muscle cells


Summary: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.

Top Publications

  1. Kim S, Hwang J, Park H, Kwon D, Kim M. Capsaicin stimulates glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells via the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/AMPK/p38 MAPK pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;439:66-70 pubmed publisher
    ..that capsaicin increases glucose uptake directly by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in C2C12 muscle cells, which manifested as an attenuation of glucose uptake when compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, was co-administered ..
  2. Aguer C, Gambarotta D, Mailloux R, Moffat C, Dent R, McPherson R, et al. Galactose enhances oxidative metabolism and reveals mitochondrial dysfunction in human primary muscle cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28536 pubmed publisher
  3. Lee H, Lee O, Kim K, Lee B. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes glucose uptake through activated AMPK pathway in insulin-resistant muscle cells. Phytother Res. 2012;26:1017-22 pubmed publisher
    ..on glucose uptake and the associated molecular mechanisms of the glucose transport system in insulin-resistant muscle cells. The insulin resistance of the muscle cell was induced by treatment of differentiated C2C12 cells with chronic ..
  4. Carro J, Rodríguez J, Laguna P, Pueyo E. A human ventricular cell model for investigation of cardiac arrhythmias under hyperkalaemic conditions. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2011;369:4205-32 pubmed publisher
  5. Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Feng H, Guo R, Jin L, Wan R, et al. High density lipoprotein (HDL) promotes glucose uptake in adipocytes and glycogen synthesis in muscle cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23556 pubmed publisher
    ..This investigation was designed to determine the effects and mechanisms of HDL on glucose uptake in adipocytes and glycogen synthesis in muscle cells.
  6. Di Camillo B, Irving B, Schimke J, Sanavia T, Toffolo G, Cobelli C, et al. Function-based discovery of significant transcriptional temporal patterns in insulin stimulated muscle cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32391 pubmed publisher
  7. Digel M, Staffer S, Ehehalt F, Stremmel W, Ehehalt R, Fullekrug J. FATP4 contributes as an enzyme to the basal and insulin-mediated fatty acid uptake of C?C?? muscle cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;301:E785-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the function of FATP4 in basal and insulin mediated fatty acid uptake in C(2)C(12) muscle cells, a model system relevant for fatty acid metabolism...
  8. Rodgers K, Arvidson C, Melville S. Expression of a Clostridium perfringens type IV pilin by Neisseria gonorrhoeae mediates adherence to muscle cells. Infect Immun. 2011;79:3096-105 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate C. perfringens TFP in the ability of C. perfringens to adhere to and move along muscle fibers in vivo, which may provide a therapeutic approach to limiting this rapidly spreading and highly lethal infection...
  9. Negoro H, Kanematsu A, Doi M, Suadicani S, Matsuo M, Imamura M, et al. Involvement of urinary bladder Connexin43 and the circadian clock in coordination of diurnal micturition rhythm. Nat Commun. 2012;3:809 pubmed publisher
    ..Bladder muscle cells have an internal clock, and show oscillations of connexin43 and gap junction function...

More Information


  1. Wong C, Mak G, Li M, Tsui S. The LIM-only protein FHL2 regulates interleukin-6 expression through p38 MAPK mediated NF-?B pathway in muscle cells. Cytokine. 2012;59:286-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Other than classical immune tissues, IL-6 is also produced in muscle cells under specific conditions...
  2. Nozaki S, Ueda S, Takenaka N, Kataoka T, Satoh T. Role of RalA downstream of Rac1 in insulin-dependent glucose uptake in muscle cells. Cell Signal. 2012;24:2111-7 pubmed publisher examine the involvement of RalA in Rac1 regulation of the translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane in muscle cells. Ectopic expression of a constitutively activated RalA mutant indeed stimulated GLUT4 translocation, suggesting ..
  3. Wagner A, Ernst I, Birringer M, Sancak O, Barella L, Rimbach G. A combination of lipoic acid plus coenzyme Q10 induces PGC1?, a master switch of energy metabolism, improves stress response, and increases cellular glutathione levels in cultured C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:835970 pubmed publisher
    ..Present data suggest that the combined supplementation of skeletal muscle cells with LA plus Q10 may improve energy homeostasis, stress response, and antioxidant defense mechanisms.
  4. Ungaro P, Mirra P, Oriente F, Nigro C, Ciccarelli M, Vastolo V, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activation enhances insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by reducing ped/pea-15 gene expression in skeletal muscle cells: evidence for involvement of activator protein-1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:42951-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ped/pea-15 is downstream of a major PPAR?-regulated inflammatory network. Repression of ped/pea-15 transcription might contribute to the PPAR? regulation of muscle sensitivity to insulin...
  5. Wilson M, Holzbaur E. Opposing microtubule motors drive robust nuclear dynamics in developing muscle cells. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:4158-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The three-dimensional rotation of myotube nuclei may facilitate their motility through the complex and crowded cellular environment of the developing muscle cell, allowing for proper myonuclear positioning...
  6. van Oosten Hawle P, Porter R, Morimoto R. Regulation of organismal proteostasis by transcellular chaperone signaling. Cell. 2013;153:1366-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that expression of endogenous metastable proteins in muscle cells, which rely on chaperones for proper folding, induces a systemic stress response throughout multiple tissues of ..
  7. Korzelius J, The I, Ruijtenberg S, Prinsen M, Portegijs V, Middelkoop T, et al. Caenorhabditis elegans cyclin D/CDK4 and cyclin E/CDK2 induce distinct cell cycle re-entry programs in differentiated muscle cells. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002362 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examine the robustness of the post-mitotic state, using Caenorhabditis elegans muscle cells as a model...
  8. Narumi K, Kobayashi M, Otake S, Furugen A, Takahashi N, Ogura J, et al. Regulation of human monocarboxylate transporter 4 in skeletal muscle cells: the role of protein kinase C (PKC). Int J Pharm. 2012;428:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the effects of PMA on MCT4 expression are mediated through an indirect pathway partially involving PKC? and HIF-1? transcription factor...
  9. Boström P, Wu J, Jedrychowski M, Korde A, Ye L, Lo J, et al. A PGC1-?-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis. Nature. 2012;481:463-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This results in improvements in obesity and glucose homeostasis. Irisin could be therapeutic for human metabolic disease and other disorders that are improved with exercise...
  10. Hall M, Griffin C, Simionescu A, Corbett A, Pavlath G. Distinct roles for classical nuclear import receptors in the growth of multinucleated muscle cells. Dev Biol. 2011;357:248-58 pubmed publisher
  11. Mormeneo E, Jimenez Mallebrera C, Palomer X, De Nigris V, Vázquez Carrera M, Orozco A, et al. PGC-1? induces mitochondrial and myokine transcriptional programs and lipid droplet and glycogen accumulation in cultured human skeletal muscle cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29985 pubmed publisher
    ..Several myokine genes, including IL-8 and CCL5, which are known to be constitutively expressed in human skm cells, were induced by PGC-1?...
  12. Zhang B, Liang C, Bates R, Yin Y, Xiong W, Mei L. Wnt proteins regulate acetylcholine receptor clustering in muscle cells. Mol Brain. 2012;5:7 pubmed publisher
    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a cholinergic synapse that rapidly conveys signals from motoneurons to muscle cells and exhibits a high degree of subcellular specialization characteristic of chemical synapses...
  13. Raschke S, Eckardt K, Bjørklund Holven K, Jensen J, Eckel J. Identification and validation of novel contraction-regulated myokines released from primary human skeletal muscle cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62008 pubmed publisher
    ..One limitation of the models used is the lack of contraction, a central characteristic of muscle cells. Here we aimed to characterize the secretome of primary human myotubes by cytokine antibody arrays and to ..
  14. Raharjo W, Ghai V, Dineen A, Bastiani M, Gaudet J. Cell architecture: surrounding muscle cells shape gland cell morphology in the Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx. Genetics. 2011;189:885-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that gland morphology is maintained by a balance of forces from the muscles and the glands...
  15. Waardenberg A, Bernardo B, Ng D, Shepherd P, Cemerlang N, Sbroggiò M, et al. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K(p110alpha)) directly regulates key components of the Z-disc and cardiac structure. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:30837-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, PI3K regulates the expression of genes essential for cardiac structure and Z-disc signaling, interacts with melusin, and is critical for Z-disc alignment...
  16. Crescioli C, Sottili M, Bonini P, Cosmi L, Chiarugi P, Romagnani P, et al. Inflammatory response in human skeletal muscle cells: CXCL10 as a potential therapeutic target. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:139-49 pubmed publisher
    ..About 25% of patients are non-responders. Skeletal muscle cells seem actively involved in the immune-inflammatory response and not only a target; understanding the molecular ..
  17. Hettmer S, Liu J, Miller C, Lindsay M, Sparks C, Guertin D, et al. Sarcomas induced in discrete subsets of prospectively isolated skeletal muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20002-7 pubmed publisher
  18. Salvadó L, Coll T, Gomez Foix A, Salmeron E, Barroso E, Palomer X, et al. Oleate prevents saturated-fatty-acid-induced ER stress, inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells through an AMPK-dependent mechanism. Diabetologia. 2013;56:1372-82 pubmed publisher of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the mechanisms by which oleate improves insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells are not completely known...
  19. Kang C, Lee H, Jung E, Seyedian R, Jo M, Kim J, et al. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in muscle cells via multipathway mechanisms. Food Chem. 2012;135:2350-8 pubmed publisher
    ..saffron through investigating its signaling pathways associated with glucose metabolism in C(2)C(12) skeletal muscle cells. Saffron strongly enhanced glucose uptake and the phosphorylation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)/ACC (..
  20. Kawagoe S, Higuchi T, Meng X, Shimada Y, Shimizu H, Hirayama R, et al. Generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from a murine model of Pompe disease and differentiation of Pompe-iPS cells into skeletal muscle cells. Mol Genet Metab. 2011;104:123-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Pompe-iPS cells were differentiated into skeletal muscle cells in Matrigel®-coated plates...
  21. Wen Q, Po M, Hulme E, Chen S, Liu X, Kwok S, et al. Proprioceptive coupling within motor neurons drives C. elegans forward locomotion. Neuron. 2012;76:750-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In C. elegans, a sensorimotor feedback loop operating within a specific type of motor neuron both drives and organizes body movement...
  22. Morales M, Vazquez Y, Acuña M, Rivera J, Simon F, Salas J, et al. Angiotensin II-induced pro-fibrotic effects require p38MAPK activity and transforming growth factor beta 1 expression in skeletal muscle cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:1993-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that the fibrotic response to Ang-II is mediated by the AT-1 receptor and requires the p38MAPK phosphorylation, NOX-induced ROS, and TGF-?1 expression increase mediated by Ang-II in skeletal muscle cells.
  23. Lee M, Kim I, Kim Y. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on uncoupling protein 3 gene expression in C(2)C(12) muscle cells. Nutrients. 2013;5:1660-71 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on UCP3 gene expression in C(2)C(12) muscle cells. EPA and DHA up-regulated UCP3 mRNA level in a dose-dependent manner and similarly increased UCP3 promoter ..
  24. Nacu E, Glausch M, Le H, Damanik F, Schuez M, Knapp D, et al. Connective tissue cells, but not muscle cells, are involved in establishing the proximo-distal outcome of limb regeneration in the axolotl. Development. 2013;140:513-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that, similarly to limb development, muscle patterning in regeneration is influenced by ?-catenin signalling...
  25. Scaringi R, Piccoli M, Papini N, Cirillo F, Conforti E, Bergante S, et al. NEU3 sialidase is activated under hypoxia and protects skeletal muscle cells from apoptosis through the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:3153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..sialidase, a key enzyme in ganglioside metabolism, is activated under hypoxic conditions in cultured skeletal muscle cells (C2C12)...
  26. Agley C, Velloso C, Lazarus N, Harridge S. An image analysis method for the precise selection and quantitation of fluorescently labeled cellular constituents: application to the measurement of human muscle cells in culture. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60:428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We have applied this measurement technique to the analysis of human muscle cells and their immunologically marked intracellular constituents, as these cells are prone to adopting a highly ..
  27. Ronda A, Vasconsuelo A, Boland R. 17?-estradiol protects mitochondrial functions through extracellular-signal-regulated kinase in C2C12 muscle cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013;32:1011-23 pubmed publisher
    ..shown that exposure to 17?-estradiol (E2) prior to induction of apoptosis with H2O2 protects skeletal muscle cells against oxidative damage...
  28. Kewalramani G, Fink L, Asadi F, Klip A. Palmitate-activated macrophages confer insulin resistance to muscle cells by a mechanism involving protein kinase C ? and ?. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26947 pubmed publisher
    ..conditioned medium from macrophages treated with palmitate (CM-PA) reduces insulin action and glucose uptake in muscle cells. However, the mechanism whereby CM-PA confers this negative response onto muscle cells remains unknown.
  29. Norheim F, Raastad T, Thiede B, Rustan A, Drevon C, Haugen F. Proteomic identification of secreted proteins from human skeletal muscle cells and expression in response to strength training. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;301:E1013-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to identify the most abundantly secreted proteins in cultures of human skeletal muscle cells and to monitor their expression in muscles of strength-training individuals...
  30. Chiu T, Jensen T, Sylow L, Richter E, Klip A. Rac1 signalling towards GLUT4/glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Cell Signal. 2011;23:1546-54 pubmed publisher
    ..actin reorganisation in insulin-induced recruitment of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) to the cell surface of muscle cells and mature skeletal muscle...
  31. Miyake T, McDermott J, Gramolini A. A method for the direct identification of differentiating muscle cells by a fluorescent mitochondrial dye. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28628 pubmed publisher
    Identification of differentiating muscle cells generally requires fixation, antibodies directed against muscle specific proteins, and lengthy staining processes or, alternatively, transfection of muscle specific reporter genes driving GFP ..
  32. Guzun R, Gonzalez Granillo M, Karu Varikmaa M, Grichine A, Usson Y, Kaambre T, et al. Regulation of respiration in muscle cells in vivo by VDAC through interaction with the cytoskeleton and MtCK within Mitochondrial Interactosome. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1818:1545-54 pubmed publisher
    ..blot analysis we have shown that ?2-tubulin coexpressed with mitochondria is highly important for cardiac muscle cells mitochondrial metabolism. Since it has been shown by Rostovtseva et al...
  33. Hage Hassan R, Hainault I, Vilquin J, Samama C, Lasnier F, Ferre P, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress does not mediate palmitate-induced insulin resistance in mouse and human muscle cells. Diabetologia. 2012;55:204-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Since it has been shown that ER stress can interfere with insulin signalling, our hypothesis was that the deleterious action of palmitate on the insulin signalling pathway in muscle cells could also involve ER stress.
  34. Gaiser A, Kaiser C, Haslbeck V, Richter K. Downregulation of the Hsp90 system causes defects in muscle cells of Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25485 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, aggregates of the myosin MYO-3 are visible in muscle cells, if DAF-21 is depleted, implying a role of Hsp90 in the maintenance of muscle cell functionality...
  35. Ramalingam L, Oh E, Thurmond D. Novel roles for insulin receptor (IR) in adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells via new and unexpected substrates. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:2815-34 pubmed publisher
    ..While IR functions in a seemingly pleiotropic manner in many cell types, through these three main roles in fat and skeletal muscle cells, IR multi-tasks to regulate whole-body glucose homeostasis to impact healthspan and lifespan.
  36. Chaouch S, Mouly V, Goyenvalle A, Vulin A, Mamchaoui K, Negroni E, et al. Immortalized skin fibroblasts expressing conditional MyoD as a renewable and reliable source of converted human muscle cells to assess therapeutic strategies for muscular dystrophies: validation of an exon-skipping approach to restore dystrophin in D. Hum Gene Ther. 2009;20:784-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Cellular models seem straightforward to set up; however, the proliferative capacity of muscle cells isolated from dystrophic patients is limited, and in addition it is difficult to envisage the use of large ..
  37. Anastasiou C, Kavouras S, Lentzas Y, Gova A, Sidossis L, Melidonis A. Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased intramyocellular triglyceride, but not diglyceride, content in obese humans. Metabolism. 2009;58:1636-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The total flux of fatty acids toward esterification may be a much more important factor in the pathophysiology of diabetes...
  38. Sell H, Laurencikiene J, Taube A, Eckardt K, Cramer A, Horrighs A, et al. Chemerin is a novel adipocyte-derived factor inducing insulin resistance in primary human skeletal muscle cells. Diabetes. 2009;58:2731-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was aimed at investigating the regulation of chemerin release and its effects on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle cells.
  39. Vauchez K, Marolleau J, Schmid M, Khattar P, Chapel A, Catelain C, et al. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity identifies a population of human skeletal muscle cells with high myogenic capacities. Mol Ther. 2009;17:1948-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that ALDH activity is a novel marker for a population of new human skeletal muscle progenitors presenting a potential for cell biology and cell therapy...
  40. Sundaram P, Pang Z, Miao M, Yu L, Wing S. USP19-deubiquitinating enzyme regulates levels of major myofibrillar proteins in L6 muscle cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E1283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..To further explore the role of USP19, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) in L6 muscle cells. Lowering USP19 by 70-90% in myotubes resulted in a 20% decrease in the rate of proteolysis and an 18% decrease ..
  41. Hirabara S, Curi R, Maechler P. Saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle cells. J Cell Physiol. 2010;222:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary cultures of rat skeletal muscle cells exhibited similar responses to saturated FFA as compared to C2C12 cells...
  42. Clavel S, Siffroi Fernandez S, Coldefy A, Boulukos K, Pisani D, Derijard B. Regulation of the intracellular localization of Foxo3a by stress-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in skeletal muscle cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:470-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to identify signaling pathways involved in the control of Foxo3a nuclear translocation in muscle cells. We observed that after nuclear import of Foxo3a by PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition, activation of stress-activated ..
  43. Patel A, Sharif Naeini R, Folgering J, Bichet D, Duprat F, Honore E. Canonical TRP channels and mechanotransduction: from physiology to disease states. Pflugers Arch. 2010;460:571-81 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance, opening of the non-selective stretch-activated cation channels in smooth muscle cells is involved in the pressure-dependent myogenic constriction of resistance arteries...
  44. Pardo P, Mohamed J, Lopez M, Boriek A. Induction of Sirt1 by mechanical stretch of skeletal muscle through the early response factor EGR1 triggers an antioxidative response. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:2559-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we unravel a mechanism triggered by mechanical stretch of skeletal muscle cells that leads to an EGR1-dependent transcriptional activation of the Sirt1 gene...
  45. Keller C, Fokken C, Turville S, Lünemann A, Schmidt J, MUNZ C, et al. TNF-alpha induces macroautophagy and regulates MHC class II expression in human skeletal muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:3970-80 pubmed publisher
  46. Liu P, Ge Q, Chen B, Salkoff L, Kotlikoff M, Wang Z. Genetic dissection of ion currents underlying all-or-none action potentials in C. elegans body-wall muscle cells. J Physiol. 2011;589:101-17 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans body-wall myocytes generate all-or-none APs, which evoke Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), although the specific ion channels used for AP upstroke and repolarization differ...
  47. Onesto E, Rusmini P, Crippa V, Ferri N, Zito A, Galbiati M, et al. Muscle cells and motoneurons differentially remove mutant SOD1 causing familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurochem. 2011;118:266-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The higher mutant SOD1 clearance in muscle cells correlates with a more efficient proteasome activity, combined with a robust autophagy activation...
  48. Hunter J, Mullen G, McManus J, Heatherly J, Duke A, Rand J. Neuroligin-deficient mutants of C. elegans have sensory processing deficits and are hypersensitive to oxidative stress and mercury toxicity. Dis Model Mech. 2010;3:366-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a possible link between genetic defects in synapse formation or function, and sensitivity to environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders. ..
  49. Fant X, Srsen V, Espigat Georger A, Merdes A. Nuclei of non-muscle cells bind centrosome proteins upon fusion with differentiating myoblasts. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8303 pubmed publisher
    ..Concomitantly, proteins of the centrosome relocalize from the pericentriolar material to the outer surface of the nucleus. The mechanisms that govern this relocalization are largely unknown...
  50. Brown D, Aon M, Frasier C, Sloan R, Maloney A, Anderson E, et al. Cardiac arrhythmias induced by glutathione oxidation can be inhibited by preventing mitochondrial depolarization. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:673-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor can prevent electrical and mechanical dysfunction in both models of oxidative stress...
  51. Lee W. Insulin-like growth factor-I-induced androgen receptor activation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Mol Cells. 2009;28:495-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of skeletal muscle, the molecular mechanism by which signaling pathways integrating AR and IGF-I in skeletal muscle cells has not been previously examined...
  52. Guasconi V, Pritchard L, Fritsch L, Mesner L, Francastel C, Harel Bellan A, et al. Preferential association of irreversibly silenced E2F-target genes with pericentromeric heterochromatin in differentiated muscle cells. Epigenetics. 2010;5:704-9 pubmed publisher
  53. Lee J, Lee S, Jung J, Kim J, You G, Kim S, et al. Metformin induces Rab4 through AMPK and modulates GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle cells. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:974-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike Rab4?CT, wild-type Rab4 co-localized with PKC-zeta. Together, these results demonstrate that metformin induces Rab4 expression via AMPK-AS160-PKC-zeta and modulates insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation...