blastomeres

Summary

Summary: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.

Top Publications

  1. Tarkowski A, Suwinska A, Czołowska R, Ożdżeński W. Individual blastomeres of 16- and 32-cell mouse embryos are able to develop into foetuses and mice. Dev Biol. 2010;348:190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this question, we studied the developmental potential of single blastomeres derived from 16- and 32-cell stage embryos and supported by carrier, tetraploid blastomeres...
  2. Vanneste E, Voet T, Le Caignec C, Ampe M, Konings P, Melotte C, et al. Chromosome instability is common in human cleavage-stage embryos. Nat Med. 2009;15:577-83 pubmed publisher
    ..embryos but also frequent segmental deletions, duplications and amplifications that were reciprocal in sister blastomeres, implying the occurrence of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles...
  3. Li C, Wang Z, Zheng Z, Hu L, Zhong S, Lei L. Number of blastomeres and distribution of microvilli in cloned mouse embryos during compaction. Zygote. 2011;19:271-6 pubmed publisher
    ..by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in aspects different from previous studies, not only the number of blastomeres of cloned embryos during the initiation of compaction, but also the distribution of microvilli in cloned, ..
  4. Lobikin M, Wang G, Xu J, Hsieh Y, Chuang C, Lemire J, et al. Early, nonciliary role for microtubule proteins in left-right patterning is conserved across kingdoms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:12586-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The origin of laterality is cytoplasmic, ancient, and highly conserved across kingdoms, a fundamental feature of the cytoskeleton that underlies chirality in cells and multicellular organisms...
  5. Meseguer M, Herrero J, Tejera A, Hilligsøe K, Ramsing N, Remohi J. The use of morphokinetics as a predictor of embryo implantation. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:2658-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy of this classification will be evaluated in a prospective randomized study that ultimately will determine if implantation rates can be improved by time-lapse analysis. ..
  6. Suwinska A, Czołowska R, Ożdżeński W, Tarkowski A. Blastomeres of the mouse embryo lose totipotency after the fifth cleavage division: expression of Cdx2 and Oct4 and developmental potential of inner and outer blastomeres of 16- and 32-cell embryos. Dev Biol. 2008;322:133-44 pubmed publisher
    Sixteen inner or outer blastomeres from 16-cell embryos and 32 inner or outer blastomeres from 32-cell embryos (nascent blastocysts) were reaggregated and cultured in vitro...
  7. Kader A, Agarwal A, Abdelrazik H, Sharma R, Ahmady A, Falcone T. Evaluation of post-thaw DNA integrity of mouse blastocysts after ultrarapid and slow freezing. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:2087-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Damage is maximal with propanediol and minimal with slow freezing using glycerol. The more expanded the blastocyst, the greater is the susceptibility to DNA damage during cryopreservation. ..
  8. Ramos L, del Rey J, Daina G, Martínez Passarell O, Rius M, Tuñón D, et al. Does the S phase have an impact on the accuracy of comparative genomic hybridization profiles in single fibroblasts and human blastomeres?. Fertil Steril. 2014;101:488-95 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate if there is an association between single-cell replicative stage and the segmental chromosome imbalances detected by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)...
  9. Riaz A, Zhao X, Dai X, Li W, Liu L, Wan H, et al. Mouse cloning and somatic cell reprogramming using electrofused blastomeres. Cell Res. 2011;21:770-8 pubmed publisher
    ..embryos, arrested in mitosis, can support developmental reprogramming of nuclei from donor cells ranging from blastomeres to somatic cells...

More Information

Publications70

  1. Goto Y, Matoba S, Imai K, Geshi M. Improvement of the developmental ability of nuclear transfer embryos by using blastomeres from in vitro fertilized embryos selected according to the early developmental stage and cell division status as donor cells in cattle. J Reprod Dev. 2011;57:249-55 pubmed
    This study was conducted to improve the developmental ability of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos by using blastomeres from in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos with high quality as donor cells...
  2. Handberg Thorsager M, Fernandez E, Salo E. Stem cells and regeneration in planarians. Front Biosci. 2008;13:6374-94 pubmed
    ..In the last ten years, molecular, cellular, and bioinformatics tools have been established for use in this model, making it ideally placed for in vivo analysis of stem cells in their natural environment without ethical complications...
  3. Abrams E, Zhang H, Marlow F, KAPP L, Lu S, Mullins M. Dynamic assembly of brambleberry mediates nuclear envelope fusion during early development. Cell. 2012;150:521-32 pubmed publisher
    To accommodate the large cells following zygote formation, early blastomeres employ modified cell divisions...
  4. Cauffman G, De Rycke M, Sermon K, Liebaers I, Van de Velde H. Markers that define stemness in ESC are unable to identify the totipotent cells in human preimplantation embryos. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:63-70 pubmed publisher
    During human preimplantation development, early blastomeres are believed to be totipotent. It is likely, however, that blastomeres are allocated to a specific lineage prior to any morphological differentiation...
  5. Klimanskaya I, Chung Y, Becker S, Lu S, Lanza R. Derivation of human embryonic stem cells from single blastomeres. Nat Protoc. 2007;2:1963-72 pubmed
    This protocol details a method to derive human embryonic stem (hES) cells from single blastomeres. Blastomeres are removed from morula (eight-cell)-stage embryos and cultured until they form multicell aggregates...
  6. Yan B, Moody S. The competence of Xenopus blastomeres to produce neural and retinal progeny is repressed by two endo-mesoderm promoting pathways. Dev Biol. 2007;305:103-19 pubmed
    Only a subset of cleavage stage blastomeres in the Xenopus embryo is competent to contribute cells to the retina; ventral vegetal blastomeres do not form retina even when provided with neuralizing factors or transplanted to the most ..
  7. Gardner R. Normal bias in the direction of fetal rotation depends on blastomere composition during early cleavage in the mouse. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9610 pubmed publisher
    ..Reconstructing cleavage stages with correspondingly positioned blastomeres from appropriate numbers of conceptuses with similar division planes provides a way of testing whether they ..
  8. Lorthongpanich C, Yang S, Piotrowska Nitsche K, Parnpai R, Chan A. Development of single mouse blastomeres into blastocysts, outgrowths and the establishment of embryonic stem cells. Reproduction. 2008;135:805-13 pubmed publisher
    The recently developed technique of establishing embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from single blastomeres (BTMs) of early mouse and human embryos has created significant interest in this source of ES cells...
  9. Karmenyan A, Shakhbazyan A, Sviridova Chailakhyan T, Krivokharchenko A, Chiou A, Chailakhyan L. Use of picosecond infrared laser for micromanipulation of early mammalian embryos. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:975-83 pubmed publisher
    ..for the inactivation (functional enucleation) of oocytes and two-cell mouse embryos and also for the fusion of blastomeres of two-cell mouse embryos...
  10. Held E, Salilew Wondim D, Linke M, Zechner U, Rings F, Tesfaye D, et al. Transcriptome fingerprint of bovine 2-cell stage blastomeres is directly correlated with the individual developmental competence of the corresponding sister blastomere. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:154 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sought to find a direct correlation between transcriptome fingerprint of blastomeres of bovine 2-cell stage embryos with developmental competence of the corresponding sister blastomeres...
  11. Feki A, Bosman A, Dubuisson J, Irion O, Dahoun S, Pelte M, et al. Derivation of the first Swiss human embryonic stem cell line from a single blastomere of an arrested four-cell stage embryo. Swiss Med Wkly. 2008;138:540-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, most of the lines have been obtained in media containing animal components such as foetal bovine serum. We aimed to derive hESC lines in xeno-free conditions using spare embryos frozen in Switzerland before 2001...
  12. Iwamoto D, Kasamatsu A, Ideta A, Urakawa M, Matsumoto K, Hosoi Y, et al. Donor cells at the G1 phase enhance homogeneous gene expression among blastomeres in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. Cell Reprogram. 2012;14:20-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, half of the G1-SCNT embryos exhibited homogeneous luminescence among the blastomeres, whereas more than half of the G0-SCNT embryos exhibited mosaic luminescence...
  13. Kiessling A, Bletsa R, Desmarais B, Mara C, Kallianidis K, Loutradis D. Genome-wide microarray evidence that 8-cell human blastomeres over-express cell cycle drivers and under-express checkpoints. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2010;27:265-76 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand cell cycle controls in the 8-Cell human blastomere...
  14. Egli D, Sandler V, Shinohara M, Cantor H, Eggan K. Reprogramming after chromosome transfer into mouse blastomeres. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1403-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used chromosome transplantation techniques to investigate whether the blastomeres of two-cell-stage mouse embryos can reprogram more differentiated cells...
  15. Baart E, Martini E, Eijkemans M, Van Opstal D, Beckers N, Verhoeff A, et al. Milder ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization reduces aneuploidy in the human preimplantation embryo: a randomized controlled trial. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:980-8 pubmed
  16. Kurotaki Y, Hatta K, Nakao K, Nabeshima Y, Fujimori T. Blastocyst axis is specified independently of early cell lineage but aligns with the ZP shape. Science. 2007;316:719-23 pubmed
    ..Rather, both the boundary between two-cell blastomeres and the E-Ab axis of the blastocyst align relative to the ellipsoidal shape of the zona pellucida (ZP), an ..
  17. Torres Padilla M, Parfitt D, Kouzarides T, Zernicka Goetz M. Histone arginine methylation regulates pluripotency in the early mouse embryo. Nature. 2007;445:214-8 pubmed
    ..Levels of H3 methylation at specific arginine residues are maximal in four-cell blastomeres that will contribute to the inner cell mass (ICM) and polar trophectoderm and undertake full development when ..
  18. Dietrich J, Hiiragi T. Stochastic patterning in the mouse pre-implantation embryo. Development. 2007;134:4219-31 pubmed
    ..In the first phase, starting after compaction, blastomeres show highly variable Cdx2 and Nanog protein levels...
  19. VerMilyea M, Maneck M, Yoshida N, Blochberger I, Suzuki E, Suzuki T, et al. Transcriptome asymmetry within mouse zygotes but not between early embryonic sister blastomeres. EMBO J. 2011;30:1841-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, there is transcriptome asymmetry within mouse oocytes, but not between the sister blastomeres of early embryos...
  20. Hiriart M, Bevacqua R, Canel N, Fernandez Martin R, Salamone D. Production of chimeric embryos by aggregation of bovine egfp eight-cell stage blastomeres with two-cell fused and asynchronic embryos. Theriogenology. 2013;80:357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique will have great application for multiplication of embryos of high genetic value or transgenic embryos and also with the generation of truly bovine embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells...
  21. Capalbo A, Bono S, Spizzichino L, Biricik A, Baldi M, Colamaria S, et al. Sequential comprehensive chromosome analysis on polar bodies, blastomeres and trophoblast: insights into female meiotic errors and chromosomal segregation in the preimplantation window of embryo development. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:509-18 pubmed publisher
    ..optimal stage from oocyte through preimplantation embryo development for biopsy and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) to detect abnormal chromosome segregation patterns in eggs or embryos from advanced maternal age (AMA) patients?..
  22. Pelinck M, Hoek A, Simons A, Heineman M, van Echten Arends J, Arts E. Embryo quality and impact of specific embryo characteristics on ongoing implantation in unselected embryos derived from modified natural cycle in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the implantation potential of unselected embryos derived from modified natural cycle IVF according to their morphological characteristics...
  23. Sato B, Katagiri Y, Miyado K, Akutsu H, Miyagawa Y, Horiuchi Y, et al. Preferential localization of SSEA-4 in interfaces between blastomeres of mouse preimplantaion embryos. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;364:838-43 pubmed publisher
    ..that the binding of 6E2 caused the clustering and consequent accumulation of sialylGb5 at the interface between blastomeres. These results suggest that SSEA-4 actively moves on the cell surface and readily accumulates between ..
  24. Lorthongpanich C, Doris T, Limviphuvadh V, Knowles B, Solter D. Developmental fate and lineage commitment of singled mouse blastomeres. Development. 2012;139:3722-31 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigate whether cell-cell interaction can influence the fate specification of embryonic blastomeres by sequentially separating the blastomeres in two-cell stage mouse embryos and continuing separation after each ..
  25. Wakayama S, Hikichi T, Suetsugu R, Sakaide Y, Bui H, Mizutani E, et al. Efficient establishment of mouse embryonic stem cell lines from single blastomeres and polar bodies. Stem Cells. 2007;25:986-93 pubmed
    Recently, ES cell lines were established from single blastomeres taken from eight-cell embryos in mice and humans with success rates of 4% and 2%, respectively, which suggests that the method could be used in regenerative medicine to ..
  26. Diblík J, Macek M, Magli M, Krejci R, Gianaroli L. Chromosome topology in normal and aneuploid blastomeres from human embryos. Prenat Diagn. 2007;27:1091-9 pubmed
    To find whether chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X and Y in blastomeres of human embryos are nonrandomly localized, whether their aneuploidy affects their localization and if eventual early inactivation of chromosome X with peripheral ..
  27. Sethi A, Wikramanayake R, Angerer R, Range R, Angerer L. Sequential signaling crosstalk regulates endomesoderm segregation in sea urchin embryos. Science. 2012;335:590-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we report that endomesoderm segregation is a progressive process, requiring a succession of regulatory interactions between cWnt and Notch signaling. ..
  28. Tang F, Barbacioru C, Nordman E, Li B, Xu N, Bashkirov V, et al. RNA-Seq analysis to capture the transcriptome landscape of a single cell. Nat Protoc. 2010;5:516-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with cDNA microarray techniques, our assay can capture up to 75% more genes expressed in early embryos. This protocol can generate deep-sequencing libraries for 16 single-cell samples within 6 d...
  29. Johnson D, Gemelos G, Baner J, Ryan A, Cinnioglu C, Banjevic M, et al. Preclinical validation of a microarray method for full molecular karyotyping of blastomeres in a 24-h protocol. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:1066-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) has been used in an attempt to determine embryonic aneuploidy. Techniques that use new molecular methods to determine the karyotype of an embryo are expanding the scope of PGS...
  30. Van De Velde H, Cauffman G, Tournaye H, Devroey P, Liebaers I. The four blastomeres of a 4-cell stage human embryo are able to develop individually into blastocysts with inner cell mass and trophectoderm. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:1742-7 pubmed publisher
    Early mammalian blastomeres are thought to be flexible and totipotent allowing the embryo to overcome perturbations in its organization during preimplantation development...
  31. Marikawa Y, Alarcón V. Establishment of trophectoderm and inner cell mass lineages in the mouse embryo. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:1019-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Distinct epithelial features start to emerge at the late 8-cell stage, but the fates of blastomeres are not fixed as TE or ICM until around 32-cell stage...
  32. Ilic D, Giritharan G, Zdravkovic T, Caceres E, Genbacev O, Fisher S, et al. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines from biopsied blastomeres on human feeders with minimal exposure to xenomaterials. Stem Cells Dev. 2009;18:1343-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we describe an improved method for efficient derivation of hESC lines from blastomeres of biopsied embryos...
  33. Coulam C, Jeyendran R, Fiddler M, Pergament E. Discordance among blastomeres renders preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy ineffective. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2007;24:37-41 pubmed
    To investigate the contribution of discordance among blastomeres from the same embryo in the interpretation of blastomeres biopsied from day 3 embryos.
  34. Chung Y, Klimanskaya I, Becker S, Li T, Maserati M, Lu S, et al. Human embryonic stem cell lines generated without embryo destruction. Cell Stem Cell. 2008;2:113-7 pubmed publisher
  35. Alarcon V, Marikawa Y. Spatial alignment of the mouse blastocyst axis across the first cleavage plane is caused by mechanical constraint rather than developmental bias among blastomeres. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:1143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..it is also possible that such alignment is not due to any developmental disparity between the two-cell stage blastomeres, but rather is caused by an extrinsic mechanical constraint that is conferred by an irregular shape of the zona ..
  36. Tajima H, Sueoka K, Moon S, Nakabayashi A, Sakurai T, Murakoshi Y, et al. The development of novel quantification assay for mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy aimed at preimplantation genetic diagnosis of Leigh encephalopathy. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2007;24:227-32 pubmed
    ..To perform preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of Leigh encephalopathy, we developed a rapid and reliable quantification assay for the percentage of T8993G mtDNA mutation and analyzed various specimens...
  37. Kondratiuk I, Bazydlo K, Maleszewski M, Szczepanska K. Delay of polarization event increases the number of Cdx2-positive blastomeres in mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2012;368:54-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Such embryos developed from the blastomeres that were isolated from 8-cell embryos either before or after the compaction, i.e...
  38. Tang F, Barbacioru C, Wang Y, Nordman E, Lee C, Xu N, et al. mRNA-Seq whole-transcriptome analysis of a single cell. Nat Methods. 2009;6:377-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, for Dicer1(-/-) and Ago2(-/-) (Eif2c2(-/-)) oocytes, we found that 1,696 and 1,553 genes, respectively, were abnormally upregulated compared to wild-type controls, with 619 genes in common...
  39. Sun J, Zhang Y, Yin B, Li J, Liu G, Xu W, et al. Differential expression of Axin1, Cdc25c and Cdkn2d mRNA in 2-cell stage mouse blastomeres. Zygote. 2012;20:305-10 pubmed publisher
    There is increasing evidence to show that 2-cell stage mouse blastomeres have differing developmental properties...
  40. Tabansky I, Lenarcic A, Draft R, Loulier K, Keskin D, Rosains J, et al. Developmental bias in cleavage-stage mouse blastomeres. Curr Biol. 2013;23:21-31 pubmed publisher
    The cleavage-stage mouse embryo is composed of superficially equivalent blastomeres that will generate both the embryonic inner cell mass (ICM) and the supportive trophectoderm (TE)...
  41. Tang F, Barbacioru C, Nordman E, Bao S, Lee C, Wang X, et al. Deterministic and stochastic allele specific gene expression in single mouse blastomeres. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21208 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we performed single cell RNA-Seq analysis of single blastomeres of mouse embryos, which revealed significant changes in the transcriptome...
  42. Roberts R, Katayama M, Magnuson S, Falduto M, Torres K. Transcript profiling of individual twin blastomeres derived by splitting two-cell stage murine embryos. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:487-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examined whether twin blastomeres from 2-cell stage mouse embryos differ in mRNA content...
  43. Voet T, Vanneste E, van der Aa N, Melotte C, Jackmaert S, Vandendael T, et al. Breakage-fusion-bridge cycles leading to inv dup del occur in human cleavage stage embryos. Hum Mutat. 2011;32:783-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the copy number changes that were observed in the blastomeres it was hypothesized that chromosome breakages and fusions occur frequently in cleavage stage human embryos and ..
  44. Racowsky C, Stern J, Gibbons W, Behr B, Pomeroy K, Biggers J. National collection of embryo morphology data into Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System: associations among day 3 cell number, fragmentation and blastomere asymmetry, and live birth rate. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1985-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the validity of collecting day 3 embryo morphology variables into the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS)...
  45. May A, Kirchner R, Muller H, Hartmann P, El Hajj N, Tresch A, et al. Multiplex rt-PCR expression analysis of developmentally important genes in individual mouse preimplantation embryos and blastomeres. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:194-202 pubmed publisher
    ..important genes and isoforms in individual mouse preimplantation embryos from superovulated matings and blastomeres. The ubiquitously expressed histone variant H3f3a and the transcription factor Pou5f1 generated mRNA-derived ..
  46. Galan A, Montaner D, Poo M, Valbuena D, Ruiz V, Aguilar C, et al. Functional genomics of 5- to 8-cell stage human embryos by blastomere single-cell cDNA analysis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13615 pubmed publisher
    ..Forty-nine blastomeres from 5- to 8-cell human embryos have been investigated following an efficient single-cell cDNA amplification ..
  47. Kuroda R, Endo B, Abe M, Shimizu M. Chiral blastomere arrangement dictates zygotic left-right asymmetry pathway in snails. Nature. 2009;462:790-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar chiral blastomere configuration mechanisms may also operate upstream of the Nodal pathway in left-right patterning of deuterostomes/vertebrates...
  48. Gutierrez Mateo C, Colls P, Sánchez García J, Escudero T, Prates R, Ketterson K, et al. Validation of microarray comparative genomic hybridization for comprehensive chromosome analysis of embryos. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:953-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To validate and determine the best array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH; array-CGH) protocols for preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)...
  49. Yasui G, Fujimoto T, Sakao S, Yamaha E, Arai K. Production of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) germ-line chimera using transplantation of primordial germ cells isolated from cryopreserved blastomeres. J Anim Sci. 2011;89:2380-8 pubmed publisher
    An efficient procedure for the cryopreservation of fish blastomeres followed by restoration through germ-line chimera formation was established...
  50. Fujimori T, Kurotaki Y, Komatsu K, Nabeshima Y. Morphological organization of the mouse preimplantation embryo. Reprod Sci. 2009;16:171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that the division order of cells is under certain rules, and the differentiation of cells is dependent on the relative position of blastomeres in later stages.
  51. Kiessling A, Bletsa R, Desmarais B, Mara C, Kallianidis K, Loutradis D. Evidence that human blastomere cleavage is under unique cell cycle control. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2009;26:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand the molecular pathways that control early human embryo development...
  52. Lin C, Zhang T, Rawson D. Cryopreservation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) blastomeres by controlled slow cooling. Cryo Letters. 2009;30:132-41 pubmed
    ..This study sets out to determine an optimum cryopreservation protocol for blastomeres isolated from 50% epiboly zebrafish embryos. Freezing was performed in 0.25 ml straws in a programmable freezer...
  53. Goossens V, De Rycke M, De Vos A, Staessen C, Michiels A, Verpoest W, et al. Diagnostic efficiency, embryonic development and clinical outcome after the biopsy of one or two blastomeres for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:481-92 pubmed
    ..Opting for one- or two-cell biopsy is a balance between the lowest risk for misdiagnosis on the one hand and the highest chance for a pregnancy on the other hand...
  54. Jedrusik A, Parfitt D, Guo G, Skamagki M, Grabarek J, Johnson M, et al. Role of Cdx2 and cell polarity in cell allocation and specification of trophectoderm and inner cell mass in the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2692-706 pubmed publisher
    ..It is initiated via asymmetric divisions of eight- and 16-cell blastomeres that allocate cells to inner and outer positions, each with different developmental fates...
  55. Gigarel N, Hesters L, Samuels D, Monnot S, Burlet P, Kerbrat V, et al. Poor correlations in the levels of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations in polar bodies versus oocytes and blastomeres in humans. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:494-8 pubmed publisher
    ..this point, we compared the mutant levels in 51 first polar bodies (PBs) and their counterpart (oocytes, blastomeres, or whole embryos), at risk of having (1) the "MELAS" m...
  56. Rius M, Obradors A, Daina G, Cuzzi J, Marques L, Calderon G, et al. Reliability of short comparative genomic hybridization in fibroblasts and blastomeres for a comprehensive aneuploidy screening: first clinical application. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:1824-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to reduce the hybridization period of CGH, in order to make this short-CGH technique suitable for PGS of Day-3 embryos, avoiding the cryopreservation step...
  57. Hua S, Zhang Y, Song K, Song J, Zhang Z, Zhang L, et al. Development of bovine-ovine interspecies cloned embryos and mitochondria segregation in blastomeres during preimplantation. Anim Reprod Sci. 2008;105:245-57 pubmed
    ..both from donor cell and recipient cytoplasm were assessed by real-time PCR in individual blastocysts and blastomeres from 1- to 16-cell stage embryos...
  58. Geens M, Mateizel I, Sermon K, De Rycke M, Spits C, Cauffman G, et al. Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres of two 4-cell stage embryos. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:2709-17 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we demonstrated that single blastomeres of a 4-cell stage human embryo are able to develop into blastocysts with inner cell mass and trophectoderm...
  59. Rabinowitz M, Ryan A, Gemelos G, Hill M, Baner J, Cinnioglu C, et al. Origins and rates of aneuploidy in human blastomeres. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:395-401 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize chromosomal error types and parental origin of aneuploidy in cleavage-stage embryos using an informatics-based technique that enables the elucidation of aneuploidy-causing mechanisms...
  60. Cardona Costa J, García Ximénez F. Vitrification of zebrafish embryo blastomeres in microvolumes. Cryo Letters. 2007;28:303-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, the cryopreservation of fish embryo blastomeres makes conservation strategies feasible when they are used in germ-line chimaerism, including interspecific ..
  61. Solana J, Romero R. SpolvlgA is a DDX3/PL10-related DEAD-box RNA helicase expressed in blastomeres and embryonic cells in planarian embryonic development. Int J Biol Sci. 2009;5:64-73 pubmed
    ..Expression in adult worms is also monitored and is found in the planarian germ line, where it is showed to be expressed in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and differentiating spermatids...