Summary: Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.

Top Publications

  1. Yu B, Liu Z, Fu Y, Wang Y, Zhang L, Cai Z, et al. CYLD Deubiquitinates Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase 4 Contributing to Adventitial Remodeling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1698-1709 pubmed publisher
    Transdifferentiation of adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) into myofibroblasts plays a critical role during the vascular remodeling that occurs during atherosclerosis, restenosis, and aortic aneurysm...
  2. Li F, Song R, Ao L, Reece T, Cleveland J, Dong N, et al. ADAMTS5 Deficiency in Calcified Aortic Valves Is Associated With Elevated Pro-Osteogenic Activity in Valvular Interstitial Cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1339-1351 pubmed publisher
    ..Matrilin 2 accumulation associated with relative ADAMTS5 deficiency may contribute to the mechanism underlying calcific aortic valve disease progression. ..
  3. Nie Y, Chen J, Huang D, Yao Y, Chen J, Ding L, et al. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Promote Malignant Progression of Breast Phyllodes Tumors by Inducing Myofibroblast Differentiation. Cancer Res. 2017;77:3605-3618 pubmed publisher
    ..Macrophages are frequently found in close proximity with myofibroblasts, but it is uncertain whether they are involved in the myofibroblast differentiation during phyllodes tumor ..
  4. Liu Y, Lu F, Kang L, Wang Z, Wang Y. Pirfenidone attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by regulating Nrf2/Bach1 equilibrium. BMC Pulm Med. 2017;17:63 pubmed publisher
    ..Theraputic effects of PFD for IPF were involved in Nrf2/Bach1 equilibrium which regulated the capacity of oxidative stress. The study provided new insights into the antioxidant mechanism of PFD. ..
  5. Fletcher A, Acton S, Knoblich K. Lymph node fibroblastic reticular cells in health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2015;15:350-61 pubmed
    ..a series of discoveries relating to fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) — immunologically specialized myofibroblasts found in lymphoid tissue — has promoted these cells from benign bystanders to major players in the immune ..
  6. Chen J, Li X, Hu Y, Liu W, Zhou Q, Zhang H, et al. Gypenosides Ameliorate Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis by Inhibiting the Differentiation of Hepatic Progenitor Cells into Myofibroblasts. Am J Chin Med. 2017;45:1061-1074 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, GPs ameliorated CCl4-induced liver fibrosis via the inhibition of TGF-[Formula: see text] signaling, consequently inhibiting the differentiation of HPCs into myofibroblasts.
  7. Hanley C, Mellone M, Ford K, Thirdborough S, Mellows T, Frampton S, et al. Targeting the Myofibroblastic Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Phenotype Through Inhibition of NOX4. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2018;110: pubmed publisher
    ..02) and slow tumor growth (30.6%-64.0% decrease across different models, P ≤ .04). These data suggest that pharmacological inhibition of NOX4 may have broad applicability for stromal targeting across cancer types. ..
  8. Faust I, Donhauser E, Fischer B, Ibold B, Kuhn J, Knabbe C, et al. Characterization of dermal myofibroblast differentiation in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Exp Cell Res. 2017;360:153-162 pubmed publisher
    ..These results not only improve our insights into cellular PXE pathophysiology, but might also qualify us to interfere with ECM remodeling in the future. ..
  9. Hiwatashi N, Bing R, Kraja I, Branski R. NR4A1 is an endogenous inhibitor of vocal fold fibrosis. Laryngoscope. 2017;127:E317-E323 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a foundation for the development of therapeutic strategies given persistent TGF-? signaling in vocal fold fibrosis. N/A Laryngoscope, 127:E317-E323, 2017. ..

More Information


  1. Thangaratnarajah C, Dinger K, Vohlen C, Klaudt C, Nawabi J, López García E, et al. Novel role of NPY in neuroimmune interaction and lung growth after intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;313:L491-L506 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, primary neonatal lung myofibroblasts (pnF) and murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) were used to assess proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and IL-6 ..
  2. Costalonga E, de Freitas L, Aragone D, Silva F, Noronha I. Anti-fibrotic effects of valproic acid in experimental peritoneal fibrosis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184302 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with VPA significantly reduced PM thickness and the expression of myofibroblasts, besides preventing loss of ultrafiltration capacity of the PM...
  3. Travers J, Kamal F, Valiente Alandi I, Nieman M, Sargent M, Lorenz J, et al. Pharmacological and Activated Fibroblast Targeting of G??-GRK2 After Myocardial Ischemia Attenuates Heart Failure Progression. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70:958-971 pubmed publisher
    ..Inducible ablation of GRK2 in activated fibroblasts (i.e., myofibroblasts) post-I/R injury demonstrated significant functional cardioprotection with reduced myofibroblast ..
  4. Wettlaufer S, Penke L, Okunishi K, Peters Golden M. Distinct PKA regulatory subunits mediate PGE2 inhibition of TGF?-1-stimulated collagen I translation and myofibroblast differentiation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;313:L722-L731 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these are their translation of collagen I protein and their differentiation to myofibroblasts. PKA is central to these actions, with cAMP binding to regulatory (R) subunits leading to the release of ..
  5. Decker M, Martinez Morentin L, Wang G, Lee Y, Liu Q, Leslie J, et al. Leptin-receptor-expressing bone marrow stromal cells are myofibroblasts in primary myelofibrosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:677-688 pubmed publisher
    Bone marrow fibrosis is a critical component of primary myelofibrosis (PMF). However, the origin of the myofibroblasts that drive fibrosis is unknown...
  6. Nuwormegbe S, Sohn J, Kim S. A PPAR-Gamma Agonist Rosiglitazone Suppresses Fibrotic Response in Human Pterygium Fibroblasts by Modulating the p38 MAPK Pathway. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5217-5226 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to investigate the antifibrotic effects of the PPAR-? ligand rosiglitazone in pterygium fibroblasts and the underlying mechanisms...
  7. Liu M, Xu H, Zhang L, Zhang C, Yang L, Ma E, et al. Salvianolic acid B inhibits myofibroblast transdifferentiation in experimental pulmonary fibrosis via the up-regulation of Nrf2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:325-331 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunohistochemistry results showed that Nrf2 was absent in fibroblastic foci (FF) areas, while the SalB treatment could increase the expression of Nrf2 in lung tissues, especially in FF areas. ..
  8. Ghatak S, Markwald R, Hascall V, Dowling W, Lottes R, Baatz J, et al. Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1) regulates CD44V6 expression and activity through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-induced EGR1 in pulmonary fibrogenic fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:10465-10489 pubmed publisher
    The appearance of myofibroblasts is generally thought to be the underlying cause of the fibrotic changes that underlie idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis...
  9. Herum K, Choppe J, Kumar A, Engler A, McCulloch A. Mechanical regulation of cardiac fibroblast profibrotic phenotypes. Mol Biol Cell. 2017;28:1871-1882 pubmed publisher
    ..It occurs as a result of cardiac fibroblast (CFB) activation and differentiation into myofibroblasts, characterized by proliferation, extracellular matrix (ECM) production and stiffening, and contraction due to ..
  10. Domazetovic V, Fontani F, Tanini D, D Esopo V, Viglianisi C, Marcucci G, et al. Protective role of benzoselenophene derivatives of resveratrol on the induced oxidative stress in intestinal myofibroblasts and osteocytes. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;275:13-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, derivatives have different antioxidant capacity in myofibroblasts and in osteocytes and this can be due to different degree of oxidative stress and structural characteristics ..
  11. Hansen T, Woeller C, Lacy S, Koltz P, Langstein H, Phipps R. Thy1 (CD90) Expression Is Elevated in Radiation-Induced Periprosthetic Capsular Contracture: Implication for Novel Therapeutics. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017;140:316-326 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the authors' new results show promise for the antiscarring ability of salinomycin in radiation-induced capsular contracture. Therapeutic, V. ..
  12. Ghatak S, Hascall V, Markwald R, Feghali Bostwick C, Artlett C, Gooz M, et al. Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1)-induced CD44V6-NOX4 signaling in pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:10490-10519 pubmed publisher
    ..exon 6), which enhances the TGF?1 autocrine signaling and induces fibroblasts to transdifferentiate into myofibroblasts. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) enzyme, which catalyzes the reduction of O2 to hydrogen peroxide (H2
  13. Moiseenko A, Kheirollahi V, Chao C, Ahmadvand N, Quantius J, Wilhelm J, et al. Origin and characterization of alpha smooth muscle actin-positive cells during murine lung development. Stem Cells. 2017;35:1566-1578 pubmed publisher
    ACTA2 expression identifies pulmonary airway and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) as well as alveolar myofibroblasts (MYF)...
  14. Li S, Li M, Yi X, Guo F, Zhou Y, Chen S, et al. TRPM7 channels mediate the functional changes in cardiac fibroblasts induced by angiotensin II. Int J Mol Med. 2017;39:1291-1298 pubmed publisher
  15. Jiang S, Xu Z, Zhao Y, Yan L, Zhou Z, Gu G. Urethral Reconstruction Using Mesothelial Cell-Seeded Autogenous Granulation Tissue Tube: An Experimental Study in Male Rabbits. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:1850256 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, myofibroblasts accumulation and extensive scarring occurred in unseeded grafts. Conclusions...
  16. Cipriani P, Di Benedetto P, Ruscitti P, Campese A, Liakouli V, Carubbi F, et al. Impaired endothelium-mesenchymal stem cells cross-talk in systemic sclerosis: a link between vascular and fibrotic features. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:442 pubmed publisher
  17. Valluru M, Brown N, Cross S, Reed M, Staton C. Blood vessel characterization in human dermal wound repair and scarring. Br J Dermatol. 2011;165:221-4 pubmed publisher
  18. Ma Z, Yuan Y, Zhang X, Xu S, Wang S, Tang Q. Piperine Attenuates Pathological Cardiac Fibrosis Via PPAR-?/AKT Pathways. EBioMedicine. 2017;18:179-187 pubmed publisher
    ..Piperine inhibited the transformation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts induced by transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) or angiotensin II (Ang II) in vitro...
  19. Ng M, Thakkar D, Southam L, Werker P, Ophoff R, Becker K, et al. A Genome-wide Association Study of Dupuytren Disease Reveals 17 Additional Variants Implicated in Fibrosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2017;101:417-427 pubmed publisher
    ..variant with decreased secretion of the soluble WNT-antagonist SFRP4, in surgical specimen-derived DD myofibroblasts. These results highlight important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis, including WNT signaling, ..
  20. Wollina U, Abdel N, Kruglikov I. DERMAL ADIPOSE TISSUE IN HAIR FOLLICLE CYCLING: POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS IN ALOPECIA?. Georgian Med News. 2017;:41-45 pubmed
    ..Improvement of adipogenic environment of HFs can be important both in treatment of alopecia and in surgical hair restoration procedures. ..
  21. Aldeiri B, Roostalu U, Albertini A, Wong J, Morabito A, Cossu G. Transgelin-expressing myofibroblasts orchestrate ventral midline closure through TGF? signalling. Development. 2017;144:3336-3348 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify in mouse a population of migratory myofibroblasts at the leading edge of the closing VBW that express the actin-binding protein transgelin (TAGLN) and TGF? ..
  22. Liang M, Yu M, Xia R, Song K, Wang J, Luo J, et al. Yap/Taz Deletion in Gli+ Cell-Derived Myofibroblasts Attenuates Fibrosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28:3278-3290 pubmed publisher
    ..motif (Taz) function as mechanosensors in cancer cells and have been implicated in the regulation of myofibroblasts in the kidney...
  23. Overstreet J, Wang Y, Wang X, Niu A, Gewin L, Yao B, et al. Selective activation of epidermal growth factor receptor in renal proximal tubule induces tubulointerstitial fibrosis. FASEB J. 2017;31:4407-4421 pubmed publisher increased collagen deposition, immune cell infiltration, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive myofibroblasts. Tubule-specific EGFR activation promoted epithelial dedifferentiation and cell-cycle arrest...
  24. Salvarani N, Maguy A, De Simone S, Miragoli M, Jousset F, Rohr S. TGF-?1 (Transforming Growth Factor-?1) Plays a Pivotal Role in Cardiac Myofibroblast Arrhythmogenicity. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2017;10:e004567 pubmed publisher
    ..contributes to cardiac fibrosis by controlling differentiation, migration, and collagen secretion of cardiac myofibroblasts. It is still elusive, however, to which extent TGF-?1 alters the electrophysiological phenotype of ..
  25. Avouac J, Konstantinova I, Guignabert C, Pezet S, Sadoine J, Guilbert T, et al. Pan-PPAR agonist IVA337 is effective in experimental lung fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76:1931-1940 pubmed publisher
    ..In primary human lung fibroblasts, IVA337 inhibited in a dose-dependent manner fibroblast to myofibroblasts transition induced by TGF-? and fibroblast proliferation mediated by PDGF...
  26. Iredale J, Pellicoro A, Fallowfield J. Liver Fibrosis: Understanding the Dynamics of Bidirectional Wound Repair to Inform the Design of Markers and Therapies. Dig Dis. 2017;35:310-313 pubmed publisher
    ..both architectural disruption and a dynamic rise in portal pressure mediated in part by the contraction of myofibroblasts - the major cell mediator of the fibrogenic process - which are derived from hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and ..
  27. Rossi F, Montuori N. FPRs: linking innate immune system and fibrosis. Oncotarget. 2015;6:18736-7 pubmed
  28. Endale M, Ahlfeld S, Bao E, Chen X, Green J, Bess Z, et al. Temporal, spatial, and phenotypical changes of PDGFR? expressing fibroblasts during late lung development. Dev Biol. 2017;425:161-175 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and to transient distal alveolar myofibroblasts at PN7...
  29. Zhan M, Kanwar Y. Hierarchy of molecules in TGF-?1 signaling relevant to myofibroblast activation and renal fibrosis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;307:F385-7 pubmed publisher
  30. You E, Huh Y, Kwon A, Kim S, Chae I, Lee O, et al. SPIN90 Depletion and Microtubule Acetylation Mediate Stromal Fibroblast Activation in Breast Cancer Progression. Cancer Res. 2017;77:4710-4722 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, correlation among these factors in human breast cancer tissue supports the clinical relevance of SPIN90 and microtubule acetylation in tumor development. Cancer Res; 77(17); 4710-22. ©2017 AACR. ..
  31. Chung S, Kim S, Kim M, Koh E, Shin S, Park C, et al. Treatment combining aliskiren with paricalcitol is effective against progressive renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis via dual blockade of intrarenal renin. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181757 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, a treatment combining aliskiren with paricalcitol better inhibits UUO-induced renal injury. The mechanism of this synergy may involve more profound inhibition of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system. ..
  32. Su S, Yang D, Wu Y, Xie Y, Zhu W, Cai Z, et al. EphrinB2 Regulates Cardiac Fibrosis Through Modulating the Interaction of Stat3 and TGF-?/Smad3 Signaling. Circ Res. 2017;121:617-627 pubmed publisher
    ..cardiac fibroblasts demonstrated that EphrinB2 promoted the differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts in normoxic and hypoxic conditions...
  33. Lugenbiel P, Wenz F, Govorov K, Syren P, Katus H, Thomas D. Atrial myofibroblast activation and connective tissue formation in a porcine model of atrial fibrillation and reduced left ventricular function. Life Sci. 2017;181:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The fraction of ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-producing activated myofibroblasts was elevated in AF, whereas the abundance of vimentin-expressing inactive fibroblasts was not affected...
  34. Wang H, Liu S, Liu S, Wei W, Zhou X, Lin F, et al. Enhanced expression and phosphorylation of Sirt7 activates smad2 and ERK signaling and promotes the cardiac fibrosis differentiation upon angiotensin-II stimulation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178530 pubmed publisher
    Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) phenotypic conversion to myofibroblasts (MFs) represents a crucial event in cardiac fibrosis that leads to impaired cardiac function. However, regulation of this phenotypic transformation remains unclear...
  35. Katalinic D, Santek F. Giant low-grade primary myofibroblastic sarcoma of the posterior chest wall. World J Surg Oncol. 2017;15:96 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we report an unusual case of a low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma located in the posterior chest wall with intrathoracic propagation and discuss its clinical and pathological features. ..
  36. Montgomery T, Xu L, Mason S, Chinnadurai A, Lee C, Elias J, et al. Breast Regression Protein-39/Chitinase 3-Like 1 Promotes Renal Fibrosis after Kidney Injury via Activation of Myofibroblasts. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28:3218-3226 pubmed publisher
  37. Zhou X, Dobrev D. Voltage-gated Na? channels: novel players in fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition with a potential role in atrial arrhythmogenesis?. J Physiol. 2012;590:4975 pubmed publisher
  38. Krings G, McIntire P, Shin S. Myofibroblastic, fibroblastic and myoid lesions of the breast. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2017;34:427-437 pubmed publisher
    ..This article will review lesions with myofibroblastic, fibroblastic and myoid differentiation in the breast, with special emphasis on differential diagnosis. ..
  39. Fausther M, G Lavoie E, Dranoff J. Liver myofibroblasts of murine origins express mesothelin: Identification of novel rat mesothelin splice variants. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184499 pubmed publisher
    Liver myofibroblasts are specialized effector cells that drive hepatic fibrosis, a hallmark process of chronic liver diseases, leading to progressive scar formation and organ failure...
  40. Hong J, Chu M, Qian L, Wang J, Guo Y, Xu D. Fibrillar Type I Collagen Enhances the Differentiation and Proliferation of Myofibroblasts by Lowering ?2?1 Integrin Expression in Cardiac Fibrosis. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:1790808 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanism of how ?2?1 integrin regulates the differentiation and proliferation of myofibroblasts in cardiac fibrosis through fibrillar collagen (FC) remains uncertain...
  41. Ijaz T, Jamaluddin M, Zhao Y, Zhang Y, Jay J, Finnerty C, et al. Coordinate activities of BRD4 and CDK9 in the transcriptional elongation complex are required for TGFβ-induced Nox4 expression and myofibroblast transdifferentiation. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2606 pubmed publisher
    Transdifferentiation of quiescent dermal fibroblasts to secretory myofibroblasts has a central role in wound healing and pathological scar formation...
  42. Hinz B. Matrix mechanics and regulation of the fibroblast phenotype. Periodontol 2000. 2013;63:14-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological interference at each level is currently being pursued to improve the outcome of healing of injured periodontal tissue. ..
  43. Duffield J. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in kidney fibrosis. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:2299-306 pubmed publisher
    ..focuses on new findings that enhance understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis, the characteristics of myofibroblasts, their progenitors, and molecular pathways regulating both fibrogenesis and its resolution.
  44. Magro G, Longo F, Salvatorelli L, Vasquez E, Vecchio G. Lipomatous myofibroblastoma of the breast: case report with diagnostic and histogenetic considerations. Pathologica. 2014;106:36-40 pubmed a rare variant of mammary MFB, which can mimic malignancy because of the close juxtaposition of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts with mature adipocytes, resulting in a finger-like infiltrative growth pattern of the former towards the ..
  45. Matthijs Blankesteijn W. Has the search for a marker of activated fibroblasts finally come to an end?. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;88:120-3 pubmed publisher
  46. Boser S, Mauad T, Araújo Paulino B, Mitchell I, Shrestha G, Chiu A, et al. Myofibroblasts are increased in the lung parenchyma in asthma. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182378 pubmed publisher
    ..The electron microscopic features of the ?-SMA+ cells were characteristic of myofibroblasts. We conclude that in asthma there is a marked increase in ?-SMA+ myofibroblasts in the lung parenchyma...
  47. Saldías M, Fernandez C, Morgan A, Díaz C, Morales D, Jaña F, et al. Aged blood factors decrease cellular responses associated with delayed gingival wound repair. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184189 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study suggests that serum factors present in middle-aged and aged individuals may be responsible, at least in part, for the altered responses observed during wound healing in aging. ..
  48. Sasaki N, Itakura Y, Toyoda M. Sialylation regulates myofibroblast differentiation of human skin fibroblasts. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;8:81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, regulation of sialylation may be an attractive strategy for the prevention and regenerative therapy of age-related skin diseases, cosmetic skin alterations, and chronic wounds caused by delayed healing in elderly people. ..
  49. Marino G, Santhiago M, Santhanam A, Lassance L, Thangavadivel S, Medeiros C, et al. Epithelial basement membrane injury and regeneration modulates corneal fibrosis after pseudomonas corneal ulcers in rabbits. Exp Eye Res. 2017;161:101-105 pubmed publisher
    ..keratitis, corneas had no detectible EBM lamina lucida or lamina densa, and the central stroma was packed with myofibroblasts that in some eyes extended to the posterior corneal surface with damage to Descemet's membrane and the ..
  50. Liu R, Hossain M, Chen X, Jin J. Mechanoregulation of SM22?/Transgelin. Biochemistry. 2017;56:5526-5538 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel mechanoregulation of SM22?/transgelin lays the groundwork for understanding its cellular functions. ..
  51. Khalil H, Kanisicak O, Prasad V, Correll R, Fu X, Schips T, et al. Fibroblast-specific TGF-?-Smad2/3 signaling underlies cardiac fibrosis. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:3770-3783 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-? induces fibroblast activation and differentiation into myofibroblasts that secrete extracellular matrix proteins...
  52. Zhao B, Han F, Zhang W, Wang X, Zhang J, Yang F, et al. [Effects of hypoxia on the phenotype transformation of human dermal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the mechanism]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2017;33:368-373 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effects of hypoxia on the phenotype transformation of human dermal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the mechanism...
  53. Duffield J. The elusive source of myofibroblasts: problem solved?. Nat Med. 2012;18:1178-80 pubmed publisher
  54. Lu J, Plank T, Su F, Shi X, Liu C, Ji Y, et al. The nonsense-mediated RNA decay pathway is disrupted in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:3058-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular link between the NMD pathway and IMTs has implications for the diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. ..
  55. Guo X, Yan F, Shan X, Li J, Yang Y, Zhang J, et al. SIRT3 inhibits Ang II-induced transdifferentiation of cardiac fibroblasts through ?-catenin/PPAR-? signaling. Life Sci. 2017;186:111-117 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that this newly identified SIRT3/?-catenin/PPAR-? axis will provide novel insight into the understanding of the mechanism of transdifferentiation of CFs to myofibroblasts.
  56. Carotti S, Perrone G, Amato M, Vespasiani Gentilucci U, Righi D, Francesconi M, et al. Reelin expression in human liver of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Eur J Histochem. 2017;61:2745 pubmed publisher co-localization experiments (Reelin +CRBP-1), Reelin protein was expressed by hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblasts, and a significant positive correlation was found between Reelin expression and the stage of liver fibrosis (P=..
  57. Holvoet T, Devriese S, Castermans K, Boland S, Leysen D, Vandewynckel Y, et al. Treatment of Intestinal Fibrosis in Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease by the Pleiotropic Actions of a Local Rho Kinase Inhibitor. Gastroenterology. 2017;153:1054-1067 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results show that local ROCK inhibition is promising for counteracting fibrosis as an add-on therapy for CD. ..
  58. Gargus M, Niu C, Vallone J, Binkley J, Rubin D, Shaker A. Human esophageal myofibroblasts secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to acid and Toll-like receptor 4 ligands. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015;308:G904-23 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that subepithelial esophageal myofibroblasts in GERD secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to injurious agents encountered via epithelial barrier ..
  59. Mallat A, Lotersztajn S. Reversion of hepatic stellate cell to a quiescent phenotype: From myth to reality?. J Hepatol. 2013;59:383-6 pubmed publisher
  60. Li F, Surolia R, Li H, Wang Z, Liu G, Liu R, et al. Low-dose cadmium exposure induces peribronchiolar fibrosis through site-specific phosphorylation of vimentin. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;313:L80-L91 pubmed publisher