osteocytes

Summary

Summary: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.

Top Publications

  1. Canalis E, Adams D, Boskey A, Parker K, Kranz L, Zanotti S. Notch signaling in osteocytes differentially regulates cancellous and cortical bone remodeling. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:25614-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Notch activation in osteocytes increases bone mass, but the mechanisms involved and exact functions of Notch are not known...
  2. Saini V, Marengi D, Barry K, Fulzele K, Heiden E, Liu X, et al. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide type 1 receptor (PPR) signaling in osteocytes regulates anabolic and catabolic skeletal responses to PTH. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:20122-34 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Osteocytes, the most abundant cells in adult bone, also express PPR...
  3. Onal M, Piemontese M, Xiong J, Wang Y, Han L, Ye S, et al. Suppression of autophagy in osteocytes mimics skeletal aging. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:17432-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that deletion of a conditional allele for Atg7, a gene essential for autophagy, from osteocytes caused low bone mass in 6-month-old male and female mice...
  4. Loiselle A, Jiang J, Donahue H. Gap junction and hemichannel functions in osteocytes. Bone. 2013;54:205-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This cell-to-cell communication occurs between bone cells including osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes, and is important in both bone formation and bone resorption...
  5. Li L, Yang Z, Zhang H, Chen W, Chen M, Zhu Z. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts through osteocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;418:296-300 pubmed publisher
    ..As the most abundant cells in bone, osteocytes orchestrate biological activities of effector cells via direct cell-to-cell contacts and by soluble factors...
  6. Bakker A, Zandieh Doulabi B, Klein Nulend J. Strontium ranelate affects signaling from mechanically-stimulated osteocytes towards osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Bone. 2013;53:112-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Any factor that alters the release of paracrine signals by osteocytes in response to mechanical stimuli potentially affects bone mass and structure, and thus fracture resistance...
  7. Bivi N, Nelson M, Faillace M, Li J, Miller L, Plotkin L. Deletion of Cx43 from osteocytes results in defective bone material properties but does not decrease extrinsic strength in cortical bone. Calcif Tissue Int. 2012;91:215-24 pubmed publisher
    Deletion of connexin (Cx) 43 from osteoblasts and osteocytes (OCN-Cre;Cx43(fl/-) mice) or from osteocytes only (DMP1-8kb-Cre;Cx43(fl/fl) mice) results in increased cortical, but not cancellous, osteocyte apoptosis and widening of the ..
  8. Schmidt E, Nilsson O, Koskela A, Tuukkanen J, Ohlsson C, Rozell B, et al. Expression of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria mutation during osteoblast development results in loss of osteocytes, irregular mineralization, and poor biomechanical properties. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:33512-22 pubmed
    ..Histopathological examination revealed an irregular bone structure, characterized by widespread loss of osteocytes, defects in mineralization, and a hypocellular red bone marrow...
  9. Sheng M, Zhou X, Bonewald L, Baylink D, Lau K. Disruption of the insulin-like growth factor-1 gene in osteocytes impairs developmental bone growth in mice. Bone. 2013;52:133-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Conditional disruption of Igf1 in osteocytes did not alter plasma levels of IGF-1, calcium, or phosphorus...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Loiselle A, Paul E, Lewis G, Donahue H. Osteoblast and osteocyte-specific loss of Connexin43 results in delayed bone formation and healing during murine fracture healing. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:147-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, loss of Cx43 in mature osteoblasts and osteocytes results in a significant decrease in torsional rigidity between 21 and 35 days post-fracture, compared to WT ..
  2. Lieben L, Carmeliet G. Vitamin D signaling in osteocytes: effects on bone and mineral homeostasis. Bone. 2013;54:237-43 pubmed publisher
    ..lack of intestinal VDR activity), 1,25(OH)2D levels will increase and will directly act on osteoblasts and osteocytes to enhance bone resorption and to suppress bone matrix mineralization...
  3. Wang B, Zhou X, Price C, Li W, Pan J, Wang L. Quantifying load-induced solute transport and solute-matrix interaction within the osteocyte lacunar-canalicular system. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:1075-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Osteocytes, the most abundant cells in bone, are essential in maintaining tissue homeostasis and orchestrating bone's mechanical adaptation...
  4. Moutsatsou P, Kassi E, Papavassiliou A. Glucocorticoid receptor signaling in bone cells. Trends Mol Med. 2012;18:348-59 pubmed publisher
    ..genes and proteins engaged in the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of bone cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts)...
  5. Russell P, Clarke M, Skinner J, Pang T, Zajac J, Davey R. Identification of gene pathways altered by deletion of the androgen receptor specifically in mineralizing osteoblasts and osteocytes in mice. J Mol Endocrinol. 2012;49:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the mechanisms by which androgens exert their effects via the AR in mineralizing osteoblasts and osteocytes, we identified gene targets/pathways regulated by the AR using targeted gene expression and microarray ..
  6. Kwon R, Meays D, Meilan A, Jones J, Miramontes R, Kardos N, et al. Skeletal adaptation to intramedullary pressure-induced interstitial fluid flow is enhanced in mice subjected to targeted osteocyte ablation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33336 pubmed publisher
    ..This gives rise to the intriguing possibility that loading-induced IFF may differentially activate osteocytes or surface-residing cells depending on the generating mechanism, and that sensation of IFF generated via ..
  7. Brabnikova Maresova K, Pavelka K, Stepan J. Acute effects of glucocorticoids on serum markers of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. Calcif Tissue Int. 2013;92:354-61 pubmed publisher
    ..in doses used in clinical practice on biochemical indices of the function of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. In 17 adult patients suffering from various medical pathologies requiring systemic steroid therapy that were ..
  8. Giuliani N, Ferretti M, Bolzoni M, Storti P, Lazzaretti M, Dalla Palma B, et al. Increased osteocyte death in multiple myeloma patients: role in myeloma-induced osteoclast formation. Leukemia. 2012;26:1391-401 pubmed publisher
    The involvement of osteocytes in multiple myeloma (MM)-induced osteoclast (OCL) formation and bone lesions is still unknown...
  9. Calvi L, Bromberg O, Rhee Y, Weber J, Smith J, Basil M, et al. Osteoblastic expansion induced by parathyroid hormone receptor signaling in murine osteocytes is not sufficient to increase hematopoietic stem cells. Blood. 2012;119:2489-99 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Osteocytes are terminally differentiated osteoblasts embedded in mineralized bone matrix but are connected with the BM...
  10. Baik A, Qiu J, Hillman E, Dong C, Guo X. Simultaneous tracking of 3D actin and microtubule strains in individual MLO-Y4 osteocytes under oscillatory flow. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;431:718-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Osteocytes in vivo experience complex fluid shear flow patterns to activate mechanotransduction pathways...
  11. Zhao L, Shim J, Dodge T, Robling A, Yokota H. Inactivation of Lrp5 in osteocytes reduces young's modulus and responsiveness to the mechanical loading. Bone. 2013;54:35-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Since osteocytes are proposed to act as a mechanosensor in the bone, we addressed a question whether a conditional loss-of-..
  12. Kim J, Lee S, Jo K, Song D, Lim D, Park K, et al. Exendin-4 increases bone mineral density in type 2 diabetic OLETF rats potentially through the down-regulation of SOST/sclerostin in osteocytes. Life Sci. 2013;92:533-40 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Osteocytes are now considered central to bone homeostasis...
  13. Jami A, Gadi J, Lee M, Kim E, Lee M, Jung H, et al. Pax6 expressed in osteocytes inhibits canonical Wnt signaling. Mol Cells. 2013;35:305-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Pax6 is expressed in bone and may play an important role in osteocyte differentiation by controlling canonical Wnt signaling...
  14. Kogawa M, Wijenayaka A, Ormsby R, Thomas G, Anderson P, Bonewald L, et al. Sclerostin regulates release of bone mineral by osteocytes by induction of carbonic anhydrase 2. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:2436-48 pubmed publisher
    ..NF-?B ligand (RANKL) is important in osteoclastic bone resorption, and we reported that exogenous treatment of osteocytes with sclerostin can increase RANKL-mediated osteoclast activity...
  15. Ren J, Wang X, Wang G, Wu J. 17? estradiol regulation of connexin 43-based gap junction and mechanosensitivity through classical estrogen receptor pathway in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. Bone. 2013;53:587-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the presence of E2 enhanced Cx43-based GJIC mainly via ER?/? pathway, and sensitized osteocytes to mechanical loading.
  16. Webster D, Schneider P, Dallas S, Muller R. Studying osteocytes within their environment. Bone. 2013;54:285-95 pubmed publisher
    It is widely hypothesized that osteocytes are the mechano-sensors residing in the bone's mineralized matrix which control load induced bone adaptation...
  17. Wasserman E, Webster D, Kuhn G, Attar Namdar M, Muller R, Bab I. Differential load-regulated global gene expression in mouse trabecular osteocytes. Bone. 2013;53:14-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Osteocytes are considered the skeletal mechanosensors...
  18. Wysolmerski J. Osteocytes remove and replace perilacunar mineral during reproductive cycles. Bone. 2013;54:230-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the 1960s and 1970s many observations were made to suggest that osteocytes could resorb bone and increase the size of their lacunae...
  19. Bivi N, Pacheco Costa R, Brun L, Murphy T, Farlow N, Robling A, et al. Absence of Cx43 selectively from osteocytes enhances responsiveness to mechanical force in mice. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:1075-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Within this network, connexin43 (Cx43) is thought to mediate the communication of osteocytes and osteoblasts among themselves and the exchange of small molecules with the extracellular milieu...
  20. Nociti F, Foster B, Tran A, Dunn D, Presland R, Wang L, et al. Vitamin D represses dentin matrix protein 1 in cementoblasts and osteocytes. J Dent Res. 2014;93:148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that 1,25D regulates DMP-1 expression through a VDR-dependent mechanism, possibly contributing to local changes in bone/tooth mineral homeostasis. ..
  21. Sharma D, Ciani C, Marin P, Levy J, Doty S, Fritton S. Alterations in the osteocyte lacunar-canalicular microenvironment due to estrogen deficiency. Bone. 2012;51:488-97 pubmed publisher
    ..little analysis of the effects of diminished estrogen levels on the lacunar-canalicular porosity that houses the osteocytes. Alterations in the osteocyte lacunar-canalicular microenvironment may affect the osteocyte's ability to sense ..
  22. Cadena E, Schweitzer M. Variation in osteocytes morphology vs bone type in turtle shell and their exceptional preservation from the Jurassic to the present. Bone. 2012;51:614-20 pubmed publisher
    Here we describe variations in osteocytes derived from each of the three bone layers that comprise the turtle shell...
  23. Sinnesael M, Claessens F, Laurent M, Dubois V, Boonen S, Deboel L, et al. Androgen receptor (AR) in osteocytes is important for the maintenance of male skeletal integrity: evidence from targeted AR disruption in mouse osteocytes. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:2535-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Although osteocytes have emerged as key regulators of bone remodeling, the influence of sex steroids on these cells has been poorly ..
  24. Tavella S, Ruggiu A, Giuliani A, Brun F, Canciani B, Manescu A, et al. Bone turnover in wild type and pleiotrophin-transgenic mice housed for three months in the International Space Station (ISS). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33179 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, osteocytes of the Wt mice, but not of Tg mice, acquired a round shape, thus showing for the first time osteocyte space-..
  25. Matsumoto T, Iimura T, Ogura K, Moriyama K, Yamaguchi A. The role of osteocytes in bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. J Dent Res. 2013;92:340-5 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the roles of osteocytes in osteoclastic bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement using the transgenic mice in which osteocytes can be specifically ablated...
  26. Stern A, Stern M, Van Dyke M, Jahn K, Prideaux M, Bonewald L. Isolation and culture of primary osteocytes from the long bones of skeletally mature and aged mice. Biotechniques. 2012;52:361-73 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this work was to establish a methodology to enable the isolation and study of osteocytes from skeletally mature young (4-month-old) and old (22-month-old) mice...
  27. Klein Nulend J, Bakker A, Bacabac R, Vatsa A, Weinbaum S. Mechanosensation and transduction in osteocytes. Bone. 2013;54:182-90 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Osteocytes, since they are ubiquitous in the mineralized matrix, are the cells that sense mechanical loads and transduce ..
  28. Lloyd S, Loiselle A, Zhang Y, Donahue H. Connexin 43 deficiency desensitizes bone to the effects of mechanical unloading through modulation of both arms of bone remodeling. Bone. 2013;57:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The proportion of sclerostin-positive osteocytes was significantly lower in cKO-Control vs. WT-Control (-72%, p<0...
  29. Fulzele K, Krause D, Panaroni C, Saini V, Barry K, Liu X, et al. Myelopoiesis is regulated by osteocytes through Gs?-dependent signaling. Blood. 2013;121:930-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Osteocytes, the most abundant yet least understood cells in bone, are thought to initiate adaptive bone remodeling ..
  30. Cardoso L, Fritton S, Gailani G, Benalla M, Cowin S. Advances in assessment of bone porosity, permeability and interstitial fluid flow. J Biomech. 2013;46:253-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The movement of interstitial fluid is also necessary for the nutrition of osteocytes. This review will focus on four topics related to improved assessment of bone interstitial fluid flow...
  31. Kennedy O, Herman B, Laudier D, Majeska R, Sun H, Schaffler M. Activation of resorption in fatigue-loaded bone involves both apoptosis and active pro-osteoclastogenic signaling by distinct osteocyte populations. Bone. 2012;50:1115-22 pubmed publisher
    ..bone resorption following fatigue-induced microdamage in vivo; however, it is unclear whether apoptotic osteocytes also produce the signals that induce osteoclast differentiation...
  32. Batra N, Burra S, Siller Jackson A, Gu S, Xia X, Weber G, et al. Mechanical stress-activated integrin ?5?1 induces opening of connexin 43 hemichannels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3359-64 pubmed publisher
    The connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannel (HC) in the mechanosensory osteocytes is a major portal for the release of factors responsible for the anabolic effects of mechanical loading on bone formation and remodeling...
  33. Qing H, Ardeshirpour L, Pajevic P, Dusevich V, Jahn K, Kato S, et al. Demonstration of osteocytic perilacunar/canalicular remodeling in mice during lactation. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:1018-29 pubmed publisher
    Osteoclasts are thought to be solely responsible for the removal of bone matrix. However, we show here that osteocytes can also remove bone matrix by reversibly remodeling their perilacunar/canalicular matrix during the reproductive cycle...
  34. Honma M, Ikebuchi Y, Kariya Y, Hayashi M, Hayashi N, Aoki S, et al. RANKL subcellular trafficking and regulatory mechanisms in osteocytes. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:1936-49 pubmed publisher
    ..However, recent reports showed that osteocytes are a major source of RANKL presentation to osteoclast precursors, prompting a need to reinvestigate RANKL ..
  35. Burgers T, Williams B. Regulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling within and from osteocytes. Bone. 2013;54:244-9 pubmed publisher
    Bone has long been known to be responsive to mechanical loading. For at least 25 years it has been known that osteocytes sense mechanical load, and because of their response to mechanical loading, osteocytes are believed to be the ..
  36. Windahl S, Börjesson A, Farman H, Engdahl C, Moverare Skrtic S, Sjögren K, et al. Estrogen receptor-? in osteocytes is important for trabecular bone formation in male mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2294-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that ER? in osteocytes is important for trabecular bone in male mice and for cortical bone in both males and females...
  37. Tang S, Herber R, Ho S, Alliston T. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 is required for osteocytic perilacunar remodeling and maintains bone fracture resistance. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:1936-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The roles of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes in the regulation of bone mass are increasingly well defined...
  38. Schweitzer M, Zheng W, Cleland T, Bern M. Molecular analyses of dinosaur osteocytes support the presence of endogenous molecules. Bone. 2013;52:414-23 pubmed publisher
    The discovery of soft, transparent microstructures in dinosaur bone consistent in morphology with osteocytes was controversial...
  39. Moriishi T, Fukuyama R, Ito M, Miyazaki T, Maeno T, Kawai Y, et al. Osteocyte network; a negative regulatory system for bone mass augmented by the induction of Rankl in osteoblasts and Sost in osteocytes at unloading. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40143 pubmed publisher
    ..throughout bone, is thought to be a mechanosensor and mechanotransduction system; however, the functions of osteocytes are still controversial and remain to be clarified...
  40. Marcellini S, Henriquez J, Bertin A. Control of osteogenesis by the canonical Wnt and BMP pathways in vivo: cooperation and antagonism between the canonical Wnt and BMP pathways as cells differentiate from osteochondroprogenitors to osteoblasts and osteocytes. Bioessays. 2012;34:953-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, both pathways promote osteoblast differentiation, albeit with notable mechanistic differences. In osteocytes, the ultimate stage of osteogenic differentiation, the Wnt and BMP pathways exert opposite effects on the ..
  41. Rhee Y, Lee E, Lezcano V, Ronda A, Condon K, Allen M, et al. Resorption controls bone anabolism driven by parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor signaling in osteocytes. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:29809-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We addressed this question using transgenic mice with activated PTH receptor signaling in osteocytes that exhibit increased bone mass and remodeling, recognized skeletal effects of PTH elevation...
  42. Graham J, Ayati B, Holstein S, Martin J. The role of osteocytes in targeted bone remodeling: a mathematical model. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63884 pubmed publisher
    ..on the behavior of mature osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and their respective precursor cells, with the role of osteocytes and bone lining cells left largely unexplored...
  43. Kalogeropoulos M, Varanasi S, Olstad O, Sanderson P, Gautvik V, Reppe S, et al. Zic1 transcription factor in bone: neural developmental protein regulates mechanotransduction in osteocytes. FASEB J. 2010;24:2893-903 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of Zic1, Gli1, and Gli3 and other related key signaling mediators in osteoblastic cells and osteocytes in vitro...
  44. Yu V, Akhouayri O, St Arnaud R. FIAT is co-expressed with its dimerization target ATF4 in early osteoblasts, but not in osteocytes. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In adult bone, FIAT was detected in osteocytes, while ATF4 expression was observed in active osteoblasts and lining cells, but not in osteocytes...
  45. Plotkin L, Bivi N, Bellido T. A bisphosphonate that does not affect osteoclasts prevents osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis and the loss of bone strength induced by glucocorticoids in mice. Bone. 2011;49:122-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a bisphosphonate that does not affect osteoclasts prevents osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis and the loss of bone strength induced by glucocorticoids in mice...
  46. Moustafa A, Sugiyama T, Prasad J, Zaman G, Gross T, Lanyon L, et al. Mechanical loading-related changes in osteocyte sclerostin expression in mice are more closely associated with the subsequent osteogenic response than the peak strains engendered. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23:1225-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Osteocyte sclerostin is regulated by loading and disuse in mouse tibiae but is more closely related to subsequent local osteogenesis than the peak strains engendered...
  47. Rhee Y, Bivi N, Farrow E, Lezcano V, Plotkin L, White K, et al. Parathyroid hormone receptor signaling in osteocytes increases the expression of fibroblast growth factor-23 in vitro and in vivo. Bone. 2011;49:636-43 pubmed publisher
    Mice with constitutive activation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor signaling in osteocytes (DMP1-caPTHR1 transgenic mice) exhibit increased bone mass and remodeling, two of the recognized skeletal actions of PTH...
  48. Cheung W, Simmons C, You L. Osteocyte apoptosis regulates osteoclast precursor adhesion via osteocytic IL-6 secretion and endothelial ICAM-1 expression. Bone. 2012;50:104-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that conditioned media from TNF-?-induced apoptotic MLO-Y4 osteocytes promoted RAW264.7 osteoclast precursor adhesion onto D4T endothelial cells (P<0.05)...
  49. Qing H, Bonewald L. Osteocyte remodeling of the perilacunar and pericanalicular matrix. Int J Oral Sci. 2009;1:59-65 pubmed publisher
    With additional functions of osteocytes being identified, the concept that osteocytes are just "static lacunar-dwelling cells" is no longer accepted...
  50. Sugawara Y, Ando R, Kamioka H, Ishihara Y, Honjo T, Kawanabe N, et al. The three-dimensional morphometry and cell-cell communication of the osteocyte network in chick and mouse embryonic calvaria. Calcif Tissue Int. 2011;88:416-24 pubmed publisher
    The study of osteocytes has progressed in chicks. We examined whether chick osteocyte data can be applied to other species...
  51. Rath A, Bonewald L, Ling J, Jiang J, Van Dyke M, Nicolella D. Correlation of cell strain in single osteocytes with intracellular calcium, but not intracellular nitric oxide, in response to fluid flow. J Biomech. 2010;43:1560-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Osteocytes compose 90-95% of all bone cells and are the mechanosensors of bone...
  52. Jager A, Gotz W, Lossdörfer S, Rath Deschner B. Localization of SOST/sclerostin in cementocytes in vivo and in mineralizing periodontal ligament cells in vitro. J Periodontal Res. 2010;45:246-54 pubmed publisher
    Cementum and bone are rather similar hard tissues, and osteocytes and cementocytes, together with their canalicular network, share many morphological and cell biological characteristics...
  53. Thompson W, Majid A, Czymmek K, Ruff A, Garcia J, Duncan R, et al. Association of the ?(2)?(1) subunit with Ca(v)3.2 enhances membrane expression and regulates mechanically induced ATP release in MLO-Y4 osteocytes. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:2125-39 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Osteocytes, in contrast, express T-type VSCCs and a relatively small amount of L-type ?(1) subunits...