skeletal myoblasts

Summary

Summary: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).

Top Publications

  1. Miyake T, Alli N, Aziz A, Knudson J, Fernando P, Megeney L, et al. Cardiotrophin-1 maintains the undifferentiated state in skeletal myoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19679-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression pattern of CT-1 in embryonic and post-natal skeletal muscle and in vivo effects of CT-1 on myogenesis implicate CT-1 in the maintenance of the undifferentiated state in muscle progenitor cells. ..
  2. Bonaros N, Rauf R, Werner E, Schlechta B, Rohde E, Kocher A, et al. Neoangiogenesis after combined transplantation of skeletal myoblasts and angiopoietic progenitors leads to increased cell engraftment and lower apoptosis rates in ischemic heart failure. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2008;7:249-55 pubmed
    We previously reported that combined transplantation of skeletal myoblasts and AC-133+ cells leads to improved left ventricular function, reduced infarct size and myocardial apoptosis in a model of chronic ischemia...
  3. Farahmand P, Lai T, Weisel R, Fazel S, Yau T, Menasche P, et al. Skeletal myoblasts preserve remote matrix architecture and global function when implanted early or late after coronary ligation into infarcted or remote myocardium. Circulation. 2008;118:S130-7 pubmed publisher
    The inability of skeletal myoblasts to transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes suggests that their beneficial effects on cardiac function after a myocardial infarction are mediated by paracrine effects...
  4. Zhao P, Caretti G, Mitchell S, McKeehan W, Boskey A, Pachman L, et al. Fgfr4 is required for effective muscle regeneration in vivo. Delineation of a MyoD-Tead2-Fgfr4 transcriptional pathway. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:429-38 pubmed
    ..This activation was greatly reduced when the two E-boxes were mutated. Our data suggest a novel MyoD-Tead2-Fgfr4 pathway important for effective muscle regeneration...
  5. Bonaros N, Rauf R, Wolf D, Margreiter E, Tzankov A, Schlechta B, et al. Combined transplantation of skeletal myoblasts and angiopoietic progenitor cells reduces infarct size and apoptosis and improves cardiac function in chronic ischemic heart failure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;132:1321-8 pubmed
    Cellular cardiomyoplasty using skeletal myoblasts or angiopoietic progenitor cells offers a promising approach for the treatment of ischemic heart failure...
  6. Dib N, Dinsmore J, Lababidi Z, White B, Moravec S, Campbell A, et al. One-year follow-up of feasibility and safety of the first U.S., randomized, controlled study using 3-dimensional guided catheter-based delivery of autologous skeletal myoblasts for ischemic cardiomyopathy (CAuSMIC study). JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2009;2:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to test safety and feasibility of myoblast transplantation with the Biosense-NOGA (Diamond Bar, California) 3-dimensional-guided endomyocardial delivery system...
  7. Li J, Johnson S. ERK2 is required for efficient terminal differentiation of skeletal myoblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;345:1425-33 pubmed
    Terminal differentiation of skeletal myoblasts involves alignment of the mononucleated cells, fusion into multinucleated syncitia, and transcription of muscle-specific genes...
  8. Kefaloyianni E, Gaitanaki C, Beis I. ERK1/2 and p38-MAPK signalling pathways, through MSK1, are involved in NF-kappaB transactivation during oxidative stress in skeletal myoblasts. Cell Signal. 2006;18:2238-51 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined whether MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways participate in the response of skeletal myoblasts to oxidative stress, and whether there is a cross talk between these pathways...
  9. Shi X, Garry D. Muscle stem cells in development, regeneration, and disease. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1692-708 pubmed
    ..Future studies that enhance our understanding of stem cell biology and repair mechanisms will provide a platform for therapeutic applications directed toward these chronic, life-threatening diseases...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Gavira J, Perez Ilzarbe M, Abizanda G, García Rodríguez A, Orbe J, Páramo J, et al. A comparison between percutaneous and surgical transplantation of autologous skeletal myoblasts in a swine model of chronic myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;71:744-53 pubmed
    Our aim was to compare the efficacy of surgical versus percutaneous administration of skeletal myoblasts (SkM) in a swine model of chronic myocardial infarction and to determine the mechanism(s) involved in their beneficial effect.
  2. Esteve E, Eltit J, Bannister R, Liu K, Pessah I, Beam K, et al. A malignant hyperthermia-inducing mutation in RYR1 (R163C): alterations in Ca2+ entry, release, and retrograde signaling to the DHPR. J Gen Physiol. 2010;135:619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that conformational changes induced by the R163C MH mutation alter the retrograde signal that is sent from RYR1 to the DHPR, delaying the inactivation of the DHPR voltage sensor...
  3. Yoon M, Chen J. PLD regulates myoblast differentiation through the mTOR-IGF2 pathway. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:282-9 pubmed publisher
    A mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is essential for the differentiation of cultured skeletal myoblasts in response to growth factor withdrawal...
  4. Retuerto M, Beckmann J, Carbray J, Patejunas G, Sarateanu S, Kane B, et al. Angiogenic pretreatment to enhance myocardial function after cellular cardiomyoplasty with skeletal myoblasts. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;133:478-484.e2 pubmed
    ..Angiogenic pretreatment of infarcted myocardium may improve implanted cell survival and consequently myocardial function...
  5. Callis T, Chen J, Wang D. MicroRNAs in skeletal and cardiac muscle development. DNA Cell Biol. 2007;26:219-25 pubmed
    ..miRNAs therefore are a new class of regulators of muscle biology and they might become novel therapeutic targets in muscle-related human diseases...
  6. Menasche P. Skeletal myoblasts as a therapeutic agent. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2007;50:7-17 pubmed
    ..Primarily for practical reasons, autologous skeletal myoblasts have been the first to be considered for a clinical use...
  7. Khan M, Kutala V, Vikram D, Wisel S, Chacko S, Kuppusamy M, et al. Skeletal myoblasts transplanted in the ischemic myocardium enhance in situ oxygenation and recovery of contractile function. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H2129-39 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this the first report detailing changes in in situ oxygenation in cell therapy. The increased myocardial Po(2) positively correlated with neoangiogenesis and cardiac function...
  8. Gersbach C, Guldberg R, Garcia A. In vitro and in vivo osteoblastic differentiation of BMP-2- and Runx2-engineered skeletal myoblasts. J Cell Biochem. 2007;100:1324-36 pubmed
    ..strategies, we quantitatively evaluated osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of primary skeletal myoblasts overexpressing either the BMP-2 growth factor or Runx2 transcription factor...
  9. Ye L, Haider H, Tan R, Toh W, Law P, Tan W, et al. Transplantation of nanoparticle transfected skeletal myoblasts overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor-165 for cardiac repair. Circulation. 2007;116:I113-20 pubmed
    We investigated the feasibility and efficacy of polyethylenimine (PEI) based human vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (hVEGF165) gene transfer into human skeletal myoblasts (HSM) for cell based delivery to the infarcted myocardium.
  10. Ye L, Haider H, Esa W, Law P, Zhang W, Su L, et al. Nonviral vector-based gene transfection of primary human skeletal myoblasts. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232:1477-87 pubmed
    ..efficiency is one of the main obstacles in ex vivo nonviral vector-mediated gene transfer into primary human skeletal myoblasts (hSkMs)...
  11. Niagara M, Haider H, Jiang S, Ashraf M. Pharmacologically preconditioned skeletal myoblasts are resistant to oxidative stress and promote angiomyogenesis via release of paracrine factors in the infarcted heart. Circ Res. 2007;100:545-55 pubmed
    ..Transplantation of PC SkMs for heart cell therapy is an innovative approach in the clinical perspective...
  12. Al Shanti N, Saini A, Faulkner S, Stewart C. Beneficial synergistic interactions of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in C2 skeletal myoblasts--potential cross-talk with IGF system. Growth Factors. 2008;26:61-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that in the presence of TNF-alpha/IL-6 functions positively and potentially also cooperatively with the IGF system to achieve the maximal beneficial effect on skeletal myoblast numbers...
  13. Veltman C, Soliman O, Geleijnse M, Vletter W, Smits P, ten Cate F, et al. Four-year follow-up of treatment with intramyocardial skeletal myoblasts injection in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J. 2008;29:1386-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Secondary endpoints included mortality, NYHA class, N-terminal pro-B-natriuretic peptide levels, incidence of arrhythmias, and quality of life...
  14. Miyagawa S, Matsumiya G, Funatsu T, Yoshitatsu M, Sekiya N, Fukui S, et al. Combined autologous cellular cardiomyoplasty using skeletal myoblasts and bone marrow cells for human ischemic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular assist system implantation: report of a case. Surg Today. 2009;39:133-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently introduced combined autologous cellular cardiomyoplasty with skeletal myoblasts and bone marrow cells as a treatment for human ischemic cardiomyopathy...
  15. Lin X, Tammbara K, Fu M, Yamamoto M, Premaratne G, Sakakibara Y, et al. Controlled release of matrix metalloproteinase 1 with or without skeletal myoblasts transplantation improves cardiac function of rat hearts with chronic myocardial infarction. Tissue Eng Part A. 2009;15:2699-706 pubmed publisher
    ..improved cardiac functions of rats with chronic myocardiac infarction with or without transplantation of skeletal myoblasts. Improvement in cardiac function and small fibrotic area inside the infarcted area were observed compared ..
  16. Li Y, Zhao Z, Song J, Feng Y, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Cyclic force upregulates mechano-growth factor and elevates cell proliferation in 3D cultured skeletal myoblasts. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009;490:171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, using a newly established system, we three-dimensionally (3D) cultured rat skeletal myoblasts and loaded them with cyclic uniaxial tensile strain of different magnitudes or time duration...
  17. Formigli L, Zecchi Orlandini S, Meacci E, Bani D. Skeletal myoblasts for heart regeneration and repair: state of the art and perspectives on the mechanisms for functional cardiac benefits. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:915-28 pubmed
    Until recently, skeletal myoblasts (SkMBs) have been the most widely used cells in basic research and clinical trials of cell based therapy for cardiac repair and regeneration...
  18. Blumenthal B, Golsong P, Poppe A, Heilmann C, Schlensak C, Beyersdorf F, et al. Polyurethane scaffolds seeded with genetically engineered skeletal myoblasts: a promising tool to regenerate myocardial function. Artif Organs. 2010;34:E46-54 pubmed publisher
    In animal models, intramyocardial injection of primary skeletal myoblasts is supposed to promote tissue regeneration and to improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction...
  19. Bannister R, Esteve E, Eltit J, Pessah I, Allen P, Lopez J, et al. A malignant hyperthermia-inducing mutation in RYR1 (R163C): consequent alterations in the functional properties of DHPR channels. J Gen Physiol. 2010;135:629-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present results indicate that mutations in RYR1 can alter DHPR activity and raise the possibility that this altered DHPR function may contribute to MH episodes...
  20. Subramanian I, Fernandes B, Robinson T, Koening J, Lapara K, Ramakrishnan S. AAV-2-mediated expression of IGF-1 in skeletal myoblasts stimulates angiogenesis and cell survival. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2009;2:81-92 pubmed publisher
    The transplantation of skeletal myoblasts is being tested in various organ systems to facilitate tissue repair and regeneration...
  21. Johnson S, Winner D, Wang X. Ran binding protein 9 interacts with Raf kinase but does not contribute to downstream ERK1/2 activation in skeletal myoblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:409-16 pubmed
    ..Knockdown of RanBP9 expression did not restore the differentiation program to Raf-expressing myoblasts. Thus, RanBP9 physically associates with Raf but does not substantially contribute to the inhibitory actions of the kinase...
  22. Ye L, Haider H, Jiang S, Ge R, Law P, Sim E. In vitro functional assessment of human skeletal myoblasts after transduction with adenoviral bicistronic vector carrying human VEGF165 and angiopoietin-1. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005;24:1393-402 pubmed
    We report in vitro functional assessment of human skeletal myoblasts with adenoviral bicistronic vector carrying human vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (hVEGF165) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1).
  23. Kim H, Lee Y, Sivaprasad U, Malhotra A, Dutta A. Muscle-specific microRNA miR-206 promotes muscle differentiation. J Cell Biol. 2006;174:677-87 pubmed
    ..In addition, inhibitors of myogenic transcription factors, Id1-3 and MyoR, are decreased upon miR-206 introduction, suggesting the presence of additional mechanisms by which microRNAs enforce the differentiation program...
  24. Perez Ilzarbe M, Agbulut O, Pelacho B, Ciorba C, San Jose Eneriz E, Desnos M, et al. Characterization of the paracrine effects of human skeletal myoblasts transplanted in infarcted myocardium. Eur J Heart Fail. 2008;10:1065-72 pubmed publisher
    The discrepancy between the functional improvements yielded experimentally by skeletal myoblasts (SM) transplanted in infarcted myocardium and the paucity of their long-term engraftment has raised the hypothesis of cell-mediated paracrine ..
  25. Mercatelli N, Dimauro I, Ciafrè S, Farace M, Caporossi D. AlphaB-crystallin is involved in oxidative stress protection determined by VEGF in skeletal myoblasts. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:374-82 pubmed publisher
  26. Yanagiuchi A, Miyake H, Nomi M, Takenaka A, Fujisawa M. Modulation of the microenvironment by growth factors regulates the in vivo growth of skeletal myoblasts. BJU Int. 2009;103:1569-73 pubmed
    ..To investigate the optimal microenvironment for efficient myoblast transplantation in vivo...
  27. Seidel M, Borczyńska A, Rozwadowska N, Kurpisz M. Cell-based therapy for heart failure: skeletal myoblasts. Cell Transplant. 2009;18:695-707 pubmed publisher
    ..Precise understanding of the mechanism by which cells improve cardiac function is essential in giving the sensible direction of further research...
  28. Formigli L, Francini F, Nistri S, Margheri M, Luciani G, Naro F, et al. Skeletal myoblasts overexpressing relaxin improve differentiation and communication of primary murine cardiomyocyte cell cultures. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;47:335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..studied whether differentiation of mouse neonatal immature cardiomyocytes in vitro was influenced by mouse skeletal myoblasts C2C12, wild type or engineered to secrete the cardiotropic hormone relaxin...
  29. Giraud M, Liechti E, Tchantchaleishvili V, Siepe M, Cook S, Carrel T, et al. Myocardial injection of skeletal myoblasts impairs contractility of host cardiomyocytes. Int J Cardiol. 2010;138:131-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesised that cell therapy might affect the mechanical properties of isolated host cardiomyocytes...
  30. Epting C, King F, Pedersen A, Zaman J, Ritner C, Bernstein H. Stem cell antigen-1 localizes to lipid microdomains and associates with insulin degrading enzyme in skeletal myoblasts. J Cell Physiol. 2008;217:250-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Future efforts to manipulate this pathway may lead to new strategies for augmenting the myogenic proliferative response, and ultimately muscle repair...
  31. Menasche P. Skeletal myoblasts and cardiac repair. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008;45:545-53 pubmed publisher
    ..of their appealing characteristics (autologous origin, in vitro scalability, high resistance to ischemia), skeletal myoblasts have undergone extensive preclinical testing that has consistently demonstrated their ability to preserve ..
  32. Memon I, Sawa Y, Miyagawa S, Taketani S, Matsuda H. Combined autologous cellular cardiomyoplasty with skeletal myoblasts and bone marrow cells in canine hearts for ischemic cardiomyopathy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;130:646-53 pubmed
    Cellular cardiomyoplasty with isolated skeletal myoblasts and bone marrow mononuclear cells is an encouraging therapeutic strategy for heart failure...
  33. Formigli L, Meacci E, Sassoli C, Squecco R, Nosi D, Chellini F, et al. Cytoskeleton/stretch-activated ion channel interaction regulates myogenic differentiation of skeletal myoblasts. J Cell Physiol. 2007;211:296-306 pubmed
  34. Tang Y. Cellular therapy with autologous skeletal myoblasts for ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Methods Mol Med. 2005;112:193-204 pubmed
    ..b>Skeletal myoblasts (or satellite cells) are committed progenitor cells located under the basal lamina of adult skeletal muscle; ..
  35. Pagani F, Dersimonian H, Zawadzka A, Wetzel K, Edge A, Jacoby D, et al. Autologous skeletal myoblasts transplanted to ischemia-damaged myocardium in humans. Histological analysis of cell survival and differentiation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:879-88 pubmed
    We report histological analysis of hearts from patients with end-stage heart disease who were transplanted with autologous skeletal myoblasts concurrent with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation.
  36. Formigli L, Francini F, Tani A, Squecco R, Nosi D, Polidori L, et al. Morphofunctional integration between skeletal myoblasts and adult cardiomyocytes in coculture is favored by direct cell-cell contacts and relaxin treatment. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;288:C795-804 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to investigate the interaction between undifferentiated mouse skeletal myoblasts (C2C12 cells) and adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes in an in vitro coculture model...
  37. Wang X, Thomson S, Starkey J, Page J, Ealy A, Johnson S. Transforming growth factor beta1 is up-regulated by activated Raf in skeletal myoblasts but does not contribute to the differentiation-defective phenotype. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:2528-34 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence for the involvement of Raf signal transmission during myocyte formation as well as during inhibition of myogenesis...
  38. Li X, Blagden C, Bildsoe H, Bonnin M, Duprez D, Hughes S. Hedgehog can drive terminal differentiation of amniote slow skeletal muscle. BMC Dev Biol. 2004;4:9 pubmed
    ..However, the extent to which non-myogenic cells, myoblasts or differentiating myocytes are direct or indirect targets of Hh signalling is not known...
  39. Ott H, Bonaros N, Marksteiner R, Wolf D, Margreiter E, Schachner T, et al. Combined transplantation of skeletal myoblasts and bone marrow stem cells for myocardial repair in rats. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004;25:627-34 pubmed
    To prove whether intramyocardial transplantation of combined skeletal myoblasts (SM) and mononuclear bone marrow stem cells is superior to the isolated transplantation of these cell types after myocardial infarction in rats.
  40. Menasche P, Hagege A, Vilquin J, Desnos M, Abergel E, Pouzet B, et al. Autologous skeletal myoblast transplantation for severe postinfarction left ventricular dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:1078-83 pubmed
    ..This phase I trial was designed to assess the feasibility and safety of autologous skeletal myoblast transplantation in patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy...
  41. Foulstone E, Savage P, Crown A, Holly J, Stewart C. Role of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in the differentiation of primary human adult skeletal myoblasts. J Cell Physiol. 2003;195:70-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore reduction of IGFBP-3 secretion using antisense oligonucleotides led to an inhibition of differentiation. Taken together these data indicate that IGFBP-3 supports myoblast differentiation...
  42. Tambara K, Sakakibara Y, Sakaguchi G, Lu F, Premaratne G, Lin X, et al. Transplanted skeletal myoblasts can fully replace the infarcted myocardium when they survive in the host in large numbers. Circulation. 2003;108 Suppl 1:II259-63 pubmed
    It is not clear how many skeletal myoblasts (SM) can survive and exert beneficial effects in the host myocardial infarction (MI) area...
  43. Bachrach E, Li S, Perez A, Schienda J, Liadaki K, Volinski J, et al. Systemic delivery of human microdystrophin to regenerating mouse dystrophic muscle by muscle progenitor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:3581-6 pubmed
    ..Because this approach shows definitive engraftment by using autologous transplantation of noninjured recipients, our data may have substantial implications for therapy of muscular dystrophy...
  44. Endesfelder S, Kliche A, Lochmuller H, von Moers A, Speer A. Antisense oligonucleotides and short interfering RNAs silencing the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 improve proliferation of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients' primary skeletal myoblasts. J Mol Med (Berl). 2005;83:64-71 pubmed
    ..Our findings of transient p21 gene silencing represent a basis for viral vector-mediated drug-inducible p21 shRNA expression in Dys(-) myoblasts which might enhance, prolong and regulate the proliferation effect...
  45. Agbulut O, Vandervelde S, Al Attar N, Larghero J, Ghostine S, Leobon B, et al. Comparison of human skeletal myoblasts and bone marrow-derived CD133+ progenitors for the repair of infarcted myocardium. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44:458-63 pubmed
    The present study was designed as a face-to-face functional comparison of human skeletal myoblasts (SMs) and CD133(+) bone marrow-derived hematopoietic progenitors in an animal model of semichronic myocardial infarction.
  46. Gersbach C, Byers B, Pavlath G, Guldberg R, Garcia A. Runx2/Cbfa1-genetically engineered skeletal myoblasts mineralize collagen scaffolds in vitro. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2004;88:369-78 pubmed
    ..This study examined the in vitro mineralization potential of primary skeletal myoblasts genetically engineered to overexpress Runx2/Cbfa1, an osteoblastic transcriptional regulator essential to ..
  47. Siminiak T, Kalmucki P, Kurpisz M. Autologous skeletal myoblasts for myocardial regeneration. J Interv Cardiol. 2004;17:357-65 pubmed
    We overview the current knowledge about the use of skeletal myoblasts in regeneration of infarcted myocardium...
  48. Souza L, Carvalho K, Rebelatto C, Senegaglia A, Furuta M, Miyague N, et al. Combined transplantation of skeletal myoblasts and mesenchymal cells (cocultivation) in ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2004;83:294-9; 288-93 pubmed
    Cell therapy in the myocardium has been mainly performed with satisfactory results using 2 cell types: skeletal myoblasts (myogenic) and mesenchymal cells (angiogenic)...
  49. Bouchentouf M, Benabdallah B, Tremblay J. Myoblast survival enhancement and transplantation success improvement by heat-shock treatment in mdx mice. Transplantation. 2004;77:1349-56 pubmed
    ..Our goal was thus to investigate whether the expression of HSPs (HSP70 in particular) could protect myoblasts from death after intramuscular injection...
  50. Pedrotty D, Koh J, Davis B, Taylor D, Wolf P, Niklason L. Engineering skeletal myoblasts: roles of three-dimensional culture and electrical stimulation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;288:H1620-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, from these experiments, conditioned medium did not appear to alter the differentiation state of skeletal myoblasts. Hence, cardiac milieu appears to stimulate proliferation but does not affect differentiation of skeletal ..
  51. Seale P, Ishibashi J, Holterman C, Rudnicki M. Muscle satellite cell-specific genes identified by genetic profiling of MyoD-deficient myogenic cell. Dev Biol. 2004;275:287-300 pubmed
    ..Lastly, additional endothelial and hematopoietic markers were identified supporting a nonsomitic developmental origin of the satellite cell myogenic lineage...
  52. Galvin C, Hardiman O, Nolan C. IGF-1 receptor mediates differentiation of primary cultures of mouse skeletal myoblasts. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;200:19-29 pubmed
  53. Rijkers T, Deidda G, van Koningsbruggen S, van Geel M, Lemmers R, van Deutekom J, et al. FRG2, an FSHD candidate gene, is transcriptionally upregulated in differentiating primary myoblast cultures of FSHD patients. J Med Genet. 2004;41:826-36 pubmed
    ..This chromosomal rearrangement may result in regional chromatin relaxation and transcriptional deregulation of genes nearby...