hepatic stellate cells

Summary

Summary: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.

Top Publications

  1. Kikuchi A, Pradhan Sundd T, Singh S, Nagarajan S, Loizos N, Monga S. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor α Contributes to Human Hepatic Stellate Cell Proliferation and Migration. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:2273-2287 pubmed publisher
    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα), a tyrosine kinase receptor, is up-regulated in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) during chronic liver injury...
  2. Lee A, Jang Y, Hong S, Chang S, Park S, Kim S, et al. Ephedrine-induced mitophagy via oxidative stress in human hepatic stellate cells. J Toxicol Sci. 2017;42:461-473 pubmed publisher
    ..Excessive mitophagy lead to cell death through imbalance of autophagic flux. Moreover, antioxidants and reducing Parkin level could serve as therapeutic targets for ephedrine-induced hepatotoxicity. ..
  3. Bangen J, Hammerich L, Sonntag R, Baues M, Haas U, Lambertz D, et al. Targeting CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis by RNA interference-mediated inhibition of cyclin E1 in mice. Hepatology. 2017;66:1242-1257 pubmed publisher
    Initiation and progression of liver fibrosis requires proliferation and activation of resting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
  4. Kitson M, Pham A, Gordon A, Kemp W, Roberts S. High-dose vitamin D supplementation and liver histology in NASH. Gut. 2016;65:717-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Poelstra K, Schuppan D. Targeted therapy of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and its complications. J Hepatol. 2011;55:726-728 pubmed publisher
  6. Hong Y, Yao Q, Zheng L. Thymosin ?4 attenuates liver fibrosis via suppressing Notch signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:1396-1401 pubmed publisher
    ..Although there was research reporting the endogenous expression of T?4 influences hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation, the effect of exogenous administration of T?4 in hepatic fibrosis remains unclear...
  7. Joshi N, Kopec A, Ray J, Cline Fedewa H, Groeneveld D, Lisman T, et al. Von Willebrand factor deficiency reduces liver fibrosis in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;328:54-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are the first to demonstrate that VWF deficiency reduces the progression of liver fibrosis, suggesting a mechanistic role of elevated plasma VWF levels in cirrhosis. ..
  8. Kumar S, Wang J, Shanmukhappa S, Gandhi C. Toll-Like Receptor 4-Independent Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Fibrosis and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice: Role of Hepatic Stellate Cells. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:1356-1367 pubmed publisher
    ..B10ScN-Tlr4lps-del/JthJ [TLR4-knockout (KO)] mice. Effects of LPS on fibrogenic hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) from WT and TLR4-KO mice were assessed in vitro...
  9. Wang A, Zhang F, Xu H, Xu M, Cao Y, Wang C, et al. TWEAK/Fn14 promotes pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in hepatic stellate cells via NF-?B/STAT3 pathways. Mol Immunol. 2017;87:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a critical role in the hepatic wound-healing response after liver injury, but there is little ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Yang K, Chang W, Hong M, Hung K, Chuang C. Prevention of TGF-?-induced early liver fibrosis by a maleic acid derivative anti-oxidant through suppression of ROS, inflammation and hepatic stellate cells activation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174008 pubmed publisher
    ..gene in the liver via the reactive oxygen species (ROS); the process triggers inflammation, leading to hepatic stellate cells (HSC) activation and liver fibrogenesis...
  2. Reetz J, Genz B, Meier C, Kowtharapu B, Timm F, Vollmar B, et al. Development of Adenoviral Delivery Systems to Target Hepatic Stellate Cells In Vivo. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67091 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are known as initiator cells that induce liver fibrosis upon intoxication or other noxes...
  3. Zheng J, Ma L, Ren Q, Li L, Zhang Y, Shi H, et al. The influence of astragalus polysaccharide and ?-elemene on LX-2 cell growth, apoptosis and activation. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:224 pubmed publisher
    Activated hepatic stellate cells are the main source of excessive collagen deposition in liver fibrosis...
  4. Prestigiacomo V, Weston A, Messner S, Lampart F, Suter Dick L. Pro-fibrotic compounds induce stellate cell activation, ECM-remodelling and Nrf2 activation in a human 3D-multicellular model of liver fibrosis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179995 pubmed publisher
  5. Perumal N, Perumal M, Halagowder D, Sivasithamparam N. Morin attenuates diethylnitrosamine-induced rat liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cell activation by co-ordinated regulation of Hippo/Yap and TGF-?1/Smad signaling. Biochimie. 2017;140:10-19 pubmed publisher
    Despite great progress in understanding the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) during liver fibrosis, therapeutic approaches to inhibit HSC activation remain very limited...
  6. Sharaf El Deen S, Brakat R, Mohamed A. Artichoke leaf extract protects liver of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice through modulation of hepatic stellate cells recruitment. Exp Parasitol. 2017;178:51-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Masson's trichrome staining of fibrosis, immune staining of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and estimation of liver enzymes were done to assess its hepato-protective action...
  7. Hamarneh S, Kim B, Kaliannan K, Morrison S, Tantillo T, Tao Q, et al. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Attenuates Alcohol-Induced Hepatosteatosis in Mice. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:2021-2034 pubmed publisher
    ..system was used to examine the effects of alcohol and IAP treatment in regard to the activation of hepatic stellate cells and their role in the development of alcoholic liver disease...
  8. Li X, Su Y, Hua X, Xie C, Liu J, Huang Y, et al. Levels of hepatic Th17 cells and regulatory T cells upregulated by hepatic stellate cells in advanced HBV-related liver fibrosis. J Transl Med. 2017;15:75 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro experiment, we adopted magnetic cell sorting to investigate how hepatic stellate cells regulate the levels of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells...
  9. Xie Y, Xu Y, Chu D, Shen J. [Progress in researches on macrophages in liver fibrosis of schistosomiasis]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2015;27:669-73 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the expected progress and novel in vitro and in vivo approaches that have been achieved recently in our laboratory are briefly introduced. ..
  10. Li J, Zhang L, Xia Q, Fu J, Zhou Z, Lin F. Hedgehog signaling inhibitor GANT61 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated protective autophagy in hepatic stellate cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:487-493 pubmed publisher
    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays an important role in the viability maintenance of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). HSCs have been identified as the major profibrogenic cells in the liver...
  11. Kao Y, Chen P, Wu T, Lin Y, Tsai M, Lee P, et al. Lipopolysaccharides induce Smad2 phosphorylation through PI3K/Akt and MAPK cascades in HSC-T6 hepatic stellate cells. Life Sci. 2017;184:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) directly activate cultured HSC-T6 hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) through triggering Smad-dependent pro-fibrogenic signaling pathway...
  12. Tacke F, Trautwein C. Mechanisms of liver fibrosis resolution. J Hepatol. 2015;63:1038-9 pubmed publisher
  13. Shackel N, Vadas M, Gamble J, McCaughan G. Beyond liver fibrosis: hepatic stellate cell senescence links obesity to liver cancer by way of the microbiome. Hepatology. 2014;59:2413-5 pubmed publisher
  14. Wang L, Tu L, Zhang J, Xu K, Qian W. Stellate Cell Activation and Imbalanced Expression of TGF-?1/TGF-?3 in Acute Autoimmune Liver Lesions Induced by ConA in Mice. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:2540540 pubmed publisher
    i>Objective. To study the pathogenic feature of liver injury, activation of hepatic stellate cells, and dynamic expression of TGF-?1/TGF-?3 to reveal their role in liver injury induced by ConA. Methods...
  15. Xuanfei L, Hao C, Zhujun Y, Yanming L, Jianping G. Imidazoline I2 receptor inhibitor idazoxan regulates the progression of hepatic fibrosis via Akt-Nrf2-Smad2/3 signaling pathway. Oncotarget. 2017;8:21015-21030 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that IDA significantly improved liver inflammation, ameliorated hepatic stellate cells activation and reduced collagen accumulation by suppressing the pro-fibrogenic signaling of TGF-?/Smad...
  16. Duan N, Liu X, Wu J. Palmitic acid elicits hepatic stellate cell activation through inflammasomes and hedgehog signaling. Life Sci. 2017;176:42-53 pubmed publisher
    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays a pivotal role at the center of the fibrogenic progression in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
  17. Tardelli M, Claudel T, Bruschi F, Moreno Viedma V, Trauner M. Adiponectin regulates AQP3 via PPAR? in human hepatic stellate cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:51-54 pubmed publisher
    Aquaporins (AQPs) are trans-membrane proteins which allow the movement of water and glycerol required by hepatic stellate cells (HSC) for triglyceride formation and lipid storage...
  18. Zhang Y, Wan L, He X, Ni Y, Wang C, Liu C, et al. Gremlin1 Accelerates Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation Through Upregulation of TGF-Beta Expression. DNA Cell Biol. 2017;36:603-610 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that gremlin1 might play an important role in the progression of hepatic fibrosis and that it modulates HSC activation. ..
  19. Dongiovanni P, Meroni M, Baselli G, Bassani G, Rametta R, Pietrelli A, et al. Insulin resistance promotes Lysyl Oxidase Like 2 induction and fibrosis accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Sci (Lond). 2017;131:1301-1315 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, despite reduced inflammation and hampered transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), InsR+/- promoted hepatic fibrosis accumulation, which correlated with the induction of the Lysyl ..
  20. Lo Re O, Panebianco C, Porto S, Cervi C, Rappa F, Di Biase S, et al. Fasting inhibits hepatic stellate cells activation and potentiates anti-cancer activity of Sorafenib in hepatocellular cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2018;233:1202-1212 pubmed publisher
    ..A 24?hr fasting (2% serum, 0.1% glucose)-induced changes on human hepatic stellate cells (HSC) LX-2 proliferation/viability/cell cycle were assessed by MTT and flow cytometry...
  21. Forkel M, Berglin L, Kekäläinen E, Carlsson A, Svedin E, Michaelsson J, et al. Composition and functionality of the intrahepatic innate lymphoid cell-compartment in human nonfibrotic and fibrotic livers. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1280-1294 pubmed publisher
    ..exposed to IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoetin (TSLP); these cytokines were produced by hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and Kupffer cells in response to TLR-3 stimulation...
  22. Friedman S. Focus. J Hepatol. 2013;58:1-2 pubmed publisher
  23. Chida T, Ito M, Nakashima K, Kanegae Y, Aoshima T, Takabayashi S, et al. Critical role of CREBH-mediated induction of transforming growth factor ?2 by hepatitis C virus infection in fibrogenic responses in hepatic stellate cells. Hepatology. 2017;66:1430-1443 pubmed publisher
    ..significance for induction of profibrogenic phenotypes by interaction of HCV-infected cells with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
  24. McDaniel K, Huang L, Sato K, Wu N, Annable T, Zhou T, et al. The let-7/Lin28 axis regulates activation of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:11336-11347 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the role of the let-7/Lin28 axis in regulating a mesenchymal phenotype of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury...
  25. Fujii M, Yoneda A, Takei N, Sakai Sawada K, Kosaka M, Minomi K, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum oxidase 1? is critical for collagen secretion from and membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase levels in hepatic stellate cells. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:15649-15660 pubmed publisher
    Upon liver injury, excessive deposition of collagen from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a leading cause of liver fibrosis...
  26. Song B, Rockey D. Status of research on vitamin D supplementation in treating or preventing liver fibrosis. Liver Int. 2013;33:653-5 pubmed publisher
  27. Kagan P, Sultan M, Tachlytski I, Safran M, Ben Ari Z. Both MAPK and STAT3 signal transduction pathways are necessary for IL-6-dependent hepatic stellate cells activation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176173 pubmed publisher
    During liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) can undergo activation and transform into alpha-smooth muscle actin (?SMA)-expressing contractile myofibroblast-like cells, leading to deposition of excessive scar matrix...
  28. Carotti S, Perrone G, Amato M, Vespasiani Gentilucci U, Righi D, Francesconi M, et al. Reelin expression in human liver of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Eur J Histochem. 2017;61:2745 pubmed publisher
    ..Several studies have described Reelin expression in hepatic stellate cells of the human liver...
  29. Yu F, Guo Y, Chen B, Shi L, Dong P, Zhou M, et al. LincRNA-p21 Inhibits the Wnt/?-Catenin Pathway in Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells via Sponging MicroRNA-17-5p. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:1970-1980 pubmed publisher
    It is known that the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal step in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis. Aberrant activated Wnt/?-catenin pathway is known to accelerate the development of liver fibrosis...
  30. Anthony B, James K, Gobert G, Ramm G, McManus D. Schistosomajaponicum Eggs Induce a Proinflammatory, Anti-Fibrogenic Phenotype in Hepatic Stellate Cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68479 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest HSCs in close proximity to S. japonicum eggs in the liver may play a role in the proinflammatory regulation of hepatic granuloma formation. ..
  31. Mann D, Marra F. Fibrogenic signalling in hepatic stellate cells. J Hepatol. 2010;52:949-50 pubmed publisher
  32. Natarajan V, Harris E, Kidambi S. SECs (Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells), Liver Microenvironment, and Fibrosis. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:4097205 pubmed publisher
    ..Establishing the molecular aspects of LSECs in the light of fibrotic microenvironment is valuable towards development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic targets of liver fibrosis. ..
  33. Liu Y, Li L, Liu J, She W, Shi J, Li J, et al. Activated hepatic stellate cells directly induce pathogenic Th17 cells in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Exp Cell Res. 2017;359:129-137 pubmed publisher
    Th17 cells are involved in liver fibrosis by activating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). We aimed to investigate whether HSCs are able to regulate the function of Th17 cells and to determine the relevant mechanism...
  34. Garg M, Kaur S, Banik A, Kumar V, Rastogi A, Sarin S, et al. Bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells activate hepatic stellate cells and aggravate carbon tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis in mice via paracrine factors. Cell Prolif. 2017;50: pubmed publisher
    ..VEGF and TGF-? were analysed in the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and BM-EPCs co-cultures using ELISAs...
  35. Tian X, Zhao C, Guo J, Xie S, Yin F, Huo X, et al. Carvedilol Attenuates the Progression of Hepatic Fibrosis Induced by Bile Duct Ligation. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:4612769 pubmed publisher
    i>Background. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is responsible for hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation and the accumulation of collagen that occurs in hepatic fibrogenesis...
  36. Mallat A, Lotersztajn S. Reversion of hepatic stellate cell to a quiescent phenotype: From myth to reality?. J Hepatol. 2013;59:383-6 pubmed publisher
  37. Cheng Y, Wang X, Wang B, Zhou H, Dang S, Shi Y, et al. Aging-associated oxidative stress inhibits liver progenitor cell activation in mice. Aging (Albany NY). 2017;9:1359-1374 pubmed publisher
    ..by neutrophils infiltrated into niche, which was resulted from chemokine production from activated hepatic stellate cells during aging...
  38. Zimny S, Pohl R, Rein Fischboeck L, Haberl E, Krautbauer S, Weiss T, et al. Chemokine (CC-motif) receptor-like 2 mRNA is expressed in hepatic stellate cells and is positively associated with characteristics of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice and men. Exp Mol Pathol. 2017;103:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Human hepatic stellate cells (HSC), hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells and Kupffer cells (KC) express CCRL2 mRNA...
  39. Kyritsi K, Meng F, Zhou T, Wu N, Venter J, Francis H, et al. Knockdown of Hepatic Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone by Vivo-Morpholino Decreases Liver Fibrosis in Multidrug Resistance Gene 2 Knockout Mice by Down-Regulation of miR-200b. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:1551-1565 pubmed publisher
    ..Proliferating cholangiocytes and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) participate in the promotion of liver fibrosis during cholestasis...
  40. Yang X, Dan X, Men R, Ma L, Wen M, Peng Y, et al. MiR-142-3p blocks TGF-?-induced activation of hepatic stellate cells through targeting TGF?RI. Life Sci. 2017;187:22-30 pubmed publisher
    To understand the contribution of miR-142-3p in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and liver fibrosis, and the underlying mechanism...
  41. Li J, Ghazwani M, Liu K, Huang Y, Chang N, Fan J, et al. Regulation of hepatic stellate cell proliferation and activation by glutamine metabolism. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182679 pubmed publisher
    ..accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, which is mainly caused by accumulation of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
  42. Gong J, Han J, He J, Liu J, Han P, Wang Y, et al. Paired related homeobox protein 1 regulates PDGF-induced chemotaxis of hepatic stellate cells in liver fibrosis. Lab Invest. 2017;97:1020-1032 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal a role of Prrx1 as a modulator of PDGF-dependent signaling in HSCs, and inhibiting its expression may offer a therapeutic approach for hepatic fibrosis. ..
  43. OʼLeary J, Demetris A, Philippe A, Freeman R, Cai J, Heidecke H, et al. Non-HLA Antibodies Impact on C4d Staining, Stellate Cell Activation and Fibrosis in Liver Allografts. Transplantation. 2017;101:2399-2409 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel location of C4d staining in proximity to liver sinusoidal endothelial cell capillarization and stellate cell activation demonstrates allograft injury in proximity to non-HLA autoantibody binding. ..
  44. Chen Y, Yuan B, Wu Z, Dong Y, Zhang L, Zeng Z. Microarray profiling of circular RNAs and the potential regulatory role of hsa_circ_0071410 in the activated human hepatic stellate cell induced by irradiation. Gene. 2017;629:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this study revealed the expression profile and potential function of differentially expressed circRNAs in irradiated HSC, which provides novel clues for RILF study. ..
  45. Fausther M, G Lavoie E, Dranoff J. Liver myofibroblasts of murine origins express mesothelin: Identification of novel rat mesothelin splice variants. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184499 pubmed publisher
    ..such as, Itg?V and Pdgfr?, or restricted to a given subpopulation such as, Lrat exclusively expressed in hepatic stellate cells, and Gpm6a in mesothelial cells...
  46. Zhao Y, Dang Z, Xu S, Chong S. Heat shock protein 47 effects on hepatic stellate cell-associated receptors in hepatic fibrosis of Schistosoma japonicum-infected mice. Biol Chem. 2017;398:1357-1366 pubmed publisher
    ..ETAR and ETBR levels were found to be positively correlated with HSP47 expression. HSP47 might exert influence on liver fibrosis via the regulation of ETAR and ETBR. ..
  47. Petta S, Valenti L, Svegliati Baroni G, Ruscica M, Pipitone R, Dongiovanni P, et al. Fibronectin Type III Domain-Containing Protein 5 rs3480 A>G Polymorphism, Irisin, and Liver Fibrosis in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2660-2669 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of irisin was evaluated in fat-laden HepG2 hepatocytes and in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In patients at risk for NASH [odds ratio (OR) = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47 to 0...
  48. Mogler C, König C, Wieland M, Runge A, Besemfelder E, Komljenovic D, et al. Hepatic stellate cells limit hepatocellular carcinoma progression through the orphan receptor endosialin. EMBO Mol Med. 2017;9:741-749 pubmed publisher
    ..to HCC progression is the cross talk between tumor cells and the surrounding stroma including activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC)...
  49. Rani R, Tandon A, Wang J, Kumar S, Gandhi C. Stellate Cells Orchestrate Concanavalin A-Induced Acute Liver Damage. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:2008-2019 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) induce hepatic inflammation and immunological reactions; we therefore investigated their role in ..
  50. Tuohetahuntila M, Molenaar M, Spee B, Brouwers J, Wubbolts R, Houweling M, et al. Lysosome-mediated degradation of a distinct pool of lipid droplets during hepatic stellate cell activation. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:12436-12448 pubmed publisher
    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a critical step in the development of liver fibrosis. During activation, HSCs lose their lipid droplets (LDs) containing triacylglycerols (TAGs), cholesteryl esters, and retinyl esters (REs)...
  51. Perea L, Coll M, Sanjurjo L, Blaya D, Taghdouini A, Rodrigo Torres D, et al. Pentraxin-3 modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response and attenuates liver injury. Hepatology. 2017;66:953-968 pubmed publisher
    ..Liver cell fractionation showed that macrophages and activated hepatic stellate cells were the main cell types expressing PTX3 in liver injury...
  52. Tsuchida T, Friedman S. Mechanisms of hepatic stellate cell activation. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;14:397-411 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) - transdifferentiation of quiescent, vitamin-A-storing cells into proliferative, fibrogenic myo?..
  53. Wu N, Meng F, Zhou T, Han Y, Kennedy L, Venter J, et al. Prolonged darkness reduces liver fibrosis in a mouse model of primary sclerosing cholangitis by miR-200b down-regulation. FASEB J. 2017;31:4305-4324 pubmed publisher
    ..AANAT; the enzyme regulating melatonin synthesis) or inhibition of miR-200b in cholangiocytes and hepatic stellate cells in vitro, we evaluated angiogenesis and fibrosis gene expression...