Genomes and Genes
adult stem cells
Summary: Tissue-specific stem cells (also known as Somatic Stem Cells) that appear during fetal development and remain in the body throughout life. The key functions of adult stem cells are to maintain and repair the specific tissues where they reside (e.g. skin or blood).
- Callihan P, Ali M, Salazar H, Quach N, Wu X, Stice S, et al. Convergent regulation of neuronal differentiation and Erk and Akt kinases in human neural progenitor cells by lysophosphatidic acid, sphingosine 1-phosphate, and LIF: specific roles for the LPA1 receptor. ASN Neuro. 2014;6: pubmed publisher..The pleiotropic effects of LPA may reflect differences in receptor subtype expression or cross talk with LIF receptor signaling. ..
- Vitale I, Manic G, De Maria R, Kroemer G, Galluzzi L. DNA Damage in Stem Cells. Mol Cell. 2017;66:306-319 pubmed publisherBoth embryonic and adult stem cells are endowed with a superior capacity to prevent the accumulation of genetic lesions, repair them, or avoid their propagation to daughter cells, which would be particularly detrimental to the whole ..
- ..Expectations in the field have become more realistic, and now, the first successes of therapies based on the CSC concept are emerging...
- Crane G, Jeffery E, Morrison S. Adult haematopoietic stem cell niches. Nat Rev Immunol. 2017;17:573-590 pubmed publisher..Endothelial cells and mesenchymal stromal cells secrete factors that promote HSC maintenance in these niches, but other cell types also directly or indirectly regulate HSC niches. ..
- Xie Q, Wang Z. Transcriptional regulation of the Nkx3.1 gene in prostate luminal stem cell specification and cancer initiation via its 3' genomic region. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13521-13530 pubmed publisher..Importantly, the GFP reporter specifically labeled CARNs in the regressed prostate only in the presence of cell-autonomous AR, supporting a facultative model for CARN specification. ..
- Turco M, Gardner L, Hughes J, Cindrova Davies T, Gomez M, Farrell L, et al. Long-term, hormone-responsive organoid cultures of human endometrium in a chemically defined medium. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:568-577 pubmed publisher..We also derived organoids from malignant endometrium, and so provide a foundation to study common diseases, such as endometriosis and endometrial cancer, as well as the physiology of early gestation. ..
- Sato Y, Uchida Y, Hu J, Young Pearse T, Niikura T, Mukouyama Y. Soluble APP functions as a vascular niche signal that controls adult neural stem cell number. Development. 2017;144:2730-2736 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results suggest that endothelial APP functions as a vascular niche signal that negatively regulates NSC growth to control the NSC number in the SVZ. ..
- Solanas G, Peixoto F, Perdiguero E, Jardi M, Ruiz Bonilla V, Datta D, et al. Aged Stem Cells Reprogram Their Daily Rhythmic Functions to Adapt to Stress. Cell. 2017;170:678-692.e20 pubmed publisherNormal homeostatic functions of adult stem cells have rhythmic daily oscillations that are believed to become arrhythmic during aging...
- Abnave P, Aboukhatwa E, Kosaka N, Thompson J, Hill M, Aboobaker A. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors control pluripotent adult stem cell migration in vivo in planarians. Development. 2017;144:3440-3453 pubmed publisher..This requires the polarity determinant notum Our work establishes planarians as a suitable model for further in-depth study of the processes controlling stem cell migration in vivo. ..
- McClelland L, Jasper H, Biteau B. Tis11 mediated mRNA decay promotes the reacquisition of Drosophila intestinal stem cell quiescence. Dev Biol. 2017;426:8-16 pubmed publisher..Our results identify Tis11 mediated mRNA decay as an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of re-establishing basal proliferation rates of stem cells in regenerating tissues. ..
- Salehi H, Amirpour N, Niapour A, Razavi S. An Overview of Neural Differentiation Potential of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells. Stem Cell Rev. 2016;12:26-41 pubmedThere is wide interest in application of adult stem cells due to easy to obtain with a minimal patient discomfort, capable of producing cell numbers in large quantities and their immunocompatible properties without restriction by ethical ..
- Eliwa H, Belzung C, Surget A. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Is it the alpha and omega of antidepressant action?. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;141:86-99 pubmed publisher..To advance further in this field, an understanding of how adult-generated neurons induce therapeutic effects and how this is related to the pathophysiology of depression are required. ..
- Xiaoguang L, Yizhu W, Bin G. [Tumor necrosis factor-? regulates the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in chronic periodontitis]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;35:334-338 pubmed publisherBone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and ideal adult stem cells for alveolar bone regeneration considerably help restore the structure and function of the periodontium and promote the healing of periodontal disease...
- Neri F, Incarnato D, Krepelova A, Rapelli S, Pagnani A, Zecchina R, et al. Genome-wide analysis identifies a functional association of Tet1 and Polycomb repressive complex 2 in mouse embryonic stem cells. Genome Biol. 2013;14:R91 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that PRC2-dependent recruitment of Tet1 contributes to epigenetic plasticity throughout cell differentiation. ..
- Maryanovich M, Frenette P. T-Regulating Hair Follicle Stem Cells. Immunity. 2017;46:979-981 pubmed publisher..2017) reveal a function for Treg cells in stem cell maintenance by showing that skin-resident Foxp3+ Treg cells preferentially localize to the hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) niche to control HFSC-mediated hair regeneration. ..
- Mitutsova V, Yeo W, Davaze R, Franckhauser C, Hani E, Abdullah S, et al. Adult muscle-derived stem cells engraft and differentiate into insulin-expressing cells in pancreatic islets of diabetic mice. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;8:86 pubmed publisher..Being nonteratogenic, MDSC can be used directly by systemic injection, and this potential reveals a promising alternative avenue in stem cell-based treatment of beta-cell deficiencies. ..
- ..In a recent paper in Science, Paul et al. (2017) show that hypothalamic propiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons innervate the anterior ventral V-SVZ and regulate deep granule interneuron production depending on feeding behavior. ..
- Nagy B, Hovhannisyan A, Barzan R, Chen T, Kukley M. Different patterns of neuronal activity trigger distinct responses of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the corpus callosum. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2001993 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that neurons do not influence OPCs in "all-or-none" fashion but use their firing pattern to tune the response and behavior of these nonneuronal cells. ..
- Bradford E, Ryu S, Singh A, Lee G, Goretsky T, Sinh P, et al. Epithelial TNF Receptor Signaling Promotes Mucosal Repair in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Immunol. 2017;199:1886-1897 pubmed publisher..These novel findings will inform clinicians and therapeutic chemists alike as they strive to develop novel therapies for IBD patients. ..
- Lo S, Li K, Chang Y, Hsu M, Sung L, Vu T, et al. Enhanced critical-size calvarial bone healing by ASCs engineered with Cre/loxP-based hybrid baculovirus. Biomaterials. 2017;124:1-11 pubmed publisher..These data implicated the potential of Cre/loxP-based hybrid baculovirus vector for ASCs engineering and calvarial bone healing. ..
- ..Recent progress in the search for new sources of ? cells has opened up several possibilities for the development of new treatments for diabetes. ..
- Xiao N, Lin Y, Cao H, Sirjani D, Giaccia A, Koong A, et al. Neurotrophic factor GDNF promotes survival of salivary stem cells. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:3364-77 pubmed publisher..These data indicate that modulation of the GDNF pathway may have potential therapeutic benefit for management of radiation-induced xerostomia. ..
- Ha S, Jeong S, Yi K, Chung K, Hong C, Kim S, et al. Phosphorylation of p62 by AMP-activated protein kinase mediates autophagic cell death in adult hippocampal neural stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13795-13808 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that AMPK-mediated p62 phosphorylation is an ACD-specific signaling event and provide novel mechanistic insight into the molecular mechanisms in ACD. ..
- Lavasani M, Thompson S, Pollett J, Usas A, Lu A, Stolz D, et al. Human muscle-derived stem/progenitor cells promote functional murine peripheral nerve regeneration. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:1745-56 pubmed publisher..These data demonstrate the efficacy of hMDSPC-based therapy for peripheral nerve injury and suggest that hMDSPC transplantation has potential to be translated for use in human neuropathies. ..
- Dunlop C, Telfer E, Anderson R. Ovarian germline stem cells. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014;5:98 pubmed publisher..Essential future work in this field will include further independent corroboration of the existence of GSCs in female mammals and the demonstration of the production of mature competent oocytes from GSCs cultured entirely in vitro. ..
- Castilla Ortega E, Ladrón de Guevara Miranda D, Serrano A, Pavón F, Suarez J, Rodriguez de Fonseca F, et al. The impact of cocaine on adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Potential neurobiological mechanisms and contributions to maladaptive cognition in cocaine addiction disorder. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;141:100-117 pubmed publisher..Based on the evidence presented here, the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis might be one of the many mechanisms by which cocaine sculpts hippocampus-dependent learning. ..
- Arendt L, Keller P, Skibinski A, Goncalves K, Naber S, Buchsbaum R, et al. Anatomical localization of progenitor cells in human breast tissue reveals enrichment of uncommitted cells within immature lobules. Breast Cancer Res. 2014;16:453 pubmed publisher..These results reveal underlying differences in the human breast epithelial hierarchy and suggest that with increasing glandular maturity, the epithelial hierarchy also becomes more complex. ..
- Zanon V, Pilipow K, Scamardella E, De Paoli F, De Simone G, Price D, et al. Curtailed T-cell activation curbs effector differentiation and generates CD8+ T cells with a naturally-occurring memory stem cell phenotype. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1468-1476 pubmed publisher..These results shed light on the molecular signals that are required to generate long-lived memory T cells with potential application in adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy...
- Salama H, Zekri A, Medhat E, Al Alim S, Ahmed O, Bahnassy A, et al. Peripheral vein infusion of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in Egyptian HCV-positive patients with end-stage liver disease. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014;5:70 pubmed publisher..ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01729221. Registered 17 November 2012. ..
- Reik W, Surani M. Germline and Pluripotent Stem Cells. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2015;7: pubmed publisher..Understanding the natural cycles of epigenetic reprogramming that occur in the germline will allow the generation of better and more versatile stem cells for both therapeutic and research purposes. ..
- Kretzschmar K, Clevers H. Wnt/?-catenin signaling in adult mammalian epithelial stem cells. Dev Biol. 2017;428:273-282 pubmed publisherb>Adult stem cells self-renew and replenish differentiated cells in various organs and tissues throughout a mammal's life...
- Qin D, Long T, Deng J, Zhang Y. Urine-derived stem cells for potential use in bladder repair. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014;5:69 pubmed publisher..Importantly, USCs can be obtained via a noninvasive, simple, and low-cost approach and induced with high efficiency to differentiate into bladder cells. ..
- Hu X, Chen G, Zhang S, Zheng J, Wu J, Bai Q, et al. Persistent Expression of VCAM1 in Radial Glial Cells Is Required for the Embryonic Origin of Postnatal Neural Stem Cells. Neuron. 2017;95:309-325.e6 pubmed publisher..Our findings provide new insight on how stem cells in the embryo are preserved to meet the need for growth and regeneration. ..
- Kretzschmar K, Watt F. Markers of epidermal stem cell subpopulations in adult mammalian skin. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014;4: pubmed publisher..As in other epithelia, adult stem cells within the epidermis maintain tissue homeostasis and contribute to repair of tissue damage...
- Reilein A, Melamed D, Park K, Berg A, Cimetta E, Tandon N, et al. Alternative direct stem cell derivatives defined by stem cell location and graded Wnt signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:433-444 pubmed publisherb>Adult stem cells provide a renewable source of differentiated cells for a wide variety of tissues and generally give rise to multiple cell types...
- Lee C, Lee F, Tarafder S, Kao K, Jun Y, Yang G, et al. Harnessing endogenous stem/progenitor cells for tendon regeneration. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2690-701 pubmed publisher..Together, our findings support the use of endogenous stem/progenitor cells as a strategy for tendon regeneration without cell transplantation and suggest this approach warrants exploration in other tissues. ..
- Allen M. What's New in Orthopaedic Basic Science. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016;98:2025-2029 pubmed
- Pourabdolhossein F, Gil Perotin S, Garcia Belda P, Dauphin A, Mozafari S, Tepavcevic V, et al. Inflammatory demyelination induces ependymal modifications concomitant to activation of adult (SVZ) stem cell proliferation. Glia. 2017;65:756-772 pubmed publisher..These observations may have major implications for understanding pathophysiology of and designing therapeutic approaches for inflammatory demyelinating diseases such as MS. ..
- Leushacke M, Ng A, Galle J, Loeffler M, Barker N. Lgr5(+) gastric stem cells divide symmetrically to effect epithelial homeostasis in the pylorus. Cell Rep. 2013;5:349-56 pubmed publisher..The pyloric epithelium continuously self-renews throughout life, driven by limited reservoirs of resident Lgr5+ adult stem cells. Here, we characterize the population dynamics of these stem cells during epithelial homeostasis...