reverse transcription


Summary: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.

Top Publications

  1. Ligasová A, Koberna K. In situ reverse transcription: the magic of strength and anonymity. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:e167 pubmed publisher
    ..When the high pressure freezing technique followed by the freeze substitution is employed for the cell's preparation, the ratio is higher than 80. ..
  2. Weil A, Ghosh D, Zhou Y, Seiple L, McMahon M, Spivak A, et al. Uracil DNA glycosylase initiates degradation of HIV-1 cDNA containing misincorporated dUTP and prevents viral integration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E448-57 pubmed publisher
    ..When the virus-infected cells contained elevated dUTP levels, reverse transcription was found to proceed unperturbed, but integration and viral protein expression were largely blocked...
  3. Horie M, Honda T, Suzuki Y, Kobayashi Y, Daito T, Oshida T, et al. Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus elements in mammalian genomes. Nature. 2010;463:84-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Eickbush T, Jamburuthugoda V. The diversity of retrotransposons and the properties of their reverse transcriptases. Virus Res. 2008;134:221-34 pubmed publisher
    ..retrotransposons use a cleaved chromosomal target site generated by an encoded endonuclease to prime reverse transcription. Finally, the Penelope-like retrotransposons are not well understood but appear to also use cleaved DNA or ..
  5. Kim J, Tipper C, Sodroski J. Role of TRIM5? RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in capsid disassembly, reverse transcription blockade, and restriction of simian immunodeficiency virus. J Virol. 2011;85:8116-32 pubmed publisher
    ..activity was essential for both the accelerated disassembly of SIV(mac) capsids and the disruption of reverse transcription. The levels of SIV(mac) particulate capsids in the cytosol of target cells expressing the TRIM5? variants ..
  6. Fratczak A, Kierzek R, Kierzek E. LNA-modified primers drastically improve hybridization to target RNA and reverse transcription. Biochemistry. 2009;48:514-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, replacement of DNA primers with LNA-modified primers overcomes this limitation. This approach was tested successfully on regulatory OxyS RNA and DsrA RNA from Escherichia coli. ..
  7. Lu T, Stroot P, Oerther D. Reverse transcription of 16S rRNA to monitor ribosome-synthesizing bacterial populations in the environment. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:4589-98 pubmed publisher
    ..To expand this approach, we employed reverse transcription of total RNA using primer S-D-Bact-0338-a-A-18...
  8. Kwallah A, Inoue S, Muigai A, Kubo T, Sang R, Morita K, et al. A real-time reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the rapid detection of yellow fever virus. J Virol Methods. 2013;193:23-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a rapid detection reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for YFV...
  9. Wu L. SAMHD1: a new contributor to HIV-1 restriction in resting CD4+ T-cells. Retrovirology. 2012;9:88 pubmed publisher
    ..T-cells that support HIV-1 infection, resting CD4+ T-cells have lower levels of dNTPs, which limit HIV-1 reverse transcription. The dNTPase SAMHD1 has been identified as an HIV-1 restriction factor in non-cycling myeloid cells...

More Information


  1. García M, Yu X, Griffin D, Moss W. Measles virus inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcription and replication by blocking cell-cycle progression of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:984-93 pubmed publisher
    ..presence of MV, cells did not progress to G(1b) and S phases, steps critical for the completion of HIV-1 reverse transcription and productive replication...
  2. Nassal M. Hepatitis B viruses: reverse transcription a different way. Virus Res. 2008;134:235-49 pubmed publisher
    ..hepatitis in humans, is the type member of the Hepadnaviridae, hepatotropic DNA viruses that replicate via reverse transcription. Beyond long-established differences to retroviruses in gene expression and overall replication strategy ..
  3. Steele E, Williamson J, Lester S, Stewart B, Millman J, Carnegie P, et al. Genesis of ancestral haplotypes: RNA modifications and reverse transcription-mediated polymorphisms. Hum Immunol. 2011;72:283-293.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..These are then copied back into DNA by a cellular reverse transcription process (also likely to be error-prone) that we have called "reverse transcription-mediated long DNA ..
  4. Nishitsuji H, Hayashi T, Takahashi T, Miyano M, Kannagi M, Masuda T. Augmentation of reverse transcription by integrase through an interaction with host factor, SIP1/Gemin2 Is critical for HIV-1 infection. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7825 pubmed publisher
    There has been accumulating evidence for the involvement of retroviral integrase (IN) in the reverse transcription of viral RNA...
  5. Hagihara M, Yamauchi L, Seo A, Yoneda K, Senda M, Nakatani K. Antisense-induced guanine quadruplexes inhibit reverse transcription by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:11171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..on RNA templates in a predictable and sequence-specific manner, which in practice effectively inhibited reverse transcription on a variety of RNA sequences, including the HIV-1 RNA genome...
  6. Stavrou S, Nitta T, Kotla S, Ha D, Nagashima K, Rein A, et al. Murine leukemia virus glycosylated Gag blocks apolipoprotein B editing complex 3 and cytosolic sensor access to the reverse transcription complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9078-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, in vitro endogenous reverse transcription reactions of the glyco-Gag mutant virus were substantially inhibited compared with WT virus, but only in ..
  7. Li S, Hattori T, Kodama E. Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits the HIV reverse transcription step. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2011;21:239-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, EGCG is a good candidate for use as an additional or supportive anti-HIV agent derived from natural plants. ..
  8. Schmid B, Rösler C, Nassal M. A high level of mutation tolerance in the multifunctional sequence encoding the RNA encapsidation signal of an avian hepatitis B virus and slow evolution rate revealed by in vivo infection. J Virol. 2011;85:9300-13 pubmed publisher
    In all hepadnaviruses, protein-primed reverse transcription of the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) is initiated by binding of the viral polymerase, P protein, to the ? RNA element...
  9. Kielpinski L, Boyd M, Sandelin A, Vinther J. Detection of reverse transcriptase termination sites using cDNA ligation and massive parallel sequencing. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;1038:213-31 pubmed publisher
    ..As an example, we apply the method to detection of transcription start sites in mouse liver cells. ..
  10. Hergott C, Mitra M, Guo J, Wu T, Miller J, Iwatani Y, et al. Zinc finger function of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein is required for removal of 5'-terminal genomic RNA fragments: a paradigm for RNA removal reactions in HIV-1 reverse transcription. Virus Res. 2013;171:346-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HIV-1 has evolved a single mechanism for these RNA removal reactions that are critical for successful reverse transcription.
  11. Pomier C, Alcaraz M, Debacq C, Lançon A, Kerkhofs P, Willems L, et al. Early and transient reverse transcription during primary deltaretroviral infection of sheep. Retrovirology. 2008;5:16 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary infection of a new organism necessary involves allogenic cell infection and thus reverse transcription.
  12. Ge S, Zheng D, Zhao Y, Liu H, Liu W, Sun Q, et al. Evaluating viral interference between Influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in chicken eggs. Virol J. 2012;9:128 pubmed publisher
    ..Our research revisited the replication interference potential of AIV and NDV using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) for AIV and NDV to specifically detect the viral genomes in ..
  13. Bustin S, Benes V, Garson J, Hellemans J, Huggett J, Kubista M, et al. The MIQE guidelines: minimum information for publication of quantitative real-time PCR experiments. Clin Chem. 2009;55:611-22 pubmed publisher
    ..MIQE details should be published either in abbreviated form or as an online supplement. Following these guidelines will encourage better experimental practice, allowing more reliable and unequivocal interpretation of qPCR results. ..
  14. Chen H, Zhang J, Liu Y, Liu X. Rapid typing of foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia 1 by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Virol J. 2011;8:489 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, FMDV sreotype Asia 1 positive samples were able to detect by RT-LAMP assay. This RT-LAMP assay may be suitable particularly for diagnosis of FMDV serotype Asia 1 infection in field stations. ..
  15. Cui L, Ge Y, Qi X, Xu G, Li H, Zhao K, et al. Detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus by reverse transcription-cross-priming amplification coupled with vertical flow visualization. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:3881-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a nearly instrument-free, simple molecular method which incorporates reverse transcription-cross-priming amplification (RT-CPA) coupled with a vertical flow (VF) visualization strip for rapid ..
  16. Readinger J, Schiralli G, Jiang J, Thomas C, August A, Henderson A, et al. Selective targeting of ITK blocks multiple steps of HIV replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6684-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that inhibition of ITK blocks HIV infection by affecting multiple steps of HIV replication. ..
  17. Menendez Arias L, Berkhout B. Retroviral reverse transcription. Virus Res. 2008;134:1-3 pubmed publisher
  18. Xing L, Liang C, Kleiman L. Coordinate roles of Gag and RNA helicase A in promoting the annealing of formula to HIV-1 RNA. J Virol. 2011;85:1847-60 pubmed publisher
    RNA helicase A (RHA) has been shown to promote HIV-1 replication at both the translation and reverse transcription stages...
  19. Sleiman D, Goldschmidt V, Barraud P, Marquet R, Paillart J, Tisne C. Initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription and functional role of nucleocapsid-mediated tRNA/viral genome interactions. Virus Res. 2012;169:324-39 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 reverse transcription is initiated from a tRNA(Lys)(3) molecule annealed to the viral RNA at the primer binding site (PBS)...
  20. Abbink T, Berkhout B. HIV-1 reverse transcription initiation: a potential target for novel antivirals?. Virus Res. 2008;134:4-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Reverse transcription is an essential step in the retroviral life cycle, as it converts the genomic RNA into DNA. In this review, we describe recent developments concerning the initiation step of this complex, multi-step reaction...
  21. Tipper C, Sodroski J. Enhanced autointegration in hyperstable simian immunodeficiency virus capsid mutants blocked after reverse transcription. J Virol. 2013;87:3628-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Rapid uncoating typically leads to blocks in reverse transcription, but the basis for replication defects associated with slow uncoating is less clear...
  22. Macmillan A, Kohli R, Ross S. APOBEC3 inhibition of mouse mammary tumor virus infection: the role of cytidine deamination versus inhibition of reverse transcription. J Virol. 2013;87:4808-17 pubmed publisher
    ..APOBEC3 restricts its viral targets through cytidine deamination of viral DNA during reverse transcription or via deaminase-independent means...
  23. Shi J, Zhou J, Shah V, Aiken C, Whitby K. Small-molecule inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by virus capsid destabilization. J Virol. 2011;85:542-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in CA that destabilize the viral capsid result in impaired infection owing to defects in reverse transcription in target cells...
  24. Wu H, Mitra M, McCauley M, Thomas J, Rouzina I, Musier Forsyth K, et al. Aromatic residue mutations reveal direct correlation between HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein's nucleic acid chaperone activity and retroviral replication. Virus Res. 2013;171:263-77 pubmed publisher a nucleic acid chaperone, in which the protein facilitates nucleic acid rearrangements important for reverse transcription and recombination...
  25. Nemoto M, Imagawa H, Tsujimura K, Yamanaka T, Kondo T, Matsumura T. Detection of equine rotavirus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). J Vet Med Sci. 2010;72:823-6 pubmed
    b>Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was applied to detection of equine rotavirus...
  26. Bishop K, Verma M, Kim E, Wolinsky S, Malim M. APOBEC3G inhibits elongation of HIV-1 reverse transcripts. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000231 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial studies determined that A3G induces extensive mutation of nascent HIV-1 cDNA during reverse transcription. It has been proposed that this triggers the degradation of the viral DNA, but there is now mounting ..
  27. Iordanskiy S, Bukrinsky M. Analysis of viral and cellular proteins in HIV-1 reverse transcription complexes by co-immunoprecipitation. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;485:121-34 pubmed publisher
    ..To accomplish reverse transcription and intracellular transport of the viral genetic material, HIV forms multi-molecular complexes termed ..
  28. Nowotny M, Gaidamakov S, Ghirlando R, Cerritelli S, Crouch R, Yang W. Structure of human RNase H1 complexed with an RNA/DNA hybrid: insight into HIV reverse transcription. Mol Cell. 2007;28:264-76 pubmed
    ..The region that accommodates this conformational change offers a target to develop HIV-specific inhibitors. ..
  29. Carr J, Coolen C, Davis A, Burrell C, Li P. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) virion infectivity factor (Vif) is part of reverse transcription complexes and acts as an accessory factor for reverse transcription. Virology. 2008;372:147-56 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that early after infection of new target cells Vif is part of the HIV reverse transcription machinery and acts as an accessory factor for reverse transcription...
  30. Saitou Y, Kobayashi Y, Hirano S, Mochizuki N, Itou T, Ito F, et al. A method for simultaneous detection and identification of Brazilian dog- and vampire bat-related rabies virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. J Virol Methods. 2010;168:13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was employed as a simultaneous detection method for both ..
  31. Kitajima M, Oka T, Tohya Y, Katayama H, Takeda N, Katayama K. Development of a broadly reactive nested reverse transcription-PCR assay to detect murine noroviruses, and investigation of the prevalence of murine noroviruses in laboratory mice in Japan. Microbiol Immunol. 2009;53:531-4 pubmed publisher
    ..2 approximately 99.1%) to that of MNV-3 (DQ223042). This is the first report demonstrating the prevalence of MNV in Japan. ..
  32. Thomas J, Shatzer T, Gorelick R. Blocking premature reverse transcription fails to rescue the HIV-1 nucleocapsid-mutant replication defect. Retrovirology. 2011;8:46 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses have demonstrated its involvement in viral assembly, genome packaging, budding, maturation, reverse transcription, and integration...
  33. Badtke M, Khan I, Cao F, Hu J, Tavis J. An interdomain RNA binding site on the hepadnaviral polymerase that is essential for reverse transcription. Virology. 2009;390:130-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This implies that specificity for the viral RNA is provided by a post-binding step. The T3:RT-1 motifs are conserved with the human hepatitis B virus and may be an attractive target for novel antiviral drug development...
  34. Zhou Y, Shen L, Yang H, Siliciano R. Preferential cytolysis of peripheral memory CD4+ T cells by in vitro X4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection before the completion of reverse transcription. J Virol. 2008;82:9154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..type 1 (HIV-1) infection preferentially depletes peripheral memory CD4+ T cells before the completion of reverse transcription. Using a recombinant HIV-1 carrying the green fluorescent protein reporter gene, we demonstrate that ..
  35. Fujita M, Otsuka M, Miyoshi M, Khamsri B, Nomaguchi M, Adachi A. Vpx is critical for reverse transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 genome in macrophages. J Virol. 2008;82:7752-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results here clearly demonstrated that the entire Vpx protein is critical for reverse transcription of the HIV-2 genome in human MDMs.
  36. Kennedy E, Amie S, Bambara R, Kim B. Frequent incorporation of ribonucleotides during HIV-1 reverse transcription and their attenuated repair in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:14280-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, unrepaired rNMPs incorporated into the provirus during HIV-1 reverse transcription would be generally mutagenic as was shown in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
  37. Thomas J, Gorelick R. Nucleocapsid protein function in early infection processes. Virus Res. 2008;134:39-63 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (NC) in the early steps of retroviral replication appears largely that of a facilitator for reverse transcription and integration. Using a wide variety of cell-free assay systems, the properties of mature NC proteins (e...
  38. Warrilow D, Meredith L, Davis A, Burrell C, Li P, Harrich D. Cell factors stimulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcription in vitro. J Virol. 2008;82:1425-37 pubmed
    ..Core components are then restructured to form the reverse transcription complex (RTC); the biochemical details of this process are currently unclear...
  39. Goic B, Vodovar N, Mondotte J, Monot C, Frangeul L, Blanc H, et al. RNA-mediated interference and reverse transcription control the persistence of RNA viruses in the insect model Drosophila. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:396-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, inhibition of reverse transcription hindered the appearance of chimeric DNA and prevented persistence...
  40. Xu H, Zhang L, Shen G, Feng C, Wang X, Yan J, et al. Establishment of a novel one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid identification of RNA from the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. J Virol Methods. 2013;194:21-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a modified, low-cost and rapid visualized one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for the detection of RNA from the SFTSV has been ..
  41. Lindén J, Ranta J, Pohjanvirta R. Bayesian modeling of reproducibility and robustness of RNA reverse transcription and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Anal Biochem. 2012;428:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have a major hindrance of not directly measuring RNA and, thus, needing a reverse transcription (RT) step to first produce complementary DNA (cDNA)...
  42. Kurosaki Y, Grolla A, Fukuma A, Feldmann H, Yasuda J. Development and evaluation of a simple assay for Marburg virus detection using a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2330-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we developed and evaluated a one-step reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the rapid and simple detection of MARV...
  43. Ståhlberg A, Bengtsson M. Single-cell gene expression profiling using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. Methods. 2010;50:282-8 pubmed publisher
    ..single cells either by glass capillaries or flow cytometry, followed by quantitative mRNA profiling using reverse transcription and real-time PCR...
  44. Chen C, Cui S, Zhang C, Li J, Wang J. Development and validation of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of PRRSV. Virus Genes. 2010;40:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Because it is specific and simple, the RT-LAMP assay will be useful for the diagnosis of PRRSV infection. ..
  45. Drouillon V, Delogu G, Dettori G, Lagrange P, Benecchi M, Houriez F, et al. Multicenter evaluation of a transcription-reverse transcription concerted assay for rapid detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3461-5 pubmed publisher
    ..multicenter study was performed to evaluate the performance of a new method, based on the transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction (TRC-2), which enabled one-step amplification and real-time detection of the ..
  46. Tervo H, Goffinet C, Keppler O. Mouse T-cells restrict replication of human immunodeficiency virus at the level of integration. Retrovirology. 2008;5:58 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Reverse transcription occurred efficiently following VSV-G-mediated entry of virions into mouse T-cells, and abundant levels of ..
  47. Skasko M, Kim B. Compensatory role of human immunodeficiency virus central polypurine tract sequence in kinetically disrupted reverse transcription. J Virol. 2008;82:7716-20 pubmed publisher
  48. Yang Y, Fricke T, Diaz Griffero F. Inhibition of reverse transcriptase activity increases stability of the HIV-1 core. J Virol. 2013;87:683-7 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies showed that HIV-1 reverse transcription occurs during or before uncoating, linking mechanistically reverse transcription with uncoating...
  49. Nakajima N, Kitamori Y, Ohnaka S, Mitoma Y, Mizuta K, Wakita T, et al. Development of a transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction method for specific detection of human enterovirus 71 from clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1764-8 pubmed publisher
    A transcription-reverse transcription (RT) concerted reaction (TRCR) method was developed for rapid and specific detection of EV71 from clinical specimens...
  50. Iglesias C, Ringeard M, Di Nunzio F, Fernandez J, Gaudin R, Souque P, et al. Residual HIV-1 DNA Flap-independent nuclear import of cPPT/CTS double mutant viruses does not support spreading infection. Retrovirology. 2011;8:92 pubmed publisher
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) central DNA Flap is generated during reverse transcription as a result of (+) strand initiation at the central polypurine tract (cPPT) and termination after a ca...
  51. Gillick K, Pollpeter D, Phalora P, Kim E, Wolinsky S, Malim M. Suppression of HIV-1 infection by APOBEC3 proteins in primary human CD4(+) T cells is associated with inhibition of processive reverse transcription as well as excessive cytidine deamination. J Virol. 2013;87:1508-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These proteins exert their suppressive effects through the inhibition of viral reverse transcription as well as the induction of cytidine deamination within nascent viral cDNA...
  52. Chen H, Zhang J, Ma Y, Ma L, Ding Y, Liu X, et al. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the rapid detection of infectious bronchitis virus in infected chicken tissues. Mol Cell Probes. 2010;24:104-6 pubmed publisher
    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay targeting the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was developed...
  53. Boubourakas I, Fukuta S, Kyriakopoulou P. Sensitive and rapid detection of peach latent mosaic viroid by the reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. J Virol Methods. 2009;160:63-8 pubmed publisher
    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for the detection of peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) was developed. Four primer sets (OLD, OLD1, NEW, and Fukuta's) were designed originally...