. 2006;45:6835-45 pubmed
    ..the extreme halophile Halobacterium species NRC-1, deletion of the peptide reduces the catalytic efficiency of aminoacylation by a factor of 100 that largely results from a defect in kcat, rather than the Km for tRNA(Cys)...
  5. Kapoor M, Otero F, Slike B, Ewalt K, Yang X. Mutational separation of aminoacylation and cytokine activities of human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. Chem Biol. 2009;16:531-9 pubmed publisher
    Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases are known for catalysis of aminoacylation. Significantly, some mammalian synthetases developed cytokine functions possibly linked to disease-causing mutations in tRNA synthetases...
  6. Francin M, Mirande M. Identity elements for specific aminoacylation of a tRNA by mammalian lysyl-tRNA synthetase bearing a nonspecific tRNA-interacting factor. Biochemistry. 2006;45:10153-60 pubmed
    ..test whether the tIF domain reduces the specificity of the synthetase with regard to complete tRNA molecules, aminoacylation of wild-type and mutant noncognate tRNAs by wild-type or N-terminally truncated LysRS was examined...
  7. Bonnefond L, Giege R, Rudinger Thirion J. Evolution of the tRNA(Tyr)/TyrRS aminoacylation systems. Biochimie. 2005;87:873-83 pubmed
    ..Recent functional studies on the human mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr)/TyrRS system indicates strong deviations from the canonical tyrosylation rules. These differences are discussed in the light of the present knowledge on TyrRSs. ..
  8. Ataide S, Jester B, Devine K, Ibba M. Stationary-phase expression and aminoacylation of a transfer-RNA-like small RNA. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:742-7 pubmed
    ..b>Aminoacylation of tRNA(Other) was also found to be confined to the stationary phase, which suggests a role for this non-..
  9. Francisci S, DE Luca C, Oliva R, Morea V, Tramontano A, Frontali L. Aminoacylation and conformational properties of yeast mitochondrial tRNA mutants with respiratory deficiency. RNA. 2005;11:914-27 pubmed
  10. Geslain R, Ribas De Pouplana L. Regulation of RNA function by aminoacylation and editing?. Trends Genet. 2004;20:604-10 pubmed
    The chemical modification of nucleic acids is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Aminoacylation of tRNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) is a reaction essentially devoted to protein synthesis but it is used also as an emergency mechanism to ..
  11. Latour P, Thauvin Robinet C, Baudelet Méry C, Soichot P, Cusin V, Faivre L, et al. A major determinant for binding and aminoacylation of tRNA(Ala) in cytoplasmic Alanyl-tRNA synthetase is mutated in dominant axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2010;86:77-82 pubmed publisher axons remains to be evaluated, experimental data point mostly to a quantitative reduction in tRNA(Ala) aminoacylation. Aminoacylation and editing functions closely cooperate in AlaRS, and Arg329His mutation could also lead to ..
  12. Hao R, Yao Y, Zheng Y, Xu M, Wang E. Reduction of mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR) aminoacylation by some MELAS-associated mutations. FEBS Lett. 2004;578:135-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide in vitro evidence that the aminoacylation capacities of these five hmtRNALeu(UUR) transcripts are reduced to different extents relative to the wild-type ..
  13. Banik S, Nandi N. Aminoacylation reaction in the histidyl-tRNA synthetase: fidelity mechanism of the activation step. J Phys Chem B. 2010;114:2301-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Aminoacylation is a vital step of natural biosynthesis of peptide. Correct aminoacylation is a necessary prerequisite for the elimination of noncognate amino acids such as D-amino acids...
  14. Minajigi A, Francklyn C. RNA-assisted catalysis in a protein enzyme: The 2'-hydroxyl of tRNA(Thr) A76 promotes aminoacylation by threonyl-tRNA synthetase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17748-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The proton relay mechanism suggested by these data to promote aminoacylation is reminiscent of the NAD(+)-dependent mechanisms of alcohol dehydrogenases and sirtuins and the RNA-mediated ..
  15. Yanagisawa T, Ishii R, Fukunaga R, Kobayashi T, Sakamoto K, Yokoyama S. Multistep engineering of pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase to genetically encode N(epsilon)-(o-azidobenzyloxycarbonyl) lysine for site-specific protein modification. Chem Biol. 2008;15:1187-97 pubmed publisher
    ..A PylRS(Y384F) mutant obtained by random screening exhibited higher in vitro aminoacylation and in vivo amber suppression activities with BocLys, AlocLys, and pyrrolysine than those of the wild-type ..
  16. Godinic Mikulcic V, Jaric J, Hausmann C, Ibba M, Weygand Durasevic I. An archaeal tRNA-synthetase complex that enhances aminoacylation under extreme conditions. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:3396-404 pubmed publisher
    ..also contained tRNA(Arg), consistent with the existence of a stable ribonucleoprotein complex active in aminoacylation. Steady-state kinetic analyses revealed that addition of MtArgRS to MtSerRS led to an almost 4-fold increase ..
  17. Nozawa K, O Donoghue P, Gundllapalli S, Araiso Y, Ishitani R, Umehara T, et al. Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase-tRNA(Pyl) structure reveals the molecular basis of orthogonality. Nature. 2009;457:1163-7 pubmed publisher
  18. Chumachenko N, Novikov Y, Yarus M. Rapid and simple ribozymic aminoacylation using three conserved nucleotides. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:5257-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Precise removal of 3'-primer before reaction selected aminoacylation from PheAMP in three cycles, yielding active RNAs (k(cat) = 12-20 min(-1)) using only three conserved ..
  19. Tamura K. Molecular handedness of life: significance of RNA aminoacylation. J Biosci. 2009;34:991-4 pubmed
  20. Hammond J, Rambo R, Kieft J. Multi-domain packing in the aminoacylatable 3' end of a plant viral RNA. J Mol Biol. 2010;399:450-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This packing architecture stabilizes the RNA structure and creates a better substrate for aminoacylation, and thus the UPD and TLS are functionally and structurally coupled...
  21. Huang W, Bushnell E, Francklyn C, Gauld J. The ?-amino group of the threonine substrate as the general base during tRNA aminoacylation: a new version of substrate-assisted catalysis predicted by hybrid DFT. J Phys Chem A. 2011;115:13050-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the overall mechanism follows a general substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism. ..
  22. Her S, Kluger R. Biomimetic protecting-group-free 2', 3'-selective aminoacylation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Org Biomol Chem. 2011;9:676-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Competing hydrolysis of the reagent is slow. By extension, this route should provide a simplified general route to synthetically aminoacylated derivatives of tRNA. ..
  23. Zhang C, Liu C, Slater S, Hou Y. Aminoacylation of tRNA with phosphoserine for synthesis of cysteinyl-tRNA(Cys). Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..jannaschii SepRS differs from CysRS by recruiting the m1G37 modification as a determinant for aminoacylation, and in showing limited discrimination against mutations of conserved nucleotides...
  24. Ernst C, Peschel A. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide resistance by MprF-mediated aminoacylation and flipping of phospholipids. Mol Microbiol. 2011;80:290-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a thorough characterization of MprF domains and functions will help to unravel how bacteria maintain and protect their cytoplasmic membranes. ..
  25. Banerjee R, Reynolds N, Yadavalli S, Rice C, Roy H, Banerjee P, et al. Mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase single-nucleotide polymorphisms that lead to defects in refolding but not aminoacylation. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:280-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase variants S57C and N280S both displayed wild-type aminoacylation activity and stability with respect to their free energies of unfolding, but were less stable at low pH...
  26. Froelich C, First E. Dominant Intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder is not due to a catalytic defect in tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. Biochemistry. 2011;50:7132-45 pubmed publisher
    ..test the hypothesis that DI-CMTC is due to a defect in the ability of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase to catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA(Tyr), we have expressed each of these variants as recombinant proteins and used single turnover ..
  27. Sun T, Zhang Y. Pentamidine binds to tRNA through non-specific hydrophobic interactions and inhibits aminoacylation and translation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:1654-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, we showed that pentamidine specifically inhibits tRNA aminoacylation but not the cognate amino acid adenylation...
  28. McLaughlin H, Sakaguchi R, Giblin W, Wilson T, Biesecker L, Lupski J, et al. A recurrent loss-of-function alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) mutation in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2N (CMT2N). Hum Mutat. 2012;33:244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that p.Arg329His AARS also segregated with CMT disease in a large Australian family. Aminoacylation and yeast viability assays showed that p.Arg329His AARS severely reduces enzyme activity...
  29. Randau L, Münch R, Hohn M, Jahn D, Soll D. Nanoarchaeum equitans creates functional tRNAs from separate genes for their 5'- and 3'-halves. Nature. 2005;433:537-41 pubmed
    ..Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and aminoacylation experiments of N...
  30. Lilley D, Sutherland J. The chemical origins of life and its early evolution: an introduction. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011;366:2853-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, the RNA world would probably have given way to protein-based life quite quickly, and the origins of peptidyl transferase activity are discussed below. ..
  31. Marín R, Agudelo W, Daza C E. Radial scan of the molecular electrostatic potential of RNA double helices: an application to the enzyme-tRNA recognition. J Mol Graph Model. 2008;27:255-65 pubmed publisher
    ..aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), in order to correlate their electrostatic behavior with the corresponding aminoacylation activity...
  32. Zenkin N. Hypothesis: emergence of translation as a result of RNA helicase evolution. J Mol Evol. 2012;74:249-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The initial genetic code thus emerged as an assignment of amino acids to codons according to the sequences of the pre-existing RNAs to take advantage of the side products of RNA helicase function. ..
  33. Yanagisawa T, Sumida T, Ishii R, Yokoyama S. A novel crystal form of pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase reveals the pre- and post-aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis conformational states of the adenylate and aminoacyl moieties and an asparagine residue in the catalytic site. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2013;69:5-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The orientation of the Asn346 side chain, which hydrogen-bonds to the carbonyl group of the amino-acid substrate, shifts by a maximum of 85-90° around the C(?) atom...
  34. Zhang X, Ling J, Barcia G, Jing L, Wu J, Barry B, et al. Mutations in QARS, encoding glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, cause progressive microcephaly, cerebral-cerebellar atrophy, and intractable seizures. Am J Hum Genet. 2014;94:547-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The four QARS mutations altered highly conserved amino acids, and the aminoacylation activity of QARS was significantly impaired in mutant cell lines. Variants p.Gly45Val and p...
  35. Evans M, Clark W, Zheng G, Pan T. Determination of tRNA aminoacylation levels by high-throughput sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:e133 pubmed publisher
    ..These low charging levels were validated using acid denaturing gels. Our method should be widely applicable for investigations of tRNA charging as a parameter in biological regulation. ..
  36. Lehmann J, Reichel A, Buguin A, Libchaber A. Efficiency of a self-aminoacylating ribozyme: effect of the length and base-composition of its 3' extension. RNA. 2007;13:1191-7 pubmed
    ..The yield of aminoacylation is particularly high for ribozymes with extensions made up of a poly-U, for which a maximum of efficiency is ..
  37. Linne U, Doekel S, Marahiel M. Portability of epimerization domain and role of peptidyl carrier protein on epimerization activity in nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Biochemistry. 2001;40:15824-34 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, specialized PCP domains are needed for a productive interaction with E domains when constructing hybrid enzymes. ..
  38. Chulin A, Rodionov I, Baidakova L, Rodionova L, Balashova T, Ivanov V. Preparation and reactivity of aminoacyl pyroglutamates. Facile synthesis of 10-membered-ring cyclic dipeptides derived from 1,4-diaminobutyric and glutamic acids. J Pept Sci. 2005;11:175-86 pubmed
  39. Möllers M, Maniura Weber K, Kiseljakovic E, Bust M, Hayrapetyan A, Jaksch M, et al. A new mechanism for mtDNA pathogenesis: impairment of post-transcriptional maturation leads to severe depletion of mitochondrial tRNASer(UCN) caused by T7512C and G7497A point mutations. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:5647-58 pubmed
    ..b>Aminoacylation was apparently unaffected...
  40. Katritzky A, Todadze E, Cusido J, Angrish P, Shestopalov A. Selective peptide chain extension at the N-terminus of aspartic and glutamic acids utilizing 1-(N-protected-alpha-aminoacyl)benzotriazoles. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2006;68:37-41 pubmed
    ..Complete retention of chirality was demonstrated by parallel experiments involving D-Ala, L-Ala, and DL-Ala for the preparation of dipeptides and tripeptides, and supported by NMR and HPLC analyses. ..
  41. Hohn M, Park H, O Donoghue P, Schnitzbauer M, Soll D. Emergence of the universal genetic code imprinted in an RNA record. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18095-100 pubmed
    ..We determined the identity elements of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii tRNA(Cys) in the aminoacylation reaction for the two Methanococcus maripaludis synthetases SepRS (forming Sep-tRNA(Cys)) and cysteinyl-tRNA ..
  42. Preobrazhenskaya M, Olsufyeva E, Miroshnikova O, Plattner J, Chu D, Printsevskaya S. N'-(alpha-aminoacyl)- and N'-alpha-(N(alpha)-alkylamino)acyl derivatives of vancomycin and eremomycin. I. Synthesis of N'-(alpha-aminoacyl)- and N'-alpha-(N(alpha)-alkylamino)acyl derivatives of vancomycin and eremomycin by selective aminoacylation o. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2007;60:235-44 pubmed
    ..In general, N'-(N-alkylglycyl)-derivatives were more active than the corresponding N'-alpha-(N(alpha)-alkylamino)acylated derivatives containing other amino acids (L-Lys, L-Met, L-Orn, L- and D-Ala, L- and D-Phe and benzyl-O-L-Tyr). ..
  43. Paulander W, Maisnier Patin S, Andersson D. Multiple mechanisms to ameliorate the fitness burden of mupirocin resistance in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:1038-48 pubmed
    ..Measurements in vitro of the kinetics of aminoacylation of wild-type and mutant enzymes showed that resistant IleRS had a reduced rate of aminoacylation due to ..
  44. Niwa N, Yamagishi Y, Murakami H, Suga H. A flexizyme that selectively charges amino acids activated by a water-friendly leaving group. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:3892-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The flexizymes system including aFx, eFx, and dFx enables us to prepare a wide variety of acyl-tRNAs charged with non-proteinogenic amino acids. ..
  45. Goto Y, Ohta A, Sako Y, Yamagishi Y, Murakami H, Suga H. Reprogramming the translation initiation for the synthesis of physiologically stable cyclic peptides. ACS Chem Biol. 2008;3:120-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this technology offers a new means to prepare a wide array of in vivo compatible cyclic peptide libraries for the discovery of peptidic drug candidates against various therapeutic targets. ..
  46. Roy H, Ibba M. RNA-dependent lipid remodeling by bacterial multiple peptide resistance factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4667-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used an in vitro reconstituted lipid aminoacylation system to investigate the two phylogenetically distinct MprF paralogs (MprF1 and MprF2) found in the bacterial ..
  47. Rodgers K, Shiozawa N. Misincorporation of amino acid analogues into proteins by biosynthesis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:1452-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We confine the review to studies in which the synthetic machinery of cell has not been modified to accept non-protein amino acids. ..
  48. Katritzky A, El Gendy B, Todadze E, Abdel Fattah A. (Alpha-aminoacyl)amino-substituted heterocycles and related compounds. J Org Chem. 2008;73:5442-5 pubmed publisher
    ..N-Protected peptidoylbenzotriazoles 6a, b similarly afforded C-terminal N-protected dipeptidoyl amides 7a, b (52-60%). ..
  49. Zaher H, Green R. Quality control by the ribosome following peptide bond formation. Nature. 2009;457:161-6 pubmed publisher of protein synthesis has been thought to rely on the combined accuracy of two basic processes: the aminoacylation of transfer RNAs with their cognate amino acid by the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and the selection of cognate ..
  50. Ye S, Köhrer C, Huber T, Kazmi M, Sachdev P, Yan E, et al. Site-specific incorporation of keto amino acids into functional G protein-coupled receptors using unnatural amino acid mutagenesis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1525-33 pubmed
  51. Strieter E, Vaillancourt F, Walsh C. CmaE: a transferase shuttling aminoacyl groups between carrier protein domains in the coronamic acid biosynthetic pathway. Biochemistry. 2007;46:7549-57 pubmed
  52. Pascal R, Boiteau L. Energy flows, metabolism and translation. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011;366:2949-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Amino acyl adenylates involved as aminoacylation intermediates of the latter process reach one of the higher free energy levels found in biochemistry, which ..
  53. Sheoran A, Sharma G, First E. Activation of D-tyrosine by Bacillus stearothermophilus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase: 1. Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis reveals the mechanistic basis for the recognition of D-tyrosine. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12960-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Single turnover kinetics for the aminoacylation of tRNA(Tyr) by D-tyrosine were monitored using stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy...