phagocytes

Summary

Summary: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.

Top Publications

  1. Maldonado Arocho F, Green C, Fisher M, Paczosa M, Mecsas J. Adhesins and host serum factors drive Yop translocation by yersinia into professional phagocytes during animal infection. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003415 pubmed publisher
    Yersinia delivers Yops into numerous types of cultured cells, but predominantly into professional phagocytes and B cells during animal infection. The basis for this cellular tropism during animal infection is not understood...
  2. Park D, Han C, Elliott M, Kinchen J, Trampont P, Das S, et al. Continued clearance of apoptotic cells critically depends on the phagocyte Ucp2 protein. Nature. 2011;477:220-4 pubmed publisher
    Rapid and efficient removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important during development, tissue homeostasis and in immune responses...
  3. March C, Cano V, Moranta D, Llobet E, Pérez Gutiérrez C, Tomas J, et al. Role of bacterial surface structures on the interaction of Klebsiella pneumoniae with phagocytes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56847 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae employs similar means to counteract amoebae and mammalian phagocytes. Here we developed an assay to evaluate K. pneumoniae-D. discoideum interaction...
  4. Wójcik M, Ramadori P, Blaschke M, Sultan S, Khan S, Malik I, et al. Immunodetection of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is restricted to tissue macrophages in normal rat liver and to recruited mononuclear phagocytes in liver injury and cholangiocarcinoma. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;137:217-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition COX-2 positivity in inflammatory mononuclear phagocytes (ED1(+)/ED2(-)), which were also present within the tumoral tissue was detected...
  5. Hoshi N, Schenten D, Nish S, Walther Z, Gagliani N, Flavell R, et al. MyD88 signalling in colonic mononuclear phagocytes drives colitis in IL-10-deficient mice. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1120 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, phenotypically distinct populations of colonic mononuclear phagocytes expressed high levels of interleukin-1?, interleukin-23 and interleukin-6, and promoted T-helper 17 responses in ..
  6. Wu Z, Nakanishi H. Phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes: potential pharmacological interventions against inflammatory and immune diseases through the production of prostaglandin E(2) after uptake by myeloid derived phagocytes. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2011;59:195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The PS externalization provides a signal for phagocytes to initiate uptake of apoptotic cells...
  7. Cha S, Rayamajhi N, Lee W, Shin M, Jung M, Shin S, et al. Generation and envelope protein analysis of internalization defective Brucella abortus mutants in professional phagocytes, RAW 264.7. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;64:244-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified the ppk gene and BruAb2_0168 locus which are associated to expression of OMP25, OMP28 and Porin2b as well as pleiotropic effects of ccmC gene...
  8. Yang R, Chiang N, Oh S, Serhan C. Metabolomics-lipidomics of eicosanoids and docosanoids generated by phagocytes. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2011;Chapter 14:Unit 14.26 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Phagocytes play major roles in tissue homeostasis and have a high capacity to produce these mediators, which depend on ..
  9. Ferrari C, Souto P, França E, Honório França A. Oxidative and nitrosative stress on phagocytes' function: from effective defense to immunity evasion mechanisms. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2011;59:441-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Lacking of adequate release of free radicals from activated phagocytes is related to impaired ability on fungi, bacteria, and protozoa killing...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Chedid P, Hurtado Nedelec M, Marion Gaber B, Bournier O, Hayem G, Gougerot Pocidalo M, et al. Adiponectin and its globular fragment differentially modulate the oxidative burst of primary human phagocytes. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:682-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Acrp30 inhibited fMLF-induced ROS production by human phagocytes, whereas gAcrp30 enhanced it...
  2. Tittel A, Heuser C, Ohliger C, Knolle P, Engel D, Kurts C. Kidney dendritic cells induce innate immunity against bacterial pyelonephritis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:1435-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these findings suggest that the tubulointerstitial dendritic cell network serves an innate immune sentinel function against bacterial pyelonephritis...
  3. Kim D, Lim J, Lee J, Kim D, Lee H, Min W, et al. RGS2-mediated intracellular Ca2+ level plays a key role in the intracellular replication of Brucella abortus within phagocytes. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:445-52 pubmed publisher
    ..within professional and nonprofessional phagocytic host cells and thereby successfully bypass the bacteriocidal effects of phagocytes. However, the intracellular survival mechanism and factors of virulence are not fully understood.
  4. Müller A, Kaiser P, Dittmar K, Weber T, Haueter S, Endt K, et al. Salmonella gut invasion involves TTSS-2-dependent epithelial traversal, basolateral exit, and uptake by epithelium-sampling lamina propria phagocytes. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:19-32 pubmed publisher
    ..being released into the lamina propria, the bacterium is transiently extracellular before being taken up by phagocytes, including CD11c(+)CX(3)CR1(high) monocytic phagocytes (MPs), which were found to constitutively sample cellular ..
  5. Grant A, Morgan F, McKinley T, Foster G, Maskell D, Mastroeni P. Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium lacking the pathogenicity island-2 type 3 secretion system grow to high bacterial numbers inside phagocytes in mice. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1003070 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that very similar net growth rates of attenuated salmonellae in organs can be derived from very different underlying intracellular growth dynamics...
  6. Steevels T, van Avondt K, Westerlaken G, Stalpers F, Walk J, Bont L, et al. Signal inhibitory receptor on leukocytes-1 (SIRL-1) negatively regulates the oxidative burst in human phagocytes. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:1297-308 pubmed publisher
    ROS production is an important effector mechanism mediating intracellular killing of microbes by phagocytes. Inappropriate or untimely ROS production can lead to tissue damage, thus tight regulation is essential...
  7. Kurzepa Skaradzinska A, Lusiak Szelachowska M, Skaradziński G, Jończyk Matysiak E, Weber Dabrowska B, Zaczek M, et al. Influence of bacteriophage preparations on intracellular killing of bacteria by human phagocytes in vitro. Viral Immunol. 2013;26:150-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In our study, we evaluated whether application of phage preparations impair bactericidal activities of human phagocytes (granulocytes and monocytes)...
  8. Frenkel D, Wilkinson K, Zhao L, Hickman S, Means T, Puckett L, et al. Scara1 deficiency impairs clearance of soluble amyloid-? by mononuclear phagocytes and accelerates Alzheimer's-like disease progression. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2030 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, pharmacological upregulation of Scara1 expression on mononuclear phagocytes increases A? clearance. This approach is a potential treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease.
  9. Hume D. Plenary perspective: the complexity of constitutive and inducible gene expression in mononuclear phagocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;92:433-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The data and publication deluge related to macrophage biology require the development of new analytical tools and ways of presenting information in an accessible form...
  10. Holzinger D, Gieldon L, Mysore V, Nippe N, Taxman D, Duncan J, et al. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin induces an inflammatory response in human phagocytes via the NLRP3 inflammasome. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;92:1069-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study analyzes a specific host signaling pathway that mediates PVL-induced inflammation and cytotoxicity, which has high relevance for CA-MRSA-associated and PVL-mediated pathogenic processes, such as necrotizing infections...
  11. Wathne G, Kissenpfennig A, Malissen B, Zurzolo C, Mabbott N. Determining the role of mononuclear phagocytes in prion neuroinvasion from the skin. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;91:817-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, together, these data suggest that the propagation of prions from the skin to the draining LN occurs via dermal classical DCs, independently of langerin(+) cells...
  12. Jantan I, Bukhari S, Lajis N, Abas F, Wai L, Jasamai M. Effects of diarylpentanoid analogues of curcumin on chemiluminescence and chemotactic activities of phagocytes. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;64:404-12 pubmed publisher
    A series of 43 curcumin diarylpentanoid analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro.
  13. Wang Y, Tran K, Shen H, Grainger D. Selective local delivery of RANK siRNA to bone phagocytes using bone augmentation biomaterials. Biomaterials. 2012;33:8540-7 pubmed publisher
    ..carrier to deliver RANK siRNA to both osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts - the professional phagocytes in bone...
  14. Wu M, Aung H, Hirsch C, Toossi Z. Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced signalling by transforming growth factor-? in human mononuclear phagocytes. Scand J Immunol. 2012;75:301-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition by SIS3 only inhibited uPAR mRNA significantly. SIS3 may prove to be an effective adjunct to TB therapy...
  15. Morceli G, Honório França A, Fagundes D, Calderon I, França E. Antioxidant effect of melatonin on the functional activity of colostral phagocytes in diabetic women. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56915 pubmed publisher
    ..study investigated the mechanisms of action of melatonin and its effects on the functional activity of colostral phagocytes in diabetic women. Colostrum samples were collected from normoglycemic (N?=?38) and diabetic (N?=?38) women...
  16. Dupre Crochet S, Erard M, Nüβe O. ROS production in phagocytes: why, when, and where?. J Leukoc Biol. 2013;94:657-70 pubmed publisher
    ..in nonphagocytic cells, it became logical to look for ROS functions distinct from pathogen killing, even in phagocytes. ROS are now linked to various forms of cell death, to chemotaxis, and to numerous modifications of cellular ..
  17. González Cortés C, Diez Tascon C, Guerra Laso J, González Cocaño M, Rivero Lezcano O. Non-chemotactic influence of CXCL7 on human phagocytes. Modulation of antimicrobial activity against L. pneumophila. Immunobiology. 2012;217:394-401 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated the role of CXCL7 in the immune response of human phagocytes against the intracellular bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Legionella pneumophila...
  18. Browne N, Heelan M, Kavanagh K. An analysis of the structural and functional similarities of insect hemocytes and mammalian phagocytes. Virulence. 2013;4:597-603 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights the strong similarities between the phagocytic cells of both groups of animals and demonstrates the potential benefits of using selected insects as in vivo screening systems. ..
  19. Ibrahim M, Barnes J, Anstead G, Jimenez F, Travi B, Peniche A, et al. The malnutrition-related increase in early visceralization of Leishmania donovani is associated with a reduced number of lymph node phagocytes and altered conduit system flow. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2329 pubmed publisher
    ..donovani infection is associated with a reduced number of lymph node phagocytes, which most likely leads to reduced capture of parasites as they transit through the sinuses and conduit system.
  20. Collette J, Lorenz M. Mechanisms of immune evasion in fungal pathogens. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2011;14:668-75 pubmed publisher
    ..For the most part, the molecular mechanisms behind these behaviors are not yet known. This review discusses recent discoveries and insights into how fungi manipulate the host-pathogen interaction...
  21. Jin L, Hill K, Filak H, Mogan J, Knowles H, Zhang B, et al. MPYS is required for IFN response factor 3 activation and type I IFN production in the response of cultured phagocytes to bacterial second messengers cyclic-di-AMP and cyclic-di-GMP. J Immunol. 2011;187:2595-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that bifurcating MPYS-dependent and -independent pathways mediate sensing of cytosolic bacterial infections. ..
  22. Koprivnjak T, Zhang D, Ernst C, Peschel A, Nauseef W, Weiss J. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus cardiolipin synthases 1 and 2 and their contribution to accumulation of cardiolipin in stationary phase and within phagocytes. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:4134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in the relative contributions of Cls1 and Cls2 to CL accumulation under different triggering conditions suggest differences in the role and regulation of these two enzymes...
  23. Kumar S, Rai U. Dynorphin regulates the phagocytic activity of splenic phagocytes in wall lizards: involvement of a ?-opioid receptor-coupled adenylate-cyclase-cAMP-PKA pathway. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:4217-22 pubmed publisher
    ..the opioid peptide dynorphin A((1-17)) [dyn A((1-17))] in the regulation of the phagocytic activity of splenic phagocytes. Dyn A((1-17)) in a concentration-dependent manner inhibited the phagocytic activity, and the maximum inhibition ..
  24. Lelli A, Gervais A, Colin C, Cheret C, Ruiz de Almodovar C, Carmeliet P, et al. The NADPH oxidase Nox2 regulates VEGFR1/CSF-1R-mediated microglial chemotaxis and promotes early postnatal infiltration of phagocytes in the subventricular zone of the mouse cerebral cortex. Glia. 2013;61:1542-55 pubmed publisher
    ..During development, oriented cell migrations insure the timely recruitment and function of phagocytes in developing tissues...
  25. Rieger A, Konowalchuk J, Grayfer L, Katzenback B, Havixbeck J, Kiemele M, et al. Fish and mammalian phagocytes differentially regulate pro-inflammatory and homeostatic responses in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47070 pubmed publisher
    ..At an inflammatory site, phagocytes serve as central regulators for both pro-inflammatory and homeostatic anti-inflammatory processes...
  26. Arciola C, Hänsch G, Visai L, Testoni F, Maurer S, Campoccia D, et al. Interactions of staphylococci with osteoblasts and phagocytes in the pathogenesis of implant-associated osteomyelitis. Int J Artif Organs. 2012;35:713-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Various interactions between staphylococci, osteoblasts, and phagocytes occurring in the peri-prosthesis environment play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of implant-associated ..
  27. Tseng J, Kung A. In vivo imaging of inflammatory phagocytes. Chem Biol. 2012;19:1199-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the central role of inflammation in a variety of disorders, we believe these noninvasive imaging methods can help dissect the differential roles of neutrophils and macrophages in a variety of pathological conditions...
  28. Dalli J, Serhan C. Specific lipid mediator signatures of human phagocytes: microparticles stimulate macrophage efferocytosis and pro-resolving mediators. Blood. 2012;120:e60-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Phagocytes orchestrate acute inflammation and host defense. Here we carried out lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomics profiling distinct phagocytes: neutrophils (PMN), apoptotic PMN, and macrophages...
  29. Ganal S, Sanos S, Kallfass C, Oberle K, Johner C, Kirschning C, et al. Priming of natural killer cells by nonmucosal mononuclear phagocytes requires instructive signals from commensal microbiota. Immunity. 2012;37:171-86 pubmed publisher
    Mononuclear phagocytes are an important component of an innate immune system perceived as a system ready to react upon encounter of pathogens...
  30. Zhang Y, Wang H, Kage Nakadai E, Mitani S, Wang X. C. elegans secreted lipid-binding protein NRF-5 mediates PS appearance on phagocytes for cell corpse engulfment. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1276-84 pubmed publisher
    During programmed cell death, apoptotic cells are rapidly removed by phagocytes. How dying cells are recognized remains poorly understood.
  31. Schlapbach L, Kjaer T, Thiel S, Mattmann M, Nelle M, Wagner B, et al. M-ficolin concentrations in cord blood are related to circulating phagocytes and to early-onset sepsis. Pediatr Res. 2012;71:368-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Neonates are highly vulnerable to bacterial sepsis, in particular, due to their decreased phagocytic function...
  32. Enose Akahata Y, Matsuura E, Tanaka Y, Oh U, Jacobson S. Minocycline modulates antigen-specific CTL activity through inactivation of mononuclear phagocytes in patients with HTLV-I associated neurologic disease. Retrovirology. 2012;9:16 pubmed publisher
    The activation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, contributes to central nervous system inflammation in various neurological diseases...
  33. Lan X, Xu J, Kiyota T, Peng H, Zheng J, Ikezu T. HIV-1 reduces Abeta-degrading enzymatic activities in primary human mononuclear phagocytes. J Immunol. 2011;186:6925-32 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that viral infection leads to increased production and impaired degradation of A?. Mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages and microglia) that are productively infected by HIV in brains play a pivotal role in A? ..
  34. Cote C, Welkos S, Bozue J. Key aspects of the molecular and cellular basis of inhalational anthrax. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:1146-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Decades of research have elucidated novel aspects of anthrax pathogenesis but there are many issues left unresolved...
  35. Cusimano M, Biziato D, Brambilla E, Donega M, Alfaro Cervello C, Snider S, et al. Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells instruct phagocytes and reduce secondary tissue damage in the injured spinal cord. Brain. 2012;135:447-60 pubmed publisher
    ..survived undifferentiated at the level of the peri-lesion environment and established contacts with endogenous phagocytes via cellular-junctional coupling...
  36. Brothers K, Newman Z, Wheeler R. Live imaging of disseminated candidiasis in zebrafish reveals role of phagocyte oxidase in limiting filamentous growth. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:932-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The transparent and easily manipulated larval zebrafish model promises to provide a unique tool for dissecting the molecular basis of phagocyte NADPH oxidase-mediated limitation of filamentous growth in vivo...
  37. Negrini T, Duque C, Vizoto N, Stipp R, Mariano F, Hofling J, et al. Influence of VicRK and CovR on the interactions of Streptococcus mutans with phagocytes. Oral Dis. 2012;18:485-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These include the systems VicRK and CovR. In this study, we investigate the influence of VicRK and CovR in S. mutans interactions with mononuclear and polymorphonuclear (PMN) phagocytes.
  38. Hasenberg M, Behnsen J, Krappmann S, Brakhage A, Gunzer M. Phagocyte responses towards Aspergillus fumigatus. Int J Med Microbiol. 2011;301:436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of phagocytes for defense against aspergillosis is also supported by large numbers of animal studies...
  39. Mech F, Thywissen A, Guthke R, Brakhage A, Figge M. Automated image analysis of the host-pathogen interaction between phagocytes and Aspergillus fumigatus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19591 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, we observe that the phagocytosis ratio and the aggregation behaviour of pksP mutant compared to wild-type conidia are both significantly increased...
  40. Voelz K, Johnston S, Rutherford J, May R. Automated analysis of cryptococcal macrophage parasitism using GFP-tagged cryptococci. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15968 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we report the development of a method to effectively and rapidly investigate macrophage parasitism by flow cytometry, a technique that preserves the accuracy of current approaches but offers a four-fold improvement in speed...
  41. Poon I, Hulett M, Parish C. Histidine-rich glycoprotein is a novel plasma pattern recognition molecule that recruits IgG to facilitate necrotic cell clearance via FcgammaRI on phagocytes. Blood. 2010;115:2473-82 pubmed publisher
    ..conditions, necrotic cells resulting from tissue injury are rapidly removed from the circulation and tissues by phagocytes, thus preventing the exposure of intracellular antigenic and immunostimulatory molecules that can aid the ..
  42. Durand E, Maldonado Arocho F, Castillo C, Walsh R, Mecsas J. The presence of professional phagocytes dictates the number of host cells targeted for Yop translocation during infection. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:1064-82 pubmed publisher
    ..pseudotuberculosis selectively targets Yops to professional phagocytes in Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen, although it colocalizes with B and T cells as well as ..
  43. Hafner A, Corthesy B, Textor M, Merkle H. Tuning the immune response of dendritic cells to surface-assembled poly(I:C) on microspheres through synergistic interactions between phagocytic and TLR3 signaling. Biomaterials. 2011;32:2651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, phagocytic signaling plays an important role in defining the resulting immune response to such two-in-one adjuvant formulations...
  44. Richard J, Roy M, Audoy Rémus J, Tremblay P, Vallières L. Crawling phagocytes recruited in the brain vasculature after pertussis toxin exposure through IL6, ICAM1 and ITG?M. Brain Pathol. 2011;21:661-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that phagocytes adhere to brain capillaries through the interaction of integrin ?M (ITG?M) with ICAM1 and an unidentified ligand...
  45. Belstrøm D, Holmstrup P, Damgaard C, Borch T, Skjødt M, Bendtzen K, et al. The atherogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis evades circulating phagocytes by adhering to erythrocytes. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1559-65 pubmed publisher
    ..33277 allows the bacterium to adhere to human red blood cells (RBCs) and thereby evade attack by circulating phagocytes. On incubation with normal human serum, the P. gingivalis strain efficiently fixed complement component 3 (C3)...
  46. Thwaites G, Gant V. Are bloodstream leukocytes Trojan Horses for the metastasis of Staphylococcus aureus?. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;9:215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Opinion article, we propose that phagocytes, and specifically neutrophils, represent a privileged site for S...
  47. Cima F, Manni L, Basso G, Fortunato E, Accordi B, Schiavon F, et al. Hovering between death and life: natural apoptosis and phagocytes in the blastogenetic cycle of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:272-85 pubmed publisher
    ..extrinsic pathways, probably connected by the BH3-only protein Bid, are involved in cell death induction; (ii) phagocytes, once loaded with senescent cells, frequently undergo apoptosis, probably as a consequence of oxidative stress ..
  48. Koprulu A, Ellmeier W. The role of Tec family kinases in mononuclear phagocytes. Crit Rev Immunol. 2009;29:317-33 pubmed
    Mononuclear phagocytes, including monocytcs, macrophages, and dendritic cells, play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses and are important regulators of the inflammatory response...
  49. Koch N, Jung M, Sabat R, Krätzschmar J, Döcke W, Asadullah K, et al. IL-10 protects monocytes and macrophages from complement-mediated lysis. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:155-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Phagocytes, such as monocytes and macrophages, are important cells of the innate immunity in the defense against microbes...
  50. Satchell K. Bacterial martyrdom: phagocytes disabled by type VI secretion after engulfing bacteria. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:213-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The effector then causes irreversible cytoskeleton destruction, leading to bystander protection of the extracellular bacterial population...
  51. Kim C, Cha Y. Production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in phagocytes is regulated by taurine chloramine. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;643:463-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we compare the effect of taurine and TauCl on the production of these reactive species in phagocytes. First, TauCl inhibit PMA-derived O2- production and this is associated with inhibition of p47phox ..
  52. Castillo Briceño P, Sepulcre M, Chaves Pozo E, Meseguer J, García Ayala A, Mulero V. Collagen regulates the activation of professional phagocytes of the teleost fish gilthead seabream. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:1409-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that collagen and gelatin in vitro were able to prime the respiratory burst of phagocytes from the bony fish gilthead seabream...
  53. Hohn C, Lee S, Pinchuk L, Petrie Hanson L. Zebrafish kidney phagocytes utilize macropinocytosis and Ca+-dependent endocytic mechanisms. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4314 pubmed publisher
    ..The small size of the zebrafish has prevented the large-scale collection of monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes for these endocytic assays...