chromatophores

Summary

Summary: The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)

Top Publications

  1. Kelsh R. Genetics and evolution of pigment patterns in fish. Pigment Cell Res. 2004;17:326-36 pubmed
    ..In fish, however, pigment patterns predominantly result from positioning of differently coloured chromatophores. Theoretically, pigment cell patterning might result from long-range patterning mechanisms, from local ..
  2. Kuriyama T, Miyaji K, Sugimoto M, Hasegawa M. Ultrastructure of the dermal chromatophores in a lizard (Scincidae: Plestiodon latiscutatus) with conspicuous body and tail coloration. Zoolog Sci. 2006;23:793-9 pubmed
    ..which have body stripes and blue tail coloration, identified epidermal melanophores and three types of dermal chromatophores: xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores...
  3. Takahashi G, Kondo S. Melanophores in the stripes of adult zebrafish do not have the nature to gather, but disperse when they have the space to move. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2008;21:677-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Apparent aggregation may be forced by the stronger repulsive effect against the xanthophores, which excludes melanophores from the yellow stripe region...
  4. Chiou T, Mäthger L, Hanlon R, Cronin T. Spectral and spatial properties of polarized light reflections from the arms of squid (Loligo pealeii) and cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.). J Exp Biol. 2007;210:3624-35 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that cuttlefish and squid could send out reliable polarization signals to a receiver regardless of arm orientation...
  5. Oshima N, Nakamaru N, Araki S, Sugimoto M. Comparative analyses of the pigment-aggregating and -dispersing actions of MCH on fish chromatophores. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2001;129:75-84 pubmed
  6. Grether G, Kolluru G, Nersissian K. Individual colour patches as multicomponent signals. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2004;79:583-610 pubmed
    ..We offer specific, testable functional hypotheses for the most common pigmentary (carotenoid, pteridine and melanin) and structural components of vertebrate colour patches...
  7. Gaston M, Tublitz N. Central distribution and three-dimensional arrangement of fin chromatophore motoneurons in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Invert Neurosci. 2006;6:81-93 pubmed
    ..organs, this behavior enables rapid alteration of body coloration as a result of direct innervation of chromatophores by motoneurons...
  8. Goda M, Ohata M, Ikoma H, Fujiyoshi Y, Sugimoto M, Fujii R. Integumental reddish-violet coloration owing to novel dichromatic chromatophores in the teleost fish, Pseudochromis diadema. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011;24:614-7 pubmed publisher
    ..parts of the skin of the diadema pseudochromis Pseudochromis diadema, we found novel dichromatic chromatophores with a reddish pigment and reflecting platelets. We named these novel cells 'erythro-iridophores'...
  9. Rossiter J, Yap B, Conn A. Biomimetic chromatophores for camouflage and soft active surfaces. Bioinspir Biomim. 2012;7:036009 pubmed publisher
    b>Chromatophores are the pigment-containing cells in the skins of animals such as fish and cephalopods which have chromomorphic (colour-changing) and controllable goniochromic (iridescent-changing) properties...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Oshima N. Direct reception of light by chromatophores of lower vertebrates. Pigment Cell Res. 2001;14:312-9 pubmed
    Rapid color changes of lower vertebrates are caused by the motile activities of pigment cells (chromatophores) present in the skin tissue. Chromatophore motility is generally regulated by neural and/or by endocrine systems...
  2. Boyle R, McNamara J. A spring-matrix model for pigment translocation in the red ovarian chromatophores of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi (Crustacea, Decapoda). Biol Bull. 2008;214:111-21 pubmed
    A model for intracellular transport of pigment granules in the red ovarian chromatophores of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi is proposed on the basis of shifts in the equilibrium of resting forces acting on an elastic pigment ..
  3. Ban E, Kasai A, Sato M, Yokozeki A, Hisatomi O, Oshima N. The signaling pathway in photoresponses that may be mediated by visual pigments in erythrophores of Nile tilapia. Pigment Cell Res. 2005;18:360-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, tilapia erythrophore system seems to be a nice model for understanding the photoresponses of cells other than visual cells...
  4. McNamara J, Ribeiro M. The calcium dependence of pigment translocation in freshwater shrimp red ovarian chromatophores. Biol Bull. 2000;198:357-66 pubmed
  5. Armstrong T, Cronin T, Bradley B. Microspectrophotometric analysis of intact chromatophores of the Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes. Pigment Cell Res. 2000;13:116-9 pubmed
    To investigate the possible photoprotective role of chromatophores in fish, the absorbances of four types of intact chromatophores in adult and larval Japanese medaka were analyzed using microspectrophotometric techniques...
  6. Mojovic L, Dierksen K, Upson R, Caldwell B, Lawrence J, Trempy J, et al. Blind and naive classification of toxicity by fish chromatophores. J Appl Toxicol. 2004;24:355-61 pubmed
    ..Detection was accomplished by monitoring motor protein-mediated movements of cellular pigment in chromatophores at both the gross population level as well as in singly imaged cells...
  7. Kelsh R, Brand M, Jiang Y, Heisenberg C, Lin S, Haffter P, et al. Zebrafish pigmentation mutations and the processes of neural crest development. Development. 1996;123:369-89 pubmed
    ..Zebrafish neural crest derivatives include three distinct chromatophores, which are well-suited to genetic analysis of their development...
  8. Frohnhöfer H, Krauss J, Maischein H, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Iridophores and their interactions with other chromatophores are required for stripe formation in zebrafish. Development. 2013;140:2997-3007 pubmed publisher
    ..Stripe formation is initiated by iridophores appearing at the horizontal myoseptum, which serves as a morphological landmark for stripe orientation, but is subsequently a self-organising process. ..
  9. Svensson P, Forsgren E, Amundsen T, Sköld H. Chromatic interaction between egg pigmentation and skin chromatophores in the nuptial coloration of female two-spotted gobies. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:4391-7 pubmed
    ..pigmentation interact in this nuptial coloration, the potential for colour modification via regulation of skin chromatophores was investigated...
  10. Hirata M, Nakamura K, Kanemaru T, Shibata Y, Kondo S. Pigment cell organization in the hypodermis of zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:497-503 pubmed
    ..The order of the layered structures is kept strictly all through the hypodermal regions. Our study will provide basic information to investigate the mechanism of pigment pattern formation in zebrafish...
  11. Boyle R, McNamara J. Association of kinesin and myosin with pigment granules in crustacean chromatophores. Pigment Cell Res. 2006;19:68-75 pubmed
    ..adaptation in crustaceans results from the differential distribution of colored pigment granules within their chromatophores consequent to cell signaling by neurosecretory peptides...
  12. Amiri M, Shaheen H. Chromatophores and color revelation in the blue variant of the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Micron. 2012;43:159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..unit for the caudal fin in the blue variant of the Siamese fighting fish consists exclusively of dermal chromatophores comprised of compact and overlapping light-reflecting motile iridophores underlined by a layer of light ..
  13. Meyer Rochow V, Royuela M. Calponin, caldesmon, and chromatophores: The smooth muscle connection. Microsc Res Tech. 2002;58:504-13 pubmed
    Observations on pigment translocations in fish chromatophores and speculations on the chemo-mechanical transduction processes responsible for the recorded chromatosome motilities are briefly reviewed...
  14. Sugimoto M. Morphological color changes in fish: regulation of pigment cell density and morphology. Microsc Res Tech. 2002;58:496-503 pubmed
    ..into two categories; one is a physiological color change, which is attributed to rapid motile responses of chromatophores, and the other is a morphological color change, which results from changes in the morphology and density of ..
  15. Burton D. The physiology of flatfish chromatophores. Microsc Res Tech. 2002;58:481-7 pubmed
    ..This upper side can display integumentary patterning with dark areas and colored or white spots. Chromatophores in flatfish are dermal and epidermal melanophores, as well as dermal xanthophores, erythrophores, iridophores, ..
  16. Quigley I, Parichy D. Pigment pattern formation in zebrafish: a model for developmental genetics and the evolution of form. Microsc Res Tech. 2002;58:442-55 pubmed
    ..trait of both historical and recent interest is the pattern formed by neural crest-derived pigment cells, or chromatophores, which include black melanophores, yellow xanthophores, and iridescent iridophores...
  17. Guillot R, Ceinos R, Cal R, Rotllant J, Cerdá Reverter J. Transient ectopic overexpression of agouti-signalling protein 1 (asip1) induces pigment anomalies in flatfish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48526 pubmed publisher
    ..This, in turn, generates a ventral-like differentiation environment in dorsal regions...
  18. Fujii R. The regulation of motile activity in fish chromatophores. Pigment Cell Res. 2000;13:300-19 pubmed
    b>Chromatophores, including melanophores, xanthophores, erythrophores, leucophores and iridophores, are responsible for the revelation of integumentary coloration in fish...
  19. Odenthal J, Rossnagel K, Haffter P, Kelsh R, Vogelsang E, Brand M, et al. Mutations affecting xanthophore pigmentation in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Development. 1996;123:391-8 pubmed
    ..These mutations may affect xanthophore pigment distribution within the cells or xanthophore cell shape. Mutations in seven genes affecting xanthophore pigmentation remain unclassified...
  20. Pederzoli A, Gambarelli A, Restani C. Xanthophore migration from the dermis to the epidermis and dermal remodeling during Salamandra salamandra salamandra (L.) larval development. Pigment Cell Res. 2003;16:50-8 pubmed
    During larval development of Salamandra salamandra salamandra chromatophores organize to form the definitive pigment pattern constituted by a black background with yellow patches that are characterized by epidermal xanthophores and dermal ..
  21. Kasai A, Oshima N. Light-sensitive motile iridophores and visual pigments in the neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi. Zoolog Sci. 2006;23:815-9 pubmed
    ..These results show that Pi-green1, Pi-green2, and/or rhodopsin may play important roles in the photoresponse of neon tetra iridophores, which are most sensitive to light near 500 nm...
  22. Sköld H, Amundsen T, Svensson P, Mayer I, Bjelvenmark J, Forsgren E. Hormonal regulation of female nuptial coloration in a fish. Horm Behav. 2008;54:549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, not only epidermal chromatophores but also internal chromatophores lining the peritoneum responded to hormone treatments...
  23. Mäthger L, Hanlon R. Malleable skin coloration in cephalopods: selective reflectance, transmission and absorbance of light by chromatophores and iridophores. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;329:179-86 pubmed
    ..b>Chromatophores (brown, red, yellow pigment) are innervated directly by the brain and can quickly expand and retract over ..
  24. Fukamachi S, Sugimoto M, Mitani H, Shima A. Somatolactin selectively regulates proliferation and morphogenesis of neural-crest derived pigment cells in medaka. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10661-6 pubmed publisher
    ..patterns on animal body surfaces are determined primarily by neural-crest-derived pigment cells in the skin (chromatophores). However, even closely related species display widely differing patterns...
  25. Auerswald L, Freier U, Lopata A, Meyer B. Physiological and morphological colour change in Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba: a field study in the Lazarev Sea. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:3850-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude from our results, that pigmentation of E. superba serves in the protection from harmful solar radiation and is adapted to the varying diel and seasonal light conditions...
  26. Watanabe K, Washio Y, Fujinami Y, Aritaki M, Uji S, Suzuki T. Adult-type pigment cells, which color the ocular sides of flounders at metamorphosis, localize as precursor cells at the proximal parts of the dorsal and anal fins in early larvae. Dev Growth Differ. 2008;50:731-41 pubmed publisher
    ..of flounder body coloration asymmetry, in this study, we aimed to determine where the precursors of adult-type chromatophores distribute in larvae before metamorphosis...
  27. Parichy D, Turner J. Temporal and cellular requirements for Fms signaling during zebrafish adult pigment pattern development. Development. 2003;130:817-33 pubmed
  28. Messenger J. Cephalopod chromatophores: neurobiology and natural history. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2001;76:473-528 pubmed
    The chromatophores of cephalopods differ fundamentally from those of other animals: they are neuromuscular organs rather than cells and are not controlled hormonally...
  29. Darias M, Andree K, Boglino A, Fernández I, Estévez A, Gisbert E. Coordinated regulation of chromatophore differentiation and melanogenesis during the ontogeny of skin pigmentation of Solea senegalensis (Kaup, 1858). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63005 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we present a first approximation towards explaining the genetic mechanisms for regulating pigmentation ontogeny in Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis. ..
  30. Mattiello T, Fiore G, Brown E, d Ischia M, Palumbo A. Nitric oxide mediates the glutamate-dependent pathway for neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis chromatophore organs. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia...
  31. Geschwind I, Huseby R, Nishioka R. The effect of melanocyte-stimulating hormone on coat color in the mouse. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1972;28:91-130 pubmed
  32. Washio Y, Aritaki M, Fujinami Y, Shimizu D, Yokoi H, Suzuki T. Ocular-side lateralization of adult-type chromatophore precursors: development of pigment asymmetry in metamorphosing flounder larvae. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2013;320:151-65 pubmed publisher
    The adult-type chromatophores of flounder differentiate at metamorphosis in the skin of ocular side to establish asymmetric pigmentation...
  33. Orhanovic I, Crinon R, Chaplen F, Weisshaar A. Signal transduction pathway modeling using sequences of chromatophore images. IEEE Trans Nanobioscience. 2007;6:210-8 pubmed
    ..In this paper, a link between the biological aspect of chromatophores and digital image/video processing techniques used for chromatophore characterization is established for this ..
  34. Sköld H, Aspengren S, Cheney K, Wallin M. Fish Chromatophores--From Molecular Motors to Animal Behavior. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2016;321:171-219 pubmed publisher
    b>Chromatophores are pigment-bearing cells of lower vertebrates, including fish that cater for the ability of individual animals to shift body coloration and pattern...
  35. Ribeiro M, McNamara J. Calcium movements during pigment aggregation in freshwater shrimp chromatophores. Pigment Cell Res. 2007;20:70-7 pubmed
    Pigment granule migration within crustacean chromatophores provides an excellent model with which to investigate cytoplasmic movements, given the antagonistic, neurosecretory peptide regulation of granule translocation, and the absence of ..
  36. Yogamoorthi A. Artificial UV-B induced changes in pigmentation of marine diatom Coscinodiscus gigas. J Environ Biol. 2007;28:327-30 pubmed
    ..4W m(-2) for a continuous period of 3 hours in a UV treatment chamber caused disbursement of chromatophores from their normal loci and resulted in clumping / aggregation of chromatophores exhibiting a phenomenon called ..
  37. Parichy D. Homology and the evolution of novelty during Danio adult pigment pattern development. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2007;308:578-90 pubmed
    ..These studies also have started to reveal homologous and novel features of the underlying developmental processes...
  38. Dierksen K, Mojovic L, Caldwell B, Preston R, Upson R, Lawrence J, et al. Responses of fish chromatophore-based cytosensor to a broad range of biological agents. J Appl Toxicol. 2004;24:363-9 pubmed
    A cytosensor based on living chromatophores from Betta splendens Siamese fighting fish was used to test several classes of biologically active agents...
  39. Kelsh R, Inoue C, Momoi A, Kondoh H, Furutani Seiki M, Ozato K, et al. The Tomita collection of medaka pigmentation mutants as a resource for understanding neural crest cell development. Mech Dev. 2004;121:841-59 pubmed
    ..These mutants will be a valuable resource for pigment cell and neural crest studies and will strongly complement the mutant collections in other vertebrates...
  40. Hayashi H, Sugimoto M, Oshima N, Fujii R. Circadian motile activity of erythrophores in the red abdominal skin of tetra fishes and its possible significance in chromatic adaptation. Pigment Cell Res. 1993;6:29-36 pubmed
  41. Klotz A, Rutberg M, Denoulet P, Wallin M. Polyglutamylation of atlantic cod tubulin: immunochemical localization and possible role in pigment granule transport. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1999;44:263-73 pubmed
    ..The binding site of the dispersing motor may bind directly to the polyglutamate chain, or more closely than dynein...
  42. Chaudhary U, Rathod V, Vankhede G. Effect of water extract of the bark of Buchanania lanzan linn. on behaviour and chromatophores of a fresh water fish, Labeo rohita. J Environ Biol. 2001;22:229-31 pubmed
    ..Ianzan. At 150 ppm to 350 ppm doses, fish scale changed from reticulate to punctate chromatophores; and treated fish when transferred to fresh water, were slowly regained to normal behaviour after 96 h ..
  43. Irion U, Singh A, Nüsslein Volhard C. The Developmental Genetics of Vertebrate Color Pattern Formation: Lessons from Zebrafish. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2016;117:141-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This pattern is produced by three different types of pigment cells (chromatophores) arranged in precise layers in the hypodermis of the fish...
  44. Pederzoli A, Trevisan P. Pigmentary system of the adult alpine salamander Salamandra atra aurorae (Trevisan, 1982). Pigment Cell Res. 1990;3:80-9 pubmed
    ..Both skin types present some pteridines and flavins, though they are qualitatively and quantitatively more abundant in yellow skin extracts...
  45. Mäthger L, Denton E. Reflective properties of iridophores and fluorescent 'eyespots' in the loliginid squid Alloteuthis subulata and Loligo vulgaris. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:2103-18 pubmed
    ..The reflective patterns seen, for example, by neighbouring squid when schooling depend on the orientation of the squid in the external light field and the position of the squid relative to these neighbours...
  46. Matsui K, Marunouchi J, Nakamura M. An ultrastructural and carotenoid analysis of the red ventrum of the Japanese newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Pigment Cell Res. 2002;15:265-72 pubmed
    ..These results, taken together, suggest that the presence of carotenoids in rcv in xanthophores is one of the critical factors for producing the red ventral coloration of the Japanese newt C. pyrrhogaster...
  47. Matsumoto J. Brightly colored pigmentation in lower vertebrates: wonder searching its mechanisms and significance in the context of phylogeny. Pigment Cell Res. 2002;15:310-9 pubmed
    ..of pteridine deposition in xanthophores or erythrophores of fish and amphibians, (b) a mosaic phenotype of chromatophores occurring in the reptiles and its implication for their developmental origin and differentiation mechanisms, (..
  48. Kimler V, Taylor J. Morphological studies on the mechanisms of pigmentary organelle transport in fish xanthophores and melanophores. Microsc Res Tech. 2002;58:470-80 pubmed
    Pigmentary organelle translocations within fish chromatophores undergo physiological color changes when exposed to external signals...
  49. Jantzen T, Havenhand J. Reproductive behavior in the squid Sepioteuthis australis from South Australia: ethogram of reproductive body patterns. Biol Bull. 2003;204:290-304 pubmed
    ..The significance of these patterning components is discussed within the context of the associated behaviors of the squid on the spawning grounds...
  50. Mäthger L, Collins T, Lima P. The role of muscarinic receptors and intracellular Ca2+ in the spectral reflectivity changes of squid iridophores. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:1759-69 pubmed
    ..It was found that the orientations of the plates with respect to the skin surface are in good agreement with the expected orientations based on the prediction that the iridophores act as multilayer reflectors...
  51. Feniouk B, Kozlova M, Knorre D, Cherepanov D, Mulkidjanian A, Junge W. The proton-driven rotor of ATP synthase: ohmic conductance (10 fS), and absence of voltage gating. Biophys J. 2004;86:4094-109 pubmed
    ..Proton conduction by F(0) was studied in chromatophores of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus...
  52. Maroti P, Wraight C. The redox midpoint potential of the primary quinone of reaction centers in chromatophores of Rhodobacter sphaeroides is pH independent. Eur Biophys J. 2008;37:1207-17 pubmed publisher
    ..redox midpoint potential (Em) of the primary quinone of bacterial reaction centers, Q(A), in native membranes (chromatophores) measured by redox potentiometry is reported to be pH dependent (-60 mV/pH) up to a highly distinctive pKa (9...
  53. Mäthger L, Hanlon R. Anatomical basis for camouflaged polarized light communication in squid. Biol Lett. 2006;2:494-6 pubmed
    ..aspect of iridescent colour in squid skin is maintained after it passes through the overlying pigmented chromatophores, which produce the highly evolved--and dynamically changeable--camouflaged patterns in cephalopods...