hek293 cells


Summary: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.

Top Publications

  1. Diaz J, Morgan C, Minogue C, Hebert A, Coon J, Wells J. A Split-Abl Kinase for Direct Activation in Cells. Cell Chem Biol. 2017;24:1250-1258.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that this split-kinase technology will be useful for direct activation of protein kinases in cells. ..
  2. Hunter M, Scourfield E, Emmott E, Graham S. VPS18 recruits VPS41 to the human HOPS complex via a RING-RING interaction. Biochem J. 2017;474:3615-3626 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the RING and disordered C-terminal domains are required for integration of VPS8 into endogenous CORVET complexes, suggesting that HOPS and CORVET recruit VPS41 and VPS8 via distinct molecular interactions. ..
  3. Liu H, Chen S, Yao X, Li Y, Chen C, Liu J, et al. Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 regulate the transcriptional programs of nephron progenitors and renal vesicles. Development. 2018;145: pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the epigenetic regulators HDAC1 and HDAC2 control nephrogenesis via interactions with the transcriptional programs of nephron progenitors and renal vesicles. ..
  4. Galan Navarro C, Rincon Restrepo M, Zimmer G, Ollmann Saphire E, Hubbell J, Hirosue S, et al. Oxidation-sensitive polymersomes as vaccine nanocarriers enhance humoral responses against Lassa virus envelope glycoprotein. Virology. 2017;512:161-171 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate the potential of our nanocarrier vaccine platform for generating virus-specific antibodies against weakly immunogenic viral antigens. ..
  5. Dufrasne F, Lucchetti M, Martin A, André E, Dessilly G, Kabamba B, et al. Modulation of the NF-?B signaling pathway by the HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein and its incomplete BST-2 antagonism. Virology. 2018;513:11-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, we demonstrate for the first time that the HIV-2 Env induces NF-?B activation in HE?293T cells. Furthermore, the anti-BST-2 activity of the HIV-2 Env is not sufficient to completely inhibit NF-?B activity. ..
  6. Colas C, Schlessinger A, Pajor A. Mapping Functionally Important Residues in the Na+/Dicarboxylate Cotransporter, NaDC1. Biochemistry. 2017;56:4432-4441 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study improve our understanding of substrate and ion recognition in the mammalian members of the SLC13 family and provide a framework for developing conformationally specific inhibitors against these transporters. ..
  7. Im K, Song J, Han Y, Lee S, Kang S, Hwang K, et al. Identification of aminosulfonylarylisoxazole as microRNA-31 regulators. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182331 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the compounds may target the processing of pre-miR-31 into mature miR-31 and thereby inhibit the production of mature miR-31. ..
  8. Zhang Y, Wu K, Su W, Zhang D, Wang P, Qiao X, et al. Increased GSNOR Expression during Aging Impairs Cognitive Function and Decreases S-Nitrosation of CaMKII?. J Neurosci. 2017;37:9741-9758 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings elucidate a novel mechanism of age-related cognitive impairment and may provide a new potential target and strategy for slowing down this process. ..
  9. Park G, Kim S, Song Y. Ester alkaloids from Cephalotaxus interfere with the 2'3'-cGAMP-induced type I interferon pathway in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182701 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the potential utility of homoharringtonine and harringtonine to treat STING-associated interferonopathy and autoimmune diseases...

More Information


  1. Han M, Van Der Krogt G, de Rooij J. Zygotic vinculin is not essential for embryonic development in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182278 pubmed publisher
    ..These results lead to the conclusion that vinculin is not of broad importance for the development and morphogenesis of zebrafish tissues. ..
  2. Verbeurgt C, Veithen A, Carlot S, Tarabichi M, Dumont J, Hassid S, et al. The human bitter taste receptor T2R38 is broadly tuned for bacterial compounds. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181302 pubmed publisher
    ..T2R38 is thus much more broadly tuned for bacterial compounds than previously thought. ..
  3. Rodriguez J, Peglion F, Martin J, Hubatsch L, Reich J, Hirani N, et al. aPKC Cycles between Functionally Distinct PAR Protein Assemblies to Drive Cell Polarity. Dev Cell. 2017;42:400-415.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cycling of aPKC between these distinct functional assemblies, which appears to depend on aPKC activity, effectively links cue-sensing and effector roles within the PAR network to ensure robust establishment of polarity. ..
  4. Liang P, Ding C, Sun H, Xie X, Xu Y, Zhang X, et al. Correction of ?-thalassemia mutant by base editor in human embryos. Protein Cell. 2017;8:811-822 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, this study demonstrated the feasibility of curing genetic disease in human somatic cells and embryos by base editor system. ..
  5. Moriya C, Taniguchi H, Nagatoishi S, Igarashi H, Tsumoto K, Imai K. PRDM14 directly interacts with heat shock proteins HSP90α and glucose-regulated protein 78. Cancer Sci. 2018;109:373-383 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that HSP90α and GRP78 interact with PRDM14 and participate in cancer regulation. ..
  6. Conley J, Radhakrishnan S, Valentino S, Tantama M. Imaging extracellular ATP with a genetically-encoded, ratiometric fluorescent sensor. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187481 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this proof-of-principle demonstrates a first-generation sensor to report extracellular ATP dynamics that may be useful for studying purinergic signaling in living specimens. ..
  7. Kehl S. A Model of the Block of Voltage-Gated Potassium Kv4.2 Ionic Currents by 4-Aminopyridine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017;363:184-195 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the open channel has a very low or no affinity for 4AP, channel opening promotes the unbinding of 4AP, which accounts for the reverse use dependence of the block. ..
  8. Ashley C, Glass M, Abendroth A, McSharry B, Slobedman B. Nuclear domain 10 components upregulated via interferon during human cytomegalovirus infection potently regulate viral infection. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1795-1805 pubmed publisher
    ..This ability of HCMV to overcome the potently anti-viral effects of IFN-? in ND10 expression deficient cells provides evidence that ND10 component upregulation is a key mediator of the anti-viral activity of IFN-?. ..
  9. Yang H, Chen Q, Sun F, Zhao N, Wen L, Li L, et al. Down-regulation of the klf5-c-Myc interaction due to klf5 phosphorylation mediates resveratrol repressing the caveolin-1 transcription through the PI3K/PKD1/Akt pathway. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0189156 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, in HEK293 cells, we observed RSV enhanced klf5 phosphorylation and separated the interaction of klf5 with c-Myc through ..
  10. Yamano T, Zetsche B, Ishitani R, Zhang F, Nishimasu H, Nureki O. Structural Basis for the Canonical and Non-canonical PAM Recognition by CRISPR-Cpf1. Mol Cell. 2017;67:633-645.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the present structures advance our mechanistic understanding of the PAM-dependent, crRNA-guided DNA cleavage by the Cpf1 family nucleases. ..
  11. Hong S, Kim S, Jin D, Kim Y, Hur D. RPS27a enhances EBV-encoded LMP1-mediated proliferation and invasion by stabilizing of LMP1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:303-309 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that RSP27a could be a potential target in EBV-infected LMP1-positive cancer cells. ..
  12. Ehe B, Lamson D, Tarpley M, Onyenwoke R, Graves L, Williams K. Identification of a DYRK1A-mediated phosphorylation site within the nuclear localization sequence of the hedgehog transcription factor GLI1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:767-772 pubmed publisher
    ..The data described herein provide the first identification of a DYRK1A-mediated site of phosphorylation on GLI1 within its NLS and may serve as a valuable mechanism for further understanding Hh signaling modulation. ..
  13. Qian J, Garcia Gimeno M, Beullens M, Manzione M, Van der Hoeven G, Igual J, et al. An Attachment-Independent Biochemical Timer of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint. Mol Cell. 2017;68:715-730.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..The BUB1-centered timer is largely impervious to conventional anti-mitotic drugs, and it is, therefore, a promising therapeutic target to induce cell death through permanent SAC activation...
  14. Zhang C, Chang C, Zhao W, Gao H, Wang Q, Li D, et al. The novel protein C9orf116 promotes rat liver cell line BRL-3A proliferation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180607 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we concluded that C9orf116 may promote cell proliferation by modulating cell cycle transition and the expression of key genes CCNA2, CCND1 and MYC in BRL-3A cells. ..
  15. Brengel C, Thomann A, Schifrin A, Allegretta G, Kamal A, Haupenthal J, et al. Biophysical Screening of a Focused Library for the Discovery of CYP121 Inhibitors as Novel Antimycobacterials. ChemMedChem. 2017;12:1616-1626 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to its low molecular weight, promising biological profile, and physicochemical properties, this compound is an excellent starting point for further rational optimization. ..
  16. Tilunaite A, Croft W, Russell N, Bellamy T, Thul R. A Bayesian approach to modelling heterogeneous calcium responses in cell populations. PLoS Comput Biol. 2017;13:e1005794 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore pave the way towards a statistical description of heterogeneous calcium oscillations in a dynamic environment...
  17. Schmidt M, Hoenen T. Characterization of the catalytic center of the Ebola virus L polymerase. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005996 pubmed publisher
  18. Froning K, Leaver Fay A, Wu X, Phan S, Gao L, Huang F, et al. Computational design of a specific heavy chain/? light chain interface for expressing fully IgG bispecific antibodies. Protein Sci. 2017;26:2021-2038 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate the importance of specificity engineering in both the variable and constant domains to achieve robust HC/LC specificity within all the BsAbs. These solutions facilitate the production of fully IgG BsAbs for clinical use. ..
  19. Bu Q, Li Z, Zhang J, Xu F, Liu J, Liu H. The crystal structure of full-length Sizzled from Xenopus laevis yields insights into Wnt-antagonistic function of secreted Frizzled-related proteins. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:16055-16069 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the Sizzled structure provides the first insights into how the CRD and the NTR domains relate to each other for modulating Wnt-antagonistic function of sFRPs. ..
  20. Chen J, Cui L, Yuan J, Zhang Y, Sang H. Circular RNA WDR77 target FGF-2 to regulate vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration by sponging miR-124. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;494:126-132 pubmed publisher
  21. Nakamuta S, Yang Y, Wang C, Gallo N, Yu J, Tai Y, et al. Dual role for DOCK7 in tangential migration of interneuron precursors in the postnatal forebrain. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:4313-4330 pubmed publisher
    ..The coordinated action of both pathways is required to ensure efficient neuroblast migration along the RMS. ..
  22. Cerniello F, Carretero O, Longo Carbajosa N, Cerrato B, Santos R, Grecco H, et al. MAS1 Receptor Trafficking Involves ERK1/2 Activation Through a β-Arrestin2-Dependent Pathway. Hypertension. 2017;70:982-989 pubmed publisher
    ..MAS1R induced Akt and ERK1/2 activation from early endosomes, and the activation of ERK1/2 was mediated by β-arrestin2. Thus, MAS1R activity and density may be tightly controlled by the cell. ..
  23. Porter J, Fisher B, Baranello L, Liu J, Kambach D, Nie Z, et al. Global Inhibition with Specific Activation: How p53 and MYC Redistribute the Transcriptome in the DNA Double-Strand Break Response. Mol Cell. 2017;67:1013-1025.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that global inhibition with specific activation of transcriptional pathways is important for the proper response to DNA damage; this mechanism may be a general principle used in many stress responses. ..
  24. Chang C, Zhao W, Luo Y, Xi L, Chen S, Zhao C, et al. Serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type I (SPINK1) promotes BRL-3A cell proliferation via p38, ERK, and JNK pathways. Cell Biochem Funct. 2017;35:339-348 pubmed publisher
    ..This work has direct implications on the underlying mechanism of SPINK1 in regulating hepatocytes proliferation in vivo and liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. ..
  25. Kranick J, Chadalavada D, Sahu D, Showalter S. Engineering double-stranded RNA binding activity into the Drosha double-stranded RNA binding domain results in a loss of microRNA processing function. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182445 pubmed publisher
  26. Menon M, Gropengießer J, Fischer J, Novikova L, Deuretzbacher A, Lafera J, et al. p38MAPK/MK2-dependent phosphorylation controls cytotoxic RIPK1 signalling in inflammation and infection. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:1248-1259 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, MK2 phosphorylation of RIPK1 is a crucial checkpoint for cell fate in inflammation and infection that determines the outcome of bacteria-host cell interaction. ..
  27. Harwig A, Kruize Z, Yang Z, Restle T, Berkhout B. Analysis of AgoshRNA maturation and loading into Ago2. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183269 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the presence of a cellular co-factor involved in AgoshRNA loading into Ago2 in vivo. We also demonstrate specific AgoshRNA loading in Ago2, but not Ago1/3/4, thus further reducing unwanted side effects. ..
  28. Razooky B, Cao Y, Hansen M, Perelson A, Simpson M, Weinberger L. Nonlatching positive feedback enables robust bimodality by decoupling expression noise from the mean. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2000841 pubmed publisher
    ..More broadly, the results suggest that positive-feedback circuits may have evolved not only for signal amplification but also for robustly generating bimodality by decoupling expression fluctuations (noise) from mean expression levels. ..
  29. Lin K, Moroishi T, Meng Z, Jeong H, Plouffe S, Sekido Y, et al. Regulation of Hippo pathway transcription factor TEAD by p38 MAPK-induced cytoplasmic translocation. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:996-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a mechanism governing TEAD nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and show that TEAD localization is a critical determinant of Hippo signalling output. ..
  30. McCurley N, Domi A, Basu R, Saunders K, LaBranche C, Montefiori D, et al. HIV transmitted/founder vaccines elicit autologous tier 2 neutralizing antibodies for the CD4 binding site. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177863 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, pulsed exposures to DNA and MVA-expressed VLPs plus gp120 protein of a T/F Env can induce autologous tier 2 nAbs to the CD4bs...
  31. Petersen J, Wright S, Rodriguez D, Matricon P, Lahav N, Vromen A, et al. Agonist-induced dimer dissociation as a macromolecular step in G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Nat Commun. 2017;8:226 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the authors use live cell imaging and spectroscopy to show that FZD6 forms dimers, whose association is regulated by WNT proteins and that dimer dissociation is crucial for FZD6 signaling. ..
  32. Qi L, Song Y, Chan T, Yang H, Lin C, Tay D, et al. An RNA editing/dsRNA binding-independent gene regulatory mechanism of ADARs and its clinical implication in cancer. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:10436-10451 pubmed publisher
    ..This non-editing side of ADARs opens another door to target cancer...
  33. Li W, Li W, Laishram R, Hoque M, Ji Z, Tian B, et al. Distinct regulation of alternative polyadenylation and gene expression by nuclear poly(A) polymerases. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:8930-8942 pubmed publisher
    ..The Star-PAP-mediated APA of PTEN is essential for DNA damage-induced increase of PTEN protein levels. Together, our results reveal a PAS-guided and PAP-mediated paradigm for gene expression in response to cellular signaling cues. ..
  34. Navarro Negredo P, Edgar J, Manna P, Antrobus R, Robinson M. The WDR11 complex facilitates the tethering of AP-1-derived vesicles. Nat Commun. 2018;9:596 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the complex acts together with TBC1D23 to facilitate the golgin-mediated capture of vesicles that were generated using AP-1. ..
  35. Su S, Yang D, Wu Y, Xie Y, Zhu W, Cai Z, et al. EphrinB2 Regulates Cardiac Fibrosis Through Modulating the Interaction of Stat3 and TGF-?/Smad3 Signaling. Circ Res. 2017;121:617-627 pubmed publisher
  36. Ke H, Matsumoto S, Murashima Y, Taniguchi Tamura H, Miyamoto R, Yoshikawa Y, et al. Structural basis for intramolecular interaction of post-translationally modified H-Ras•GTP prepared by protein ligation. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:2470-2481 pubmed publisher
  37. Roy D, Farabaugh K, Wu J, Charrier A, SMAS C, Hatzoglou M, et al. Coordinated transcriptional control of adipocyte triglyceride lipase (Atgl) by transcription factors Sp1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) during adipocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:14827-14835 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting the PPAR?-Sp1 interaction could be a potential therapeutic strategy to restore insulin sensitivity by modulating Atgl levels in adipocytes. ..
  38. Hsieh M, Chen Y, Chen Y, Lee Y, Lu J, Chien C, et al. PARP1 controls KLF4-mediated telomerase expression in stem cells and cancer cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:10492-10503 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PARP1 recruits KLF4 to activate telomerase expression and stem cell pluripotency, indicating a positive regulatory role of the PARP1-KLF4 complex in telomerase expression in cancer and stem cells. ..
  39. Stenzel K, Chua M, Duffy S, Antonova Koch Y, Meister S, Hamacher A, et al. Design and Synthesis of Terephthalic Acid-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Dual-Stage Anti-Plasmodium Activity. ChemMedChem. 2017;12:1627-1636 pubmed publisher
  40. Ye W, Hu M, Lei C, Zhou Q, Lin H, Sun M, et al. TRIM8 Negatively Regulates TLR3/4-Mediated Innate Immune Response by Blocking TRIF-TBK1 Interaction. J Immunol. 2017;199:1856-1864 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings uncover an additional mechanism on the termination of TLR3/4-mediated inflammatory and innate immune responses. ..
  41. Navarro Negredo P, Edgar J, Wrobel A, Zaccai N, Antrobus R, Owen D, et al. Contribution of the clathrin adaptor AP-1 subunit µ1 to acidic cluster protein sorting. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:2927-2943 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, these mutants failed to rescue Nef-induced down-regulation of MHC class I, suggesting a possible mechanism for attacking the virus while sparing the host cell. ..
  42. Kawashima A, Karasawa T, Tago K, Kimura H, Kamata R, Usui Kawanishi F, et al. ARIH2 Ubiquitinates NLRP3 and Negatively Regulates NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Macrophages. J Immunol. 2017;199:3614-3622 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of ubiquitination-dependent negative regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by ARIH2 and highlight ARIH2 as a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases. ..
  43. Kobayashi T, Miyashita T, Murayama T, Toyoshima Y. Dynactin has two antagonistic regulatory domains and exerts opposing effects on dynein motility. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183672 pubmed publisher
    ..In DCTN1A, the K-rich domain antagonized these inhibitory effects. Therefore, dynactin has two antagonistic domains and promotes or suppresses dynein motility to accomplish correct localization and functions of dynein within a cell. ..
  44. Ott C, Baljinnyam B, Zakharov A, Jadhav A, Simeonov A, Zhuang Z. Cell Lysate-Based AlphaLISA Deubiquitinase Assay Platform for Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors. ACS Chem Biol. 2017;12:2399-2407 pubmed publisher
    ..We expect that the new platform can be readily adapted to other DUBs to allow the identification of more potent and selective small molecule inhibitors and chemical probes...
  45. Feng H, Sjögren B, Karaj B, Shaw V, Gezer A, Neubig R. Movement disorder in GNAO1 encephalopathy associated with gain-of-function mutations. Neurology. 2017;89:762-770 pubmed publisher
    ..There appears to be a strong predictive correlation between the in vitro biochemical phenotype and the clinical pattern of epilepsy vs movement disorder. ..
  46. Long M, Lin H, Parvez S, Zhao Y, Poganik J, Huang P, et al. β-TrCP1 Is a Vacillatory Regulator of Wnt Signaling. Cell Chem Biol. 2017;24:944-957.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..Because AR is a negative regulator of Wnt regardless of β-catenin N terminus, this switch of function is likely sufficient to establish a new Wnt/AR equilibrium during tumorigenesis. ..
  47. Kim A, Ahn K, Kim H, Seo H, Kum K, Yun C, et al. Streptococcus gordonii lipoproteins induce IL-8 in human periodontal ligament cells. Mol Immunol. 2017;91:218-224 pubmed publisher
    ..gordonii for the induction of IL-8 production in human PDL cells through TLR2 activation. Therefore, lipoproteins potentially contribute to inflammatory apical periodontitis...
  48. Nalli M, Ortar G, Schiano Moriello A, Di Marzo V, De Petrocellis L. Effects of curcumin and curcumin analogues on TRP channels. Fitoterapia. 2017;122:126-131 pubmed publisher
    ..Only few curcuminoids were able to modulate TRPV1 channels with EC50 and IC50 values ranging from 3.4 and 6.0?M. ..
  49. Song S, You A, Chen Z, Zhu G, Wen H, Song H, et al. Study on the design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of new thiosemicarbazone compounds as tyrosinase inhibitors. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;139:815-825 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggested that such compounds could serve as the highly efficient and more safe candidates for the treatment of tyrosinase-related disorders. ..
  50. Wang W, Perens E, Oikonomou G, Wallace S, Lu Y, Shaham S. IGDB-2, an Ig/FNIII protein, binds the ion channel LGC-34 and controls sensory compartment morphogenesis in C. elegans. Dev Biol. 2017;430:105-112 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a novel membrane protein complex and suggest possible mechanisms for how sensory compartment size is controlled. ..
  51. Nogales A, Chauché C, DeDiego M, Topham D, Parrish C, Murcia P, et al. The K186E Amino Acid Substitution in the Canine Influenza Virus H3N8 NS1 Protein Restores Its Ability To Inhibit Host Gene Expression. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the ability to block host gene expression is not required for influenza virus replication in mammals but might be important in the long-term adaptation of avian-origin influenza viruses to mammals. ..
  52. Yu Z, Song H, Jia M, Zhang J, Wang W, Li Q, et al. USP1-UAF1 deubiquitinase complex stabilizes TBK1 and enhances antiviral responses. J Exp Med. 2017;214:3553-3563 pubmed publisher
    ..i> Therefore, our results outline a novel mechanism for the control of TBK1 activity and suggest USP1-UAF1 complex as a potential target for the prevention of viral diseases. ..
  53. Guan B, van Hoef V, Jobava R, Elroy Stein O, Valasek L, Cargnello M, et al. A Unique ISR Program Determines Cellular Responses to Chronic Stress. Mol Cell. 2017;68:885-900.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Coordination of transcriptional and translational reprogramming prevents ER dysfunction and inhibits "foamy cell" development, thus establishing a molecular basis for understanding human diseases associated with ER dysfunction. ..