melanophores

Summary

Summary: Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.

Top Publications

  1. Logan D, Burn S, Jackson I. Regulation of pigmentation in zebrafish melanophores. Pigment Cell Res. 2006;19:206-13 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we propose these data establish the zebrafish as an experimental model for studying both physiological colour change and the molecular basis of pigment translocation...
  2. Rollag M. Pertussis toxin sensitive photoaggregation of pigment in isolated Xenopus tail-fin melanophores. Photochem Photobiol. 1993;57:862-6 pubmed
    Direct illumination of Xenopus laevis tail-fin melanophores results in rapid, reversible translocation of intracellular pigment granules to a perinuclear location, an effect distinct from and opposite to the photodispersion of pigment ..
  3. Quigley I, Manuel J, Roberts R, Nuckels R, Herrington E, MacDonald E, et al. Evolutionary diversification of pigment pattern in Danio fishes: differential fms dependence and stripe loss in D. albolineatus. Development. 2005;132:89-104 pubmed
    ..These patterns result from several classes of pigment cells including black melanophores and yellow xanthophores, which differentiate during metamorphosis from latent stem cells of presumptive neural ..
  4. Cornell R, Yemm E, Bonde G, Li W, d Alençon C, Wegman L, et al. Touchtone promotes survival of embryonic melanophores in zebrafish. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1365-76 pubmed
    ..we have carried out a mutagenesis screen in zebrafish and isolated mutants that lack neural crest-derived melanophores. In this manuscript we describe the phenotype of one such mutant, touchtone(b722) (tct), and the map position ..
  5. Park M, Serpinskaya A, Papalopulu N, Gelfand V. Rab32 regulates melanosome transport in Xenopus melanophores by protein kinase a recruitment. Curr Biol. 2007;17:2030-4 pubmed
    ..In Xenopus melanophores, melanosome transport is regulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)...
  6. Semenova I, Ikeda K, Ivanov P, Rodionov V. The protein kinase A-anchoring protein moesin is bound to pigment granules in melanophores. Traffic. 2009;10:153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In Xenopus melanophores, aggregation and dispersion of pigment granules are regulated by the second messenger cyclic AMP through the ..
  7. Bruno L, Echarte M, Levi V. Exchange of microtubule molecular motors during melanosome transport in Xenopus laevis melanophores is triggered by collisions with intracellular obstacles. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2008;52:191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we analyzed the switch of microtubule motors during the transport of melanosomes in Xenopus melanophores by registering trajectories of these organelles moving along microtubules using a fast and precise tracking ..
  8. Ziegler I. The pteridine pathway in zebrafish: regulation and specification during the determination of neural crest cell-fate. Pigment Cell Res. 2003;16:172-82 pubmed
    ..segregate into neural elements, ectomesenchymal cells and pigment cells; the latter then diversifying into melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores...
  9. Elworthy S, Lister J, Carney T, Raible D, Kelsh R. Transcriptional regulation of mitfa accounts for the sox10 requirement in zebrafish melanophore development. Development. 2003;130:2809-18 pubmed
    ..for the specification, migration and survival of all nonectomesenchymal neural crest derivatives including melanophores. sox10(-/-) zebrafish lack expression of the transcription factor mitfa, which itself is required for ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Parichy D, Turner J. Zebrafish puma mutant decouples pigment pattern and somatic metamorphosis. Dev Biol. 2003;256:242-57 pubmed
    ..is the pigment pattern, which comprises several neural crest-derived pigment cell classes, including black melanophores, yellow xanthophores, and iridescent iridophores. D...
  2. Cooper C, Linbo T, Raible D. Kit and foxd3 genetically interact to regulate melanophore survival in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:875-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Individuals with a null mutation in kit have fewer melanophores than wild-type, with cells lost through death...
  3. Curran K, Raible D, Lister J. Foxd3 controls melanophore specification in the zebrafish neural crest by regulation of Mitf. Dev Biol. 2009;332:408-17 pubmed publisher
    ..reveal foxd3 expression in xanthophore precursors and iridophores, but not in terminally differentiated melanophores. Luciferase experiments and embryo mRNA injections indicate Foxd3 acts directly on the mitfa promoter to ..
  4. Lang M, Patterson L, Gordon T, Johnson S, Parichy D. Basonuclin-2 requirements for zebrafish adult pigment pattern development and female fertility. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000744 pubmed publisher
    ..stripes result from the arrangement of three classes of neural crest-derived pigment cells, or chromatophores: melanophores, xanthophores, and iridophores...
  5. Gross S, Tuma M, Deacon S, Serpinskaya A, Reilein A, Gelfand V. Interactions and regulation of molecular motors in Xenopus melanophores. J Cell Biol. 2002;156:855-65 pubmed
    ..Down-regulation of myosin V contributes to aggregation by impairing its ability to effectively compete with movement along microtubules...
  6. Salim S, Ali S. Vertebrate melanophores as potential model for drug discovery and development: a review. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2011;16:162-200 pubmed publisher
    ..The pigment-bearing cells called melanophores have a significant contribution to make in this field...
  7. Budi E, Patterson L, Parichy D. Post-embryonic nerve-associated precursors to adult pigment cells: genetic requirements and dynamics of morphogenesis and differentiation. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002044 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies of zebrafish revealed genetically distinct populations of embryonic and adult melanophores, the ectotherm homologue of amniote melanocytes...
  8. Darias M, Andree K, Boglino A, Fernández I, Estévez A, Gisbert E. Coordinated regulation of chromatophore differentiation and melanogenesis during the ontogeny of skin pigmentation of Solea senegalensis (Kaup, 1858). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63005 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we present a first approximation towards explaining the genetic mechanisms for regulating pigmentation ontogeny in Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis. ..
  9. Aspengren S, Hedberg D, Wallin M. Melanophores: a model system for neuronal transport and exocytosis?. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85:2591-600 pubmed
    Black pigment cells, melanophores, from lower vertebrates are specialized in bidirectional and coordinated translocation of pigment granules, melanosomes, in the cytoplasm...
  10. Patterson L, Parichy D. Interactions with iridophores and the tissue environment required for patterning melanophores and xanthophores during zebrafish adult pigment stripe formation. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003561 pubmed publisher
    ..In this species, horizontal dark stripes of melanophores alternate with light interstripes of yellow or orange xanthophores and iridescent iridophores...
  11. McNeill M, Paulsen J, Bonde G, Burnight E, Hsu M, Cornell R. Cell death of melanophores in zebrafish trpm7 mutant embryos depends on melanin synthesis. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:2020-30 pubmed
    ..However, zebrafish trpm7 homozygous mutants display death of melanophores and temporary paralysis, but no gross morphological defects during embryonic stages...
  12. Greenwood A, Cech J, Peichel C. Molecular and developmental contributions to divergent pigment patterns in marine and freshwater sticklebacks. Evol Dev. 2012;14:351-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In freshwater fish, melanophores appear primarily within dark bars whereas iridophores appear within light bars...
  13. Ignatius M, Moose H, El Hodiri H, Henion P. colgate/hdac1 Repression of foxd3 expression is required to permit mitfa-dependent melanogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;313:568-83 pubmed
    ..hdac1) has reduced numbers, delayed differentiation and decreased migration of neural crest-derived melanophores and their precursors. In hdac1(col) mutants normal numbers of premigratory neural crest cells are induced...
  14. Semenova I, Burakov A, Berardone N, Zaliapin I, Slepchenko B, Svitkina T, et al. Actin dynamics is essential for myosin-based transport of membrane organelles. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1581-6 pubmed publisher
  15. Bluhm A, Obeid N, Castrucci A, Visconti M. The expression of melanopsin and clock genes in Xenopus laevis melanophores and their modulation by melatonin. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2012;45:730-6 pubmed
    ..Light responses might result from the integration of light signals by these clocks. The dermal melanophores of Xenopus laevis have a photoreceptor molecule denominated melanopsin (OPN4x)...
  16. Ali S, Salim S, Sahni T, Peter J, Ali A. 5-HT receptors as novel targets for optimizing pigmentary responses in dorsal skin melanophores of frog, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:1515-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we investigated the role of this monoaminergic system in amphibian pigment cells, melanophores, to further our understanding of its role in pigmentation biology together with its evolutionary significance.
  17. Watanabe K, Washio Y, Fujinami Y, Aritaki M, Uji S, Suzuki T. Adult-type pigment cells, which color the ocular sides of flounders at metamorphosis, localize as precursor cells at the proximal parts of the dorsal and anal fins in early larvae. Dev Growth Differ. 2008;50:731-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Flounders form left-right asymmetry in body coloration during metamorphosis through differentiation of adult-type melanophores and xanthophores on the ocular side...
  18. Yamada T, Okauchi M, Araki K. Origin of adult-type pigment cells forming the asymmetric pigment pattern, in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Dev Dyn. 2010;239:3147-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that adult-type pigment cells that form the asymmetric pigment pattern are continuously derived from the dorsal and ventral margins of the flank during larval development...
  19. Kobayashi Y, Tsuchiya K, Yamanome T, Schioth H, Takahashi A. Differential expressions of melanocortin receptor subtypes in melanophores and xanthophores of barfin flounder. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;168:133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..group at the N-terminus stimulated pigment dispersion in xanthophores; however, this effect was not observed in melanophores. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to find which MCR subtypes are expressed in these pigment cells in ..
  20. Nakamasu A, Takahashi G, Kanbe A, Kondo S. Interactions between zebrafish pigment cells responsible for the generation of Turing patterns. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..When melanophores and xanthophores were located at adjacent positions, these cells excluded one another...
  21. Lister J, Cooper C, Nguyen K, Modrell M, Grant K, Raible D. Zebrafish Foxd3 is required for development of a subset of neural crest derivatives. Dev Biol. 2006;290:92-104 pubmed
  22. Dutton K, Pauliny A, Lopes S, Elworthy S, Carney T, Rauch J, et al. Zebrafish colourless encodes sox10 and specifies non-ectomesenchymal neural crest fates. Development. 2001;128:4113-25 pubmed
    ..This suggests a novel mechanism for the aetiology of Waardenburg-Shah syndrome in which affected neural crest derivatives fail to be generated from the neural crest...
  23. Kashina A, Semenova I, Ivanov P, Potekhina E, Zaliapin I, Rodionov V. Protein kinase A, which regulates intracellular transport, forms complexes with molecular motors on organelles. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1877-81 pubmed
    ..Aggregation and dispersion of pigment granules in melanophores are regulated by the second messenger cAMP through the protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway ; however, the ..
  24. Vorobjev I, Malikov V, Rodionov V. Self-organization of a radial microtubule array by dynein-dependent nucleation of microtubules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:10160-5 pubmed
    ..the role of cytoplasmic dynein in the self-organization of a radial MT array in cytoplasmic fragments of fish melanophores lacking the centrosome...
  25. Maderspacher F, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Formation of the adult pigment pattern in zebrafish requires leopard and obelix dependent cell interactions. Development. 2003;130:3447-57 pubmed
    ..In zebrafish, the adult pigment pattern comprises alternating stripes of two pigment cell types, melanophores and xanthophores. How the stripes are defined and a straight boundary is formed remains elusive...
  26. Rodionov V, Yi J, Kashina A, Oladipo A, Gross S. Switching between microtubule- and actin-based transport systems in melanophores is controlled by cAMP levels. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1837-47 pubmed
    ..Such coordination could occur through regulation of the densities of the two cytoskeletal systems or through regulation of the activities of the cytoskeletal motors by signaling mechanisms...
  27. Kelsh R, Schmid B, Eisen J. Genetic analysis of melanophore development in zebrafish embryos. Dev Biol. 2000;225:277-93 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, their distribution indicates a defect in melanoblast dispersal. These observations permit us to refine our model of the genetic control of melanophore development in zebrafish embryos...
  28. Lomakin A, Semenova I, Zaliapin I, Kraikivski P, Nadezhdina E, Slepchenko B, et al. CLIP-170-dependent capture of membrane organelles by microtubules initiates minus-end directed transport. Dev Cell. 2009;17:323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use Xenopus melanophores to test the hypothesis that MT dynamics significantly contribute to the efficiency of MT minus-end directed ..
  29. Zou J, Beermann F, Wang J, Kawakami K, Wei X. The Fugu tyrp1 promoter directs specific GFP expression in zebrafish: tools to study the RPE and the neural crest-derived melanophores. Pigment Cell Res. 2006;19:615-27 pubmed
    ..two stable transgenic zebrafish lines (pt101 and pt102) that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in melanophores under the control of the 1 kb Fugu tyrp1 promoter...
  30. Karcher R, Roland J, Zappacosta F, Huddleston M, Annan R, Carr S, et al. Cell cycle regulation of myosin-V by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Science. 2001;293:1317-20 pubmed
    ..The modulation of cargo binding by phosphorylation is likely to represent a general mechanism regulating organelle transport by myosin-V...
  31. Parichy D, Johnson S. Zebrafish hybrids suggest genetic mechanisms for pigment pattern diversification in Danio. Dev Genes Evol. 2001;211:319-28 pubmed
    ..albolineatus. This non-complementation phenotype identifies changes in fms, or the pathway in which it acts, as candidates for contributing to the evolutionary loss of stripes in D. albolineatus...
  32. Brown S. Cooperation between microtubule- and actin-based motor proteins. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1999;15:63-80 pubmed
    ..This link between members of two different motor superfamilies has now taken a surprising turn: There is evidence for a physical interaction between class V myosins and kinesin or Smy1p in both mice and yeast...
  33. Inaba M, Yamanaka H, Kondo S. Pigment pattern formation by contact-dependent depolarization. Science. 2012;335:677 pubmed publisher
    ..By using an in vitro cell culture system, we have detected interactions between the two pigment cell types, melanophores and xanthophores, in the zebrafish skin...
  34. Provencio I, Jiang G, de Grip W, Hayes W, Rollag M. Melanopsin: An opsin in melanophores, brain, and eye. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:340-5 pubmed
    We have identified an opsin, melanopsin, in photosensitive dermal melanophores of Xenopus laevis. Its deduced amino acid sequence shares greatest homology with cephalopod opsins...
  35. Eom D, Inoue S, Patterson L, Gordon T, Slingwine R, Kondo S, et al. Melanophore migration and survival during zebrafish adult pigment stripe development require the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule Igsf11. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002899 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that Igsf11 is expressed by melanophores and their precursors, and we demonstrate by cell transplantation and genetic rescue that igsf11 functions ..
  36. Kelsh R, Brand M, Jiang Y, Heisenberg C, Lin S, Haffter P, et al. Zebrafish pigmentation mutations and the processes of neural crest development. Development. 1996;123:369-89 pubmed
    ..In combination with the embryological advantages of zebrafish, these mutations should permit cellular and molecular dissection of many aspects of neural crest development...
  37. Inagaki H, Bessho Y, Koga A, Hori H. Expression of the tyrosinase-encoding gene in a colorless melanophore mutant of the medaka fish, Oryzias latipes. Gene. 1994;150:319-24 pubmed
    ..mutant b, carrying b alleles homozygously, has pigmented black eyes but orange-colored skin with amelanotic melanophores, suggesting the presence of a tissue-specific mechanism of melanin formation...
  38. Okano K, Oishi T, Miyashita Y, Moriya T, Tsuda M, Irie T, et al. Identification of 3,4-didehydroretinal isomers in the Xenopus tadpole tail fin containing photosensitive melanophores. Zoolog Sci. 2002;19:191-5 pubmed
    It is well characterized that melanophores in the tail fin of Xenopus laevis tadpoles are directly photosensitive...
  39. Takahashi G, Kondo S. Melanophores in the stripes of adult zebrafish do not have the nature to gather, but disperse when they have the space to move. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2008;21:677-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the variety of cellular events that may be involved in the mechanism, aggregation of melanophores has been suggested as an important factor for pattern formation...
  40. O Brien E, d Alençon C, Bonde G, Li W, Schoenebeck J, Allende M, et al. Transcription factor Ap-2alpha is necessary for development of embryonic melanophores, autonomic neurons and pharyngeal skeleton in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2004;265:246-61 pubmed
    ..for the Steel ligand, is reduced in these embryos, and, similar to zebrafish c-kit mutant embryos, embryonic melanophores are reduced in number and migration...
  41. Fukuzawa T. Unusual leucophore-like cells specifically appear in the lineage of melanophores in the periodic albino mutant of Xenopus laevis. Pigment Cell Res. 2004;17:252-61 pubmed
    ..study, the developmental and ultrastructural characteristics of these leucophore-like cells were compared with melanophores, iridophores and xanthophores, utilizing fluorescence stereomicroscopy, and light and electron microscopy...
  42. Budi E, Patterson L, Parichy D. Embryonic requirements for ErbB signaling in neural crest development and adult pigment pattern formation. Development. 2008;135:2603-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In zebrafish, neural crest-derived melanophores differentiate during embryogenesis to produce stripes in the early larva...
  43. Grether G, Kolluru G, Nersissian K. Individual colour patches as multicomponent signals. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2004;79:583-610 pubmed
    ..in the middle layer contain crystalline platelets that reflect light back through the xanthophores; and melanophores in the basal layer contain melanins that absorb light across the spectrum...
  44. Mills M, Nuckels R, Parichy D. Deconstructing evolution of adult phenotypes: genetic analyses of kit reveal homology and evolutionary novelty during adult pigment pattern development of Danio fishes. Development. 2007;134:1081-90 pubmed
    ..studies have shown that in zebrafish, stripes form by migration and differentiation of distinct populations of melanophores: early metamorphic (EM) melanophores arise widely dispersed and then migrate into stripes, whereas late ..
  45. Zaliapin I, Semenova I, Kashina A, Rodionov V. Multiscale trend analysis of microtubule transport in melanophores. Biophys J. 2005;88:4008-16 pubmed
    ..We apply the proposed algorithm to compare regulation of microtubule transport in fish and Xenopus melanophores and show that the general mechanisms of regulation are similar in the two pigment cell types.
  46. Aspengren S, Sköld H, Quiroga G, Mårtensson L, Wallin M. Noradrenaline- and melatonin-mediated regulation of pigment aggregation in fish melanophores. Pigment Cell Res. 2003;16:59-64 pubmed
    ..of melatonin and noradrenaline (NA) on bi-directional melanosome transport were analysed in primary cultures of melanophores from the Atlantic cod...
  47. Deacon S, Serpinskaya A, Vaughan P, Lopez Fanarraga M, Vernos I, Vaughan K, et al. Dynactin is required for bidirectional organelle transport. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:297-301 pubmed
    ..To address this question, we have used Xenopus laevis melanophores as a model system...
  48. Aspengren S, Hedberg D, Sköld H, Wallin M. New insights into melanosome transport in vertebrate pigment cells. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2009;272:245-302 pubmed publisher
    ..We will describe the roles of melanin, melanophores, and melanocytes in animals, current views on how the three motor proteins dynein, kinesin, and myosin-V are ..
  49. Ikeda K, Semenova I, Zhapparova O, Rodionov V. Melanophores for microtubule dynamics and motility assays. Methods Cell Biol. 2010;97:401-14 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Melanophores are filled with pigment granules that are synchronously transported by motor proteins in response to hormonal ..
  50. Lister J, Robertson C, Lepage T, Johnson S, Raible D. nacre encodes a zebrafish microphthalmia-related protein that regulates neural-crest-derived pigment cell fate. Development. 1999;126:3757-67 pubmed
    ..Homozygous nacre (nac(w2)) mutants lack melanophores throughout development but have increased numbers of iridophores...
  51. Arduini B, Henion P. Melanophore sublineage-specific requirement for zebrafish touchtone during neural crest development. Mech Dev. 2004;121:1353-64 pubmed
    ..zebrafish mutant touchtone (tct), which is characterized by the selective absence of most neural crest-derived melanophores. We find that although wild-type numbers of melanophore precursors are generated in the first day of ..
  52. Dooley C, Mongera A, Walderich B, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. On the embryonic origin of adult melanophores: the role of ErbB and Kit signalling in establishing melanophore stem cells in zebrafish. Development. 2013;140:1003-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In fishes, larval melanophores develop during embryogenesis directly from NC cells migrating along dorsolateral and ventromedial paths...
  53. Svetic V, Hollway G, Elworthy S, Chipperfield T, Davison C, Adams R, et al. Sdf1a patterns zebrafish melanophores and links the somite and melanophore pattern defects in choker mutants. Development. 2007;134:1011-22 pubmed
    ..Embryos mutant for choker manifest a unique pigment pattern phenotype that combines a loss of lateral stripe melanophores with an ectopic melanophore ;collar' at the head-trunk border...