viral inclusion bodies

Summary

Summary: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.

Top Publications

  1. Jackson A, Ye H, Ridaura Sanz C, Lopez Corella E. Quantitative study of the infection in brain neurons in human rabies. J Med Virol. 2001;65:614-8 pubmed
    ..Formation of Negri bodies is likely influenced by factors that vary in different neuronal cell types...
  2. Parker J, Broering T, Kim J, Higgins D, Nibert M. Reovirus core protein mu2 determines the filamentous morphology of viral inclusion bodies by interacting with and stabilizing microtubules. J Virol. 2002;76:4483-96 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the mu2 protein of most reovirus strains is a viral MAP and that it plays a key role in the formation and structural organization of reovirus inclusion bodies...
  3. Shin T, Weinstock D, Castro M, Hamir A, Wampler T, Walter M, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase within neurons of cattle with rabies. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:539-41 pubmed
    ..The specific localization of eNOS, but not iNOS, in the Negri bodies suggests that eNOS is involved in the formation of rabies virus inclusion bodies...
  4. Carlos T, Fearns R, Randall R. Interferon-induced alterations in the pattern of parainfluenza virus 5 transcription and protein synthesis and the induction of virus inclusion bodies. J Virol. 2005;79:14112-21 pubmed
  5. Wileman T. Aggresomes and pericentriolar sites of virus assembly: cellular defense or viral design?. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2007;61:149-67 pubmed
    ..Insights into the possible roles played by aggresomes during virus assembly are emerging from an understanding of how virus inclusions form and how viral proteins are targeted to them...
  6. Desmidt M, Ducatelle R, Uyttebroek E, Charlier G, Hoorens J. Respiratory adenovirus-like infection in a rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Avian Dis. 1991;35:1001-6 pubmed
    ..Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous particles of adenovirus morphology. A latent adenovirus infection may have become more severe following chlamydiosis and the stress of handling...
  7. Kosta A, Thomopoulos G. Intranuclear virus-like particles of a Drosophila hybrid. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 2002;34:177-86 pubmed
    ..mauritiana. There is the intriguing possibility that these VLPs are related to transposable elements and probably contribute to the speciation process, in an unknown, so far, manner. ..
  8. Verchot J, Driskel B, Zhu Y, Hunger R, Littlefield L. Evidence that soilborne wheat mosaic virus moves long distance through the xylem in wheat. Protoplasma. 2001;218:57-66 pubmed
    ..SBWMV may enter primary xylem elements before cell death occurs and then move upward in the plant after the xylem has matured into hollow vessels. There is also evidence for lateral movement between adjacent xylem vessels. ..
  9. Tsuruta Y, Yamada T, Yoshimura T, Satake M, Ogata K, Yamamoto T, et al. Inclusion body myositis associated with hepatitis C virus infection. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 2001;92:370-6 pubmed
    ..Immunoreactivity for an anti-HCV antibody was not apparent in the muscle specimen from an IBM patient without HCV infection. Our findings suggest that HCV infection is related to the pathogenesis in some cases of IBM...

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Westall G, Michaelides A, Williams T, Snell G, Kotsimbos T. Human cytomegalovirus load in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a longitudinal study of lung transplant recipients. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:1076-83 pubmed
    ..Quantification of HCMV in the lung allograft correlates with histological detection and, in addition, offers the potential to monitor subclinical viral replication in the lung allograft. ..
  2. Shivaprasad H, Hill D, Todd D, Smyth J. Circovirus infection in a Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae). Avian Pathol. 2004;33:525-9 pubmed
    ..The Gouldian finch was also affected by concurrent bacterial and adenovirus infections. This is the first report of circovirus infection in a Gouldian finch. ..
  3. McKelvey T, Andrews S, Miller S, Ray C, Pickup D. Identification of the orthopoxvirus p4c gene, which encodes a structural protein that directs intracellular mature virus particles into A-type inclusions. J Virol. 2002;76:11216-25 pubmed
    ..In this way, the P4c protein may affect both viral morphogenesis and processes of virus dissemination...
  4. Magro C, Ali N, Williams J, Allen J, Ross P. Cytomegalovirus-associated pulmonary septal capillary injury sine inclusion body change: a distinctive cause of occult or macroscopic pulmonary hemorrhage in the immunocompetent host. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2005;13:268-72 pubmed
  5. Gibb T, Bray M, Geisbert T, Steele K, Kell W, Davis K, et al. Pathogenesis of experimental Ebola Zaire virus infection in BALB/c mice. J Comp Pathol. 2001;125:233-42 pubmed
    ..The availability of immunodeficient, "gene-knockout" and transgenic mice will make the mouse model particularly useful for studying the early steps of Ebola pathogenesis...
  6. Lyle J, Bullitt E, Bienz K, Kirkegaard K. Visualization and functional analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase lattices. Science. 2002;296:2218-22 pubmed
    ..Therefore, host cytoplasmic membranes may function as physical foundations for two-dimensional polymerase arrays, conferring the advantages of surface catalysis to viral RNA replication. ..
  7. Reunov A, Lapshina L, Nagorskaia V, Poliakova A, Lega S. [Ultrastructure of parenchymal leaf cells of different soybean varieties systemically infected with soybean mosaic virus]. Tsitologiia. 2006;48:208-15 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that such microbodies possess autophagic activity towards CIs. A possible relation of the observed virus-induced ultrastructural cell changes with the degree of SMV affection of investigated varieties is discussed ..
  8. Hershberger P, Hart A, Gregg J, Elder N, Winton J. Dynamics of viral hemorrhagic septicemia, viral erythrocytic necrosis and ichthyophoniasis in confined juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;70:201-8 pubmed
  9. Lai J, Chan W, Kien F, Nicholls J, Peiris J, Garcia J. Formation of virus-like particles from human cell lines exclusively expressing influenza neuraminidase. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:2322-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings indicate that NA plays a key role in virus budding and morphogenesis, and demonstrate that NA-VLPs represent a useful tool in influenza research. ..
  10. Gomez Villamandos J, Ruiz Villamor E, Bautista M, Sanchez C, Sánchez Cordón P, Salguero F, et al. Morphological and immunohistochemical changes in splenic macrophages of pigs infected with classical swine fever. J Comp Pathol. 2001;125:98-109 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the secretory changes that occurred in macrophages in the initial phase of the infection suggested that macrophages release chemical mediators capable of modulating pathogenesis. ..
  11. Luo L, Li Y, Yong Kang C. Budding and secretion of HIV Gag-Env virus-like particles from recombinant human adenovirus infected cells. Virus Res. 2003;92:75-82 pubmed
    ..Our results support the idea that the replication-defective adenovirus could be used to induce immune responses that might be useful in a vaccine against HIV/AIDS. ..
  12. Bisaglia M, Mammi S, Bubacco L. Kinetic and structural analysis of the early oxidation products of dopamine: analysis of the interactions with alpha-synuclein. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:15597-605 pubmed
    ..We propose that the observed reactivity could represent a general reaction pathway whenever cysteinyl residues are absent in proteins or if they are sterically protected. ..
  13. Mitsuhashi W, Sato M, Hirai Y. Involvement of spindles of an entomopoxvirus (EPV) in infectivity of the EPVs to their host insect. Arch Virol. 2000;145:1465-71 pubmed
    ..cuprea larvae. A significant increase in infectivity was induced by the addition of spindles to the spheroids, strongly suggesting that the spindles play an important role in the infection of the host insect...
  14. Cheng A, Wang M, Chen X, Guo Y, Liu Z, Fang P. Pathogenic and pathological characteristic of new type gosling viral enteritis first observed in China. World J Gastroenterol. 2001;7:678-84 pubmed
    ..Analyses and comparisons between the pathologic lesions of NGVE and Gosling Plague (GP) were available in this paper as well. (1)NGVEV is adenovirus. (2)Pathological characteristic could be as the data for NGVE diagnosis. ..
  15. Carpentier D, Griffiths C, King L. The baculovirus P10 protein of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus forms two distinct cytoskeletal-like structures and associates with polyhedral occlusion bodies during infection. Virology. 2008;371:278-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Transient expression of P10 showed that both filaments and tubules can form in the absence of other viral proteins. We postulate a number of possible roles of the P10 protein during virus infection and morphogenesis...
  16. Tomaszewski E, Phalen D. Falcon adenovirus in an American kestrel (Falco sparverius). J Avian Med Surg. 2007;21:135-9 pubmed
    ..Given that this kestrel was recently wild caught and housed in isolation with other wild-caught kestrels, it is likely that the falcon adenovirus is present in wild populations of American kestrels...
  17. Ke J, Wang J, Deng R, Wang X. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac66 is required for the efficient egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus, general synthesis of preoccluded virions and occlusion body formation. Virology. 2008;374:421-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that ac66 plays an important role for the efficient exit of nucleocapsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for BV synthesis as well as for preoccluded virion and occlusion synthesis. ..
  18. Chen Q, Zhang J, Zhang F, Guo H, Fang Q. Identification and characterization of two cleavage fragments from the Aquareovirus nonstructural protein NS80. Virol Sin. 2016;31:314-23 pubmed publisher
    ..of aquareoviruses has been implicated in the regulation of viral replication and assembly, which can form viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) and recruit viral proteins to its VIBs in infected cells...
  19. Collett M, Roberts D. Cytomegalovirus infection in a pig in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2002;73:44-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first such case to be diagnosed in South Africa. ..
  20. Alves de Matos A, Paperna I, Crespo E. Experimental infection of lacertids with lizard erythrocytic viruses. Intervirology. 2002;45:150-9 pubmed
  21. Neumann K, Pudszuhn A, Welzel C, Bartel Friedrich S, Passmann M. [Intralesional cidofovir injections for recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis: first results]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2003;82:700-6 pubmed
    ..First results of the study seem to achieve a considerable reduction of the previously high rate of recurrence of laryngeal papillomatosis. ..
  22. Zheng J, Ma J, Yang X, Liu H, Cheng H, Si L, et al. Highly efficient and economical baculovirus expression system for preparing human papillomavirus type16 virus-like particle. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2004;36:548-52 pubmed
    ..Hopefully, the present expression and purification system is promising to be convenient, timesaving and economical for preparation of HPV16 VLP vaccine. ..
  23. Ward M, Shields J, Van Dover C. Parasitism in species of Bathymodiolus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) mussels from deep-sea seep and hydrothermal vents. Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;62:1-16 pubmed
    ..Hemocytic infiltration (hemocytosis) showed variable degrees of severity that were not associated with other host factors examined. ..
  24. Breuer W, Hermanns W. [Acute herpesvirus-gastritis in a cat]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2003;110:158-60 pubmed
    ..By means of electron microscopy the causative virus can be specified as herpesvirus. ..
  25. Ozdemir F, Kilinc Karaarslan I, Akalin T. A pigmented, hemorrhagic genital wart: clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic features. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144:1072-3 pubmed publisher
  26. Bernard R, Aljomah G, Klepper E, McDonough E. Cytomegalovirus Associated Duodenal Ulcer and Duodenitis in a Malnourished Pediatric Patient. Case Rep Pediatr. 2017;2017:2412930 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathology from the EGD biopsies later demonstrated viral inclusion bodies consistent with CMV duodenitis...
  27. Theron J, Huismans H, Nel L. Site-specific mutations in the NS2 protein of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus markedly affect the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Arch Virol. 1996;141:1143-51 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these NS2 mutants were not complexed with single-stranded RNA in infected cells and appeared to be cytotoxic. Cumulatively, the results suggest that this motif is an essential structural determinant for NS2 function...
  28. Gutierrez S, Alconchel S, Ruiz Mateos E, Genebat M, Vallejo A, Lissen E, et al. Disseminate and fatal cytomegalovirus disease with thymitis in a naive HIV-patient after early initiation of HAART: immune restoration disease?. J Clin Virol. 2006;36:13-6 pubmed
    ..We propose an alternative hypothesis. ..
  29. Wang P, Chang Y, Yu J, Li C, Xu G. Acute peristome edema disease in juvenile and adult sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) reared in North China. J Invertebr Pathol. 2007;96:11-7 pubmed
    ..Histological examinations showed that the viral inclusion bodies existed in intestine epithelium cells...
  30. Shetty A, Barnes R, Lazda E, Doherty C, Maxwell N. Cytomegalovirus: a cause of colonic stricture in a premature infant. J Infect. 2007;54:e37-9 pubmed
    ..This case report alerts neonatologists and microbiologists to consider Cytomegalovirus infection as a possible cause of bowel obstruction and necrotising enterocolitis like symptoms...
  31. Moscoso H, Bruzual J, Sellers H, Hofacre C. FTA liver impressions as DNA template for detecting and genotyping fowl adenovirus. Avian Dis. 2007;51:118-21 pubmed
    ..Sequencing analysis showed that the viruses were EU serotypes 4, 5, 9, and 10. The results demonstrate that FTA filter paper inactivates the FAV I and maintains the DNA template for molecular analysis. ..
  32. Harries P, Palanichelvam K, Yu W, Schoelz J, Nelson R. The cauliflower mosaic virus protein P6 forms motile inclusions that traffic along actin microfilaments and stabilize microtubules. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:1005-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The motility of P6 along microfilaments represents an entirely new property for this protein, and these results imply a role for P6 in intracellular and cell-to-cell movement of CaMV...
  33. Zochodne D, Kaufmann J. Prolonged progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy without immunosuppression. Can J Neurol Sci. 1987;14:603-7 pubmed
  34. Fujita M, Mise K, Kajiura Y, Dohi K, Furusawa I. Nucleic acid-binding properties and subcellular localization of the 3a protein of brome mosaic bromovirus. J Gen Virol. 1998;79 ( Pt 5):1273-80 pubmed
    ..Immunogold labelling of thin sections of infected barley tissues revealed that B3a was associated with plasmodesmata and cytoplasmic inclusions. ..
  35. Miller C, Parker J, Dinoso J, Piggott C, Perron M, Nibert M. Increased ubiquitination and other covariant phenotypes attributed to a strain- and temperature-dependent defect of reovirus core protein mu2. J Virol. 2004;78:10291-302 pubmed
    ..Because so few of the viral strains formed factories that were regularly associated with ubiquitinated proteins, we conclude that reovirus factories are generally distinct from cellular aggresomes. ..
  36. Roy P, Vairamuthu S, Sakthivelan S, Purushothaman V. Hydropericardium syndrome in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Vet Rec. 2004;155:273-4 pubmed
  37. Ojkic D, Martin E, Swinton J, Vaillancourt J, Boulianne M, Gomis S. Genotyping of Canadian isolates of fowl adenoviruses. Avian Pathol. 2008;37:95-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-infection rates in non-IBH submissions were 50.00% for infectious bursal disease virus, 40.70% for infectious bronchitis virus, 27.91% for reoviruses and 1.16% for Newcastle disease virus...
  38. Pillai K, Jayasree K, Pisharody R, Abraham E. Decoy cells in the urine cytology of a renal transplant recipient: an immunohistochemical study. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2010;53:347-50 pubmed publisher
  39. Hayakawa T, Xu J, Hukuhara T. Cloning and sequencing of the gene for an enhancing factor from Pseudaletia separata entomopoxvirus. Gene. 1996;177:269-70 pubmed
    ..The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited a significant similarity to major spindle proteins, fusolins, whose function is unknown, from Heliothis armigera, Choristoneura biennis and Melolontha melolontha entomopoxviruses...
  40. Jegerlehner A, Tissot A, Lechner F, Sebbel P, Erdmann I, Kündig T, et al. A molecular assembly system that renders antigens of choice highly repetitive for induction of protective B cell responses. Vaccine. 2002;20:3104-12 pubmed
    ..This molecular assembly system may be used to induce strong B cell responses against most antigens...
  41. Pfosser M, Baumann H. Phylogeny and geographical differentiation of zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates (Potyviridae) based on molecular analysis of the coat protein and part of the cytoplasmic inclusion protein genes. Arch Virol. 2002;147:1599-609 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that a specific isolate can spread rapidly to geographically adjacent areas but may not be directly related to isolates found in other neighboring countries...
  42. Singh A, Oberoi M, Grewal G, Hafez H, Hess M. The use of PCR combined with restriction enzyme analysis to characterize fowl adenovirus field isolates from northern India. Vet Res Commun. 2002;26:577-85 pubmed
    ..The FAV specific PCR combined with REA was found to be very useful in investigating the epidemiological situation in the field. It was even possible to define mixed infections with more than one FAV...
  43. Roberts S, Hillman M, Knight G, Gallimore P. The ND10 component promyelocytic leukemia protein relocates to human papillomavirus type 1 E4 intranuclear inclusion bodies in cultured keratinocytes and in warts. J Virol. 2003;77:673-84 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that HPV1 E4-induced reorganization of PML is necessary for efficient replication of the virus during the virus-producing phase...
  44. Haas Stapleton E, Washburn J, Volkman L. P74 mediates specific binding of Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus occlusion-derived virus to primary cellular targets in the midgut epithelia of Heliothis virescens Larvae. J Virol. 2004;78:6786-91 pubmed
    ..These results implicated P74 as an ODV attachment protein that binds to a specific receptor on primary target cells within the midgut...
  45. Liang D, Qu Z, Ma X, Hull R. Detection and localization of Rice stripe virus gene products in vivo. Virus Genes. 2005;31:211-21 pubmed
    ..Our results confirm the in vivo ambisense coding strategy of Tenuivirus RNA 2 and provide further evidence that RSV does not produce enveloped virions in infected rice plants...
  46. Saari S, Rudbäck E, Niskanen M, Syrjälä P, Nylund M, Anttila M. Contagious mucocutaneous dermatitis of the mountain hare (Lepus timidus): pathology and cause. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:775-82 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that contagious mucocutaneous dermatitis in mountain hares is a viral disease caused by a poxvirus. The disease is often complicated by secondary bacterial infection, most commonly S. warneri...
  47. Netherton C, Moffat K, Brooks E, Wileman T. A guide to viral inclusions, membrane rearrangements, factories, and viroplasm produced during virus replication. Adv Virus Res. 2007;70:101-82 pubmed
  48. Chen S, Cheng A, Wang M. Morphologic observations of new type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) virulent isolate in infected duck embryo fibroblasts. Avian Dis. 2008;52:173-8 pubmed
    ..The mitochondria were ultracondensed and aggregated into compact clusters during apoptosis...
  49. Shiraishi J, Tsugata M, Masuda R, Mori Y, Suzuki K, Takemura T. Type AB thymoma accompanied by pure red cell aplasia and Good syndrome with CMV infection of tumor cells. Pathol Int. 2008;58:489-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Several cases of Good syndrome with widespread CMV infection have been reported, but it is extremely rare for CMV-inclusion bodies to be found in tumor cells. No thymoma cases involving CMV infection of tumor cells have been reported...
  50. Rodríguez Cariño C, Segales J. Ultrastructural findings in lymph nodes from pigs suffering from naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Vet Pathol. 2009;46:729-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The inclusion bodies containing VLPs referred to in the present study should be classified as viral factories, suggesting that viral replication is probably a frequent event in macrophages, in which mitochondria might play a role...
  51. Brandariz Nuñez A, Menaya Vargas R, Benavente J, Martinez Costas J. Avian reovirus microNS protein forms homo-oligomeric inclusions in a microtubule-independent fashion, which involves specific regions of its C-terminal domain. J Virol. 2010;84:4289-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results contribute to an understanding of the generation of structured protein aggregates that escape the cellular mechanisms of protein recycling...
  52. Kiatipattanasakul Banlunara W, Tantileartcharoen R, Katayama K, Suzuki K, Lekdumrogsak T, Nakayama H, et al. Psittacine beak and feather disease in three captive sulphur-crested cockatoos (Cacatua galerita) in Thailand. J Vet Med Sci. 2002;64:527-9 pubmed
    ..PBFD virus (circovirus) DNA-specific product was detected from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded feathers by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
  53. Toro H, Gonzalez C, Cerda L, Morales M, Dooner P, Salamero M. Prevention of inclusion body hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome in progeny chickens by vaccination of breeders with fowl adenovirus and chicken anemia virus. Avian Dis. 2002;46:547-54 pubmed
    ..FAV vaccination alone produced 24% HIB, similar to challenge strategy 2, demonstrating a lower protective effect...
  54. Ratho R, Grover R, Mahajan R. Experience of human rabies in north India. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2001;44:41-4 pubmed
    ..9%) of the 35 samples of intracerebral inoculation in newborn Swiss albino mice. Of the 26 confirmed cases, 61.5% occurred during the months of June to August and history of dog bite was present in 9 (34.6%) cases...
  55. Miyano H, Haritani M, Sentsui H, Tsuboi T, Tanimura N, Kimura K, et al. Mammary lesions associated with bovine herpesvirus type 4 in a cow with clinical mastitis. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:457-60 pubmed
    ..In addition, BHV-4 was isolated from the mammary tissue. The viral DNA was detected by nested PCR from the same tissue. This is the first report to describe mammary lesions in association with BHV-4...
  56. Gnutova R, Tolkach V. [Phytopathogenic viruses and their strains found in the Asian territory of Russia]. Mikrobiol Z. 2004;66:48-55 pubmed
    ..Taking into account significant differences of plant virus strains as to biological properties there are reasonable proposition to include a strain as an independent taxonomic unit into the present day classification of plant viruses...
  57. Anduleit K, Sutton G, Diprose J, Mertens P, Grimes J, Stuart D. Crystal lattice as biological phenotype for insect viruses. Protein Sci. 2005;14:2741-3 pubmed
    ..It is almost inconceivable that this could have arisen by chance, suggesting that the crystal lattice has been preserved because it is particularly well-suited to its function of packaging and protecting viruses...
  58. Radwan D, Lu G, Fayez K, Mahmoud S. Protective action of salicylic acid against bean yellow mosaic virus infection in Vicia faba leaves. J Plant Physiol. 2008;165:845-57 pubmed
    ..Also, a role of SA involved in induction of resistance against BYMV infection in bean plants is discussed...
  59. Hashem A, Flaman A, Farnsworth A, Brown E, Van Domselaar G, He R, et al. Aurintricarboxylic acid is a potent inhibitor of influenza A and B virus neuraminidases. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8350 pubmed publisher
    ..While vaccines are effective, they have a number of limitations, and influenza strains resistant to currently available anti-influenza drugs are increasingly isolated. This necessitates the exploration of novel anti-influenza therapies...
  60. Dohi K, Mori M, Furusawa I, Mise K, Okuno T. Brome mosaic virus replicase proteins localize with the movement protein at infection-specific cytoplasmic inclusions in infected barley leaf cells. Arch Virol. 2001;146:1607-15 pubmed
    ..The inclusions were oval or amorphous, and contained electron-lucent regions. Electron microscopic autoradiography showed that the inclusions were sites of [3H]uridine incorporation, suggesting that they are sites of viral RNA synthesis...
  61. Hay Roe M, Shapiro A, Becnel J, Boucias D. A newly discovered baculovirus induces reflex bleeding in the butterfly Heliconius himera (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2003;84:59-62 pubmed
  62. Fránová J, Paltrinieri S, Botti S, Simkova M, Bertaccini A. Association of phytoplasmas and viruses with malformed clovers. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2004;49:617-24 pubmed
    ..Phytoplasmas and rhabdoviruses occurred singly, and both together or in co-presence with filamentous virus-like particles...
  63. Parkhomenko I, Solnyshkova T, Tishkivich O, Shakhgil dian V, Nikonova E. [Morphological fibroblastic changes in cytomegalovirus infection]. Arkh Patol. 2006;68:3-6 pubmed
    ..This metamorphosis is characteristic of the changes developing in the cells of different parenchymatous organs...
  64. Kubo T, Kagawa Y, Taniyama H, Hasegawa A. Distribution of inclusion bodies in tissues from 100 dogs infected with canine distemper virus. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:527-9 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, the tonsils may be the most suitable tissue for detection of inclusion bodies in canine distemper...
  65. Rodger H. Erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome virus in wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. J Fish Dis. 2007;30:411-8 pubmed
    ..Neither haematological variations nor clinical disease was associated with the presence or absence of viral inclusions...
  66. Beckham C, Light H, Nissan T, Ahlquist P, Parker R, Noueiry A. Interactions between brome mosaic virus RNAs and cytoplasmic processing bodies. J Virol. 2007;81:9759-68 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the accumulation of BMV RNAs in P bodies may be an important step in RNA replication complex assembly for BMV, and possibly for other positive-strand RNA viruses...
  67. Howard A, Weisberg A, Moss B. Congregation of orthopoxvirus virions in cytoplasmic A-type inclusions is mediated by interactions of a bridging protein (A26p) with a matrix protein (ATIp) and a virion membrane-associated protein (A27p). J Virol. 2010;84:7592-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the data suggest a model for occlusion in which A26p has a bridging role between ATIp and A27p, and A27p provides a link to the MV membrane...
  68. Holbach L, Font R, Wilhelmus K. Recurrent herpes simplex keratitis with concurrent epithelial and stromal involvement. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural observations. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991;109:692-5 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that a recurrent epithelial dendrite can be associated with subclinical stromal infection of the graft...
  69. Mulvey M, Fang H, Scraba D. Purification and characterization of the U-particle, a cellular constituent whose synthesis is stimulated by Mengovirus infection. Arch Virol Suppl. 1994;9:299-306 pubmed
    ..U-particles are capable of inhibiting mRNA translation in vitro...
  70. Tinari A, Ammendolia M, Superti F, Donelli G. Tubuloreticular structures induced by rotavirus infection in HT-29 cells. Ultrastruct Pathol. 1996;20:571-6 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that tubuloreticular structures evolve during interaction of rotavirus with the rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes...
  71. Kovalenko O, Shepelevich V. [Changes in ultrastructure and protein metabolism of tobacco plants infected by tomato spotted wilt virus]. Tsitol Genet. 2003;37:24-9 pubmed
    ..At the same time it induces formation of at least three pathogenesis-associated proteins (PR-proteins) and two antiviral factors of the types AVF (6) and IVR (7) active towards tobacco mosaic virus...
  72. McGalie C, McBride H, McCluggage W. Cytomegalovirus infection of the cervix: morphological observations in five cases of a possibly under-recognised condition. J Clin Pathol. 2004;57:691-4 pubmed
    ..This study describes histopathological findings in five biopsies from four patients with CMV cervicitis...
  73. Hafner S, Williams S, Sutton M. Retroviral inclusions in the enteric smooth muscle of a tumor-bearing young chicken. Avian Dis. 2007;51:133-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first description of the light microscopic appearance of these viral matrix inclusions in enteric smooth muscle...
  74. Campbell E, Perez O, Anderson J, Hope T. Visualization of a proteasome-independent intermediate during restriction of HIV-1 by rhesus TRIM5alpha. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:549-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we can measure no loss of capsid protein from viral complexes arrested at this intermediate step in restriction, suggesting that any rhTRIM5alpha-mediated loss of capsid protein requires proteasome activity...
  75. Lin Y, Yeh C, Chen Y, Chang M, Su I, Cheng H. Recurrent cytomegalovirus colitis with megacolon in an immunocompetent elderly man. J Med Virol. 2010;82:638-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Colitis caused by CMV colitis should be considered in elderly people with diarrhea...
  76. Senkevich T, Koonin E, Bugert J, Darai G, Moss B. The genome of molluscum contagiosum virus: analysis and comparison with other poxviruses. Virology. 1997;233:19-42 pubmed
    ..Despite the acquisition of unique genes for host interactions and changes in GC content, the physical order and regulation of essential ancestral poxvirus genes have been largely conserved in MCV and OPV...
  77. Tyler K. The uninvited guest: JC virus infection of neurons in PML. Neurology. 2003;61:734-5 pubmed
  78. Docherty D, Meteyer C, Wang J, Mao J, Case S, Chinchar V. Diagnostic and molecular evaluation of three iridovirus-associated salamander mortality events. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:556-66 pubmed
    ..Challenge assays are required to determine the fish and amphibian host range of these isolates and to assess the susceptibility of tiger and spotted salamanders to heterologous virus isolates...
  79. Kashyap A, Anand K, Kashyap S. Rabies and other lyssavirus diseases. Lancet. 2004;363:1906; author reply 1907 pubmed
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    ..The above virus-like inclusions should be considered as specific structures formed as a result of metabolic shifts caused by productive action on the cell of infective or unknown factor...
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    ..Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy confirmed adenovirus infection. This case demonstrates an uncommon presentation of necrotizing adenoviral nephropathy, which should be considered in cases of renal allograft mass lesions...
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    ..demonstrates that elIBs are complex viral structures specialized for aphid transmission and suggests that viral inclusion bodies other than viral factories, most often considered as 'garbage cans', can in fact exhibit specific functions...
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    ..Sequences from all three sources were almost identical, and we therefore propose that the usual agent of inclusion body hepatitis in owls and falcons is columbid herpesvirus 1...
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    ..This case represents the first report of CMV-associated NCGN in a renal transplant patient...
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    ..The agent was classified as HSV-1 by polymerase chain reaction analysis. This is only the second reported natural case of herpes simplex infection in a rabbit...
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    ..The results of this study provide further evidence that mu NS plays a key role in forming the reovirus factories and recruiting other components to them...
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    ..These data suggest that sigma NS and mu NS are the minimal viral components required to form inclusions, which then recruit other reovirus proteins and RNA to initiate viral genome replication...
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    ..Attempts to amplify the ATI gene (ati) by PCR, currently used to identify orthopoxviruses, were unsuccessful. Results presented here suggest that most of the ati gene is deleted in the VBH genome...
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    ..Fourier-transform of the reconstituted tubule image from the purified Pns 10 protein in vitro revealed a helical structure of the tubule...