periplasm

Summary

Summary: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.

Top Publications

  1. Pittman M, Robinson H, Poole R. A bacterial glutathione transporter (Escherichia coli CydDC) exports reductant to the periplasm. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:32254-61 pubmed
    ..via an ATP-driven, protonophore-insensitive, orthovanadate-sensitive mechanism, equating with export to the periplasm in intact cells. GSH transport and cytochrome bd quinol oxidase assembly are abolished in the cydD1 mutant...
  2. Depuydt M, Leonard S, Vertommen D, Denoncin K, Morsomme P, Wahni K, et al. A periplasmic reducing system protects single cysteine residues from oxidation. Science. 2009;326:1109-11 pubmed publisher
    The thiol group of the amino acid cysteine can be modified to regulate protein activity. The Escherichia coli periplasm is an oxidizing environment in which most cysteine residues are involved in disulfide bonds...
  3. Kawai F, Kitajima S, Oda K, Higasa T, Charoenpanich J, Hu X, et al. Polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene glycol form polymer bodies in the periplasm of Sphingomonads that are able to assimilate them. Arch Microbiol. 2013;195:131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..microscopy showed no surface changes in PVA-grown cells and revealed the presence of polymer bodies in the periplasm of PVA-grown cells, which were not observed in LB-grown cells...
  4. Mavridou D, Braun M, Thöny Meyer L, Stevens J, Ferguson S. Avoidance of the cytochrome c biogenesis system by periplasmic CXXCH motifs. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008;36:1124-8 pubmed publisher
    The CXXCH motif is usually recognized in the bacterial periplasm as a haem attachment site in apocytochromes c...
  5. Bouchart F, Boussemart G, Prouvost A, Cogez V, Madec E, Vidal O, et al. The virulence of a Dickeya dadantii 3937 mutant devoid of osmoregulated periplasmic glucans is restored by inactivation of the RcsCD-RcsB phosphorelay. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:3484-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that mutations in the RcsCDB phosphorelay system restored virulence and motility in a D. dadantii opg-negative strain, indicating a relationship between the Rcs phosphorelay and OPGs...
  6. van Bloois E, Winter R, Janssen D, Fraaije M. Export of functional Streptomyces coelicolor alditol oxidase to the periplasm or cell surface of Escherichia coli and its application in whole-cell biocatalysis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;83:679-87 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, we have directed AldO to the periplasm or cell surface of Escherichia coli. For periplasmic export, AldO was fused to endogenous E...
  7. Bhagwat A, Jun W, Liu L, Kannan P, Dharne M, Pheh B, et al. Osmoregulated periplasmic glucans of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium are required for optimal virulence in mice. Microbiology. 2009;155:229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..0) and had lower ATP levels compared to the wild-type strain. These data indicate that OPGs of S. Typhimurium contribute towards mouse virulence as well as growth and motility under low osmolarity growth conditions...
  8. Klint J, Senff S, Saez N, Seshadri R, Lau H, Bende N, et al. Production of recombinant disulfide-rich venom peptides for structural and functional analysis via expression in the periplasm of E. coli. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63865 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we present here an optimised protocol for the expression of disulfide-rich venom peptides in the periplasm of E. coli, which is where the endogenous machinery for production of disulfide-bonds is located...
  9. Levy R, Ahluwalia K, Bohmann D, Giang H, Schwimmer L, Issafras H, et al. Enhancement of antibody fragment secretion into the Escherichia coli periplasm by co-expression with the peptidyl prolyl isomerase, FkpA, in the cytoplasm. J Immunol Methods. 2013;394:10-21 pubmed publisher
    ..for low expression and poor functional activity of antibody fragments secreted into the Escherichia coli periplasm. Expression issues also can affect selection of antibody candidates from phage libraries, since antibody ..

More Information

Publications65

  1. Makino T, Skretas G, Georgiou G. Strain engineering for improved expression of recombinant proteins in bacteria. Microb Cell Fact. 2011;10:32 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we provide an overview of strain engineering approaches useful for enhancing the expression of hard-to-produce proteins, including heterologous membrane proteins...
  2. Dammeyer T, Steinwand M, Krüger S, Dubel S, Hust M, Timmis K. Efficient production of soluble recombinant single chain Fv fragments by a Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 cell factory. Microb Cell Fact. 2011;10:11 pubmed publisher
    ..Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 is a versatile biosafety strain known for good expression of heterologous genes, so we have explored its utility as a cell factory for production of scFvs...
  3. Sochacki K, Shkel I, Record M, Weisshaar J. Protein diffusion in the periplasm of E. coli under osmotic stress. Biophys J. 2011;100:22-31 pubmed publisher
    ..after photobleaching to measure diffusion of periplasmic green fluorescent protein and probe the fluidity of the periplasm as a function of external osmotic conditions. For cells adapted to growth in complete medium at 0.14-1...
  4. Köhler S, Weber A, Howard S, Welte W, Drescher M. The proline-rich domain of TonB possesses an extended polyproline II-like conformation of sufficient length to span the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria. Protein Sci. 2010;19:625-30 pubmed publisher
    ..transfer from the inner to the outer membrane are discussed, one of the key questions is whether TonB spans the periplasm. In this article, we use long range distance measurements by spin-label pulsed EPR (Double Electron-Electron ..
  5. Eser M, Masip L, Kadokura H, Georgiou G, Beckwith J. Disulfide bond formation by exported glutaredoxin indicates glutathione's presence in the E. coli periplasm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:1572-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, disulfide bonds are constantly resolved in this compartment. In contrast to the cytoplasm, the periplasm of E. coli is maintained in an oxidized state by DsbA, which is recycled by DsbB...
  6. Moon C, Zaccai N, Fleming P, Gessmann D, Fleming K. Membrane protein thermodynamic stability may serve as the energy sink for sorting in the periplasm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:4285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..for these membrane proteins may be the thermodynamic sink that establishes an energy gradient across the periplasm, thus driving their sorting by chaperones to the outer membranes in living bacteria...
  7. Reichow S, Korotkov K, Gonen M, Sun J, Delarosa J, Hol W, et al. The binding of cholera toxin to the periplasmic vestibule of the type II secretion channel. Channels (Austin). 2011;5:215-8 pubmed
    ..Both CT and LT are translocated, as folded protein complexes, from the periplasm across the outer membrane through the type II secretion channel, the secretin GspD...
  8. Leo J, Grin I, Linke D. Type V secretion: mechanism(s) of autotransport through the bacterial outer membrane. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012;367:1088-101 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss recently discovered or rediscovered classes of autotransporters...
  9. Kadokura H, Beckwith J. Detecting folding intermediates of a protein as it passes through the bacterial translocation channel. Cell. 2009;138:1164-73 pubmed publisher
    ..of translocation (cotranslational verse posttranslational) can affect the folding process of a protein in the periplasm. The latter finding leads us to propose that the activity of the ribosome (translation) can modulate protein ..
  10. Jarchow S, Lück C, Görg A, Skerra A. Identification of potential substrate proteins for the periplasmic Escherichia coli chaperone Skp. Proteomics. 2008;8:4987-94 pubmed publisher
    ..interacting proteins were detected, especially from the outer membrane, among these FadL and BtuB, and from the periplasm such as MalE and OppA...
  11. Ieva R, Tian P, Peterson J, Bernstein H. Sequential and spatially restricted interactions of assembly factors with an autotransporter beta domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to leading to a detailed model of autotransporter biogenesis, our results suggest that the lipoprotein components of the Bam complex play a direct role in the membrane integration of ? barrel proteins...
  12. Okuda S, Freinkman E, Kahne D. Cytoplasmic ATP hydrolysis powers transport of lipopolysaccharide across the periplasm in E. coli. Science. 2012;338:1214-7 pubmed publisher
    ..seven essential lipopolysaccharide transport (Lpt) proteins to move LPS from the inner membrane through the periplasm to the cell surface. However, no intermediate transport states have been observed...
  13. Ohtsu I, Wiriyathanawudhiwong N, Morigasaki S, Nakatani T, Kadokura H, Takagi H. The L-cysteine/L-cystine shuttle system provides reducing equivalents to the periplasm in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17479-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Escherichia coli has multiple L-cysteine transporters, which export L-cysteine from the cytoplasm into the periplasm. However, the role of L-cysteine in the periplasm remains unknown...
  14. O Reilly A, Cole A, Lopes J, Lampert A, Wallace B. Chaperone-mediated native folding of a ?-scorpion toxin in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840:10-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, misfolding and aggregation are common outcomes when toxins containing multiple disulfides are expressed in bacteria...
  15. Denoncin K, Nicolaes V, Cho S, Leverrier P, Collet J. Protein disulfide bond formation in the periplasm: determination of the in vivo redox state of cysteine residues. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;966:325-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We use the Escherichia coli DsbA protein to illustrate the method, which can be applied to all envelope proteins...
  16. Schlegel S, Rujas E, Ytterberg A, Zubarev R, Luirink J, de Gier J. Optimizing heterologous protein production in the periplasm of E. coli by regulating gene expression levels. Microb Cell Fact. 2013;12:24 pubmed publisher
    In Escherichia coli many heterologous proteins are produced in the periplasm. To direct these proteins to the periplasm, they are equipped with an N-terminal signal sequence so that they can traverse the cytoplasmic membrane via the ..
  17. Penfold C, Li C, Zhang Y, Vankemmelbeke M, James R. Colicin A binds to a novel binding site of TolA in the Escherichia coli periplasm. Biochem Soc Trans. 2012;40:1469-74 pubmed publisher
  18. Yang C, Freudl R, Qiao C, Mulchandani A. Cotranslocation of methyl parathion hydrolase to the periplasm and of organophosphorus hydrolase to the cell surface of Escherichia coli by the Tat pathway and ice nucleation protein display system. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:434-40 pubmed publisher
    ..of organophosphates (OPs) across the cell membrane, MPH and OPH were simultaneously translocated to the periplasm and cell surface of E...
  19. Ping L, Mavridou D, Emberly E, Westermann M, Ferguson S. Vital dye reaction and granule localization in periplasm of Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38427 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide evidence that the granules form in the periplasm of bacterial cells...
  20. Herz K, Rimon A, Olkhova E, Kozachkov L, Padan E. Transmembrane segment II of NhaA Na+/H+ antiporter lines the cation passage, and Asp65 is critical for pH activation of the antiporter. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..impermeant, negatively and positively charged reagents, respectively, that could reach Cys replacements from the periplasm only via water-filled funnel(s)...
  21. Pilonieta M, Erickson K, Ernst R, Detweiler C. A protein important for antimicrobial peptide resistance, YdeI/OmdA, is in the periplasm and interacts with OmpD/NmpC. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7243-52 pubmed publisher
    ..YdeI localizes to the periplasm, where it could interact with OmpD...
  22. Pontel L, Soncini F. Alternative periplasmic copper-resistance mechanisms in Gram negative bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 2009;73:212-25 pubmed publisher
    ..coli. We posit that CueP can functionally replace the Cus complex for periplasmic copper resistance, in particular under anaerobic conditions...
  23. Krehenbrink M, Edwards A, Downie J. The superoxide dismutase SodA is targeted to the periplasm in a SecA-dependent manner by a novel mechanism. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:164-79 pubmed publisher
    The manganese/iron-type superoxide dismutase (SodA) of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841 is exported to the periplasm of R. l. bv. viciae and Escherichia coli...
  24. Russell A, Hood R, Bui N, LeRoux M, Vollmer W, Mougous J. Type VI secretion delivers bacteriolytic effectors to target cells. Nature. 2011;475:343-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In Gram-negative bacteria, peptidoglycan is located in the periplasm, where it is protected from exogenous lytic enzymes by the outer membrane...
  25. Zückert W. Secretion of bacterial lipoproteins: through the cytoplasmic membrane, the periplasm and beyond. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1843:1509-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. ..
  26. Bontemps Gallo S, Madec E, Dondeyne J, Delrue B, Robbe Masselot C, Vidal O, et al. Concentration of osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) modulates the activation level of the RcsCD RcsB phosphorelay in the phytopathogen bacteria Dickeya dadantii. Environ Microbiol. 2013;15:881-94 pubmed publisher
    ..dadantii...
  27. Li C, Zhang Y, Vankemmelbeke M, Hecht O, Aleanizy F, MacDonald C, et al. Structural evidence that colicin A protein binds to a novel binding site of TolA protein in Escherichia coli periplasm. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:19048-57 pubmed publisher
    ..TA(53-107) binds on the opposite side of TolAIII to that used by g3p, ColN, or TolB, illustrating the flexible nature of TolA as a periplasmic hub protein...
  28. Lippa A, Goulian M. Perturbation of the oxidizing environment of the periplasm stimulates the PhoQ/PhoP system in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:1457-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that a decrease in the oxidizing activity of the periplasm stimulates PhoQ/PhoP and may reveal a new input stimulus for this important two-component system.
  29. Schalk I, Guillon L. Fate of ferrisiderophores after import across bacterial outer membranes: different iron release strategies are observed in the cytoplasm or periplasm depending on the siderophore pathways. Amino Acids. 2013;44:1267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa: iron is released from the siderophore in the periplasm and only siderophore-free iron is transported into the cytoplasm by an ABC transporter having two atypical ..
  30. Spreter T, Yip C, Sanowar S, Andre I, Kimbrough T, Vuckovic M, et al. A conserved structural motif mediates formation of the periplasmic rings in the type III secretion system. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:468-76 pubmed publisher
  31. Siurkus J, Neubauer P. Reducing conditions are the key for efficient production of active ribonuclease inhibitor in Escherichia coli. Microb Cell Fact. 2011;10:31 pubmed publisher
    ..The members of this group are difficult to produce in E. coli and other recombinant hosts due to their high aggregation tendency...
  32. Bonsor D, Meenan N, Kleanthous C. Colicins exploit native disorder to gain cell entry: a hitchhiker's guide to translocation. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008;36:1409-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This is thought to trigger OM instability and prime the system for translocation. Here, we review key interactions in the assembly of this 'colicin translocon' and discuss the key role disorder plays in achieving uptake...
  33. Reichow S, Korotkov K, Hol W, Gonen T. Structure of the cholera toxin secretion channel in its closed state. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:1226-32 pubmed publisher
    ..By combining our results with structures of the cholera toxin and T2SS pseudopilus tip, we provide a structural basis for a possible secretion mechanism of the T2SS...
  34. Chungjatupornchai W, Fa aroonsawat S. Translocation of green fluorescent protein to cyanobacterial periplasm using ice nucleation protein. J Microbiol. 2009;47:187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..of GFP was found almost entirely as a halo in the outer regions of cells which appeared to correspond to the periplasm as demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, however, GFP was not displayed on the outermost cell ..
  35. Sperandeo P, Dehò G, Polissi A. The lipopolysaccharide transport system of Gram-negative bacteria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1791:594-602 pubmed publisher
    ..bacteria consists of two distinct membranes, the inner (IM) and the outer membrane (OM) separated by the periplasm. The OM contains in the outer leaflet the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a complex lipid with important biological ..
  36. Lambert C, Ivanov P, Sockett R. A transcriptional "Scream" early response of E. coli prey to predatory invasion by Bdellovibrio. Curr Microbiol. 2010;60:419-27 pubmed publisher
    ..brief, approximately 20-25 min period when the prey cell is still alive but contains a Bdellovibrio cell in its periplasm or attached to and penetrating its outer membrane...
  37. Mansell T, Linderman S, Fisher A, DeLisa M. A rapid protein folding assay for the bacterial periplasm. Protein Sci. 2010;19:1079-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there are currently no analogous folding assays for the bacterial periplasm, despite the significance of this compartment for the expression of recombinant proteins, especially those ..
  38. Waldron K, Firbank S, Dainty S, Pérez Rama M, Tottey S, Robinson N. Structure and metal loading of a soluble periplasm cuproprotein. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:32504-11 pubmed publisher
    A copper-trafficking pathway was found to enable Cu(2+) occupancy of a soluble periplasm protein, CucA, even when competing Zn(2+) is abundant in the periplasm...
  39. Dammeyer T. Biomedicals from a soil bug: expanding scFv production host range. Bioeng Bugs. 2012;3:67-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of inducible broad host range scFv expression plasmid constructs leads the way to an easy and efficient screening method for the identification of the optimal bacterial expression host...
  40. Salinas G, Pellizza L, Margenat M, Fló M, Fernandez C. Tuned Escherichia coli as a host for the expression of disulfide-rich proteins. Biotechnol J. 2011;6:686-99 pubmed publisher
    ..cell, with an emphasis on those that promote the formation and isomerization of disulfide bonds in the bacterial periplasm, while presenting parallel pathways in the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum...
  41. Schlapschy M, Skerra A. Periplasmic chaperones used to enhance functional secretion of proteins in E. coli. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;705:211-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In these cases, secretion into the oxidizing milieu of the bacterial periplasm in principle enables disulfide bond formation, resulting in a correctly folded and soluble protein...
  42. Lyu Z, Shao Q, Gao Y, Zhao X. Direct observation of the uptake of outer membrane proteins by the periplasmic chaperone Skp. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46068 pubmed publisher
  43. Fonseca B, Paquete C, Neto S, Pacheco I, Soares C, Louro R. Mind the gap: cytochrome interactions reveal electron pathways across the periplasm of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Biochem J. 2013;449:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This reveals the co-existence of two non-mixing redox pathways that lead to extracellular electron transfer in S. oneidensis MR-1 established through transient protein interactions...
  44. Pöhlmann C, Brandt M, Mottok D, Zschüttig A, Campbell J, Blattner F, et al. Periplasmic delivery of biologically active human interleukin-10 in Escherichia coli via a sec-dependent signal peptide. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;22:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..coli laboratory strains, E. coli BL21 (DE3) and E. coli MDS42:T7. The mean concentrations of human IL-10 in the periplasm and culture supernatant of E. coli BL21 (DE3) were 355.8 ± 86.3 and 5.7 ± 1.7 ng/ml, respectively...
  45. Barnéoud Arnoulet A, Barreteau H, Touze T, Mengin Lecreulx D, Lloubes R, Duché D. Toxicity of the colicin M catalytic domain exported to the periplasm is FkpA independent. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:5212-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To be active in the periplasm, ColM must be translocated through the outer membrane and then interact with FkpA, a periplasmic protein that ..
  46. Seitz P, Pezeshgi Modarres H, Borgeaud S, Bulushev R, Steinbock L, Radenovic A, et al. ComEA is essential for the transfer of external DNA into the periplasm in naturally transformable Vibrio cholerae cells. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004066 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the competence protein ComEA binds incoming DNA in the periplasm of naturally competent Vibrio cholerae cells thereby promoting DNA uptake, possibly through ratcheting and ..
  47. Patel G, Behrens Kneip S, Holst O, Kleinschmidt J. The periplasmic chaperone Skp facilitates targeting, insertion, and folding of OmpA into lipid membranes with a negative membrane surface potential. Biochemistry. 2009;48:10235-45 pubmed publisher
    ..as a targeting protein is ideal to mediate the transport of OmpA and other outer membrane proteins across the periplasm in a folding-competent form to the outer membrane, which is negatively charged on its periplasmic side...
  48. Diab M, Rimon A, Tzubery T, Padan E. Helix VIII of NhaA Na(+)/H(+) antiporter participates in the periplasmic cation passage and pH regulation of the antiporter. J Mol Biol. 2011;413:604-14 pubmed publisher
    ..2-(trimethyl ammonium)-ethylmethanethiosulfonate sulfhydryl reagents that could reach Cys replacements from the periplasm via water-filled funnels only, whereas other Cys replacements on helix VIII were not accessible/reactive to the ..
  49. Wu S, Ge X, Lv Z, Zhi Z, Chang Z, Zhao X. Interaction between bacterial outer membrane proteins and periplasmic quality control factors: a kinetic partitioning mechanism. Biochem J. 2011;438:505-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Escherichia coli, although SurA, Skp and DegP have been identified to function in translocating OMPs across the periplasm, their precise roles and their relationship remain to be elucidated...
  50. Imperi F, Ciccosanti F, Perdomo A, Tiburzi F, Mancone C, Alonzi T, et al. Analysis of the periplasmic proteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a metabolically versatile opportunistic pathogen. Proteomics. 2009;9:1901-15 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa membrane compartments. However, the composition and dynamics of its periplasm remain largely uncharacterized...
  51. Tottey S, Waldron K, Firbank S, Reale B, Bessant C, Sato K, et al. Protein-folding location can regulate manganese-binding versus copper- or zinc-binding. Nature. 2008;455:1138-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Cu(2+)-protein, CucA (Cu(2+)-cupin A), and the most abundant Mn(2+)-protein, MncA (Mn(2+)-cupin A), in the periplasm of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803...
  52. Bodelon G, Marín E, Fernández L. Role of periplasmic chaperones and BamA (YaeT/Omp85) in folding and secretion of intimin from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrate that DsbA catalyzes the formation of a disulfide bond in the D3 lectin-like domain of intimin in the periplasm, indicating that this secreted C-terminal domain is at least partially folded prior to its translocation across ..
  53. Denoncin K, Schwalm J, Vertommen D, Silhavy T, Collet J. Dissecting the Escherichia coli periplasmic chaperone network using differential proteomics. Proteomics. 2012;12:1391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..In Escherichia coli, ?-barrels are escorted across the periplasm by chaperones, most notably SurA and Skp...
  54. Gerken H, Misra R. MzrA-EnvZ interactions in the periplasm influence the EnvZ/OmpR two-component regulon. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:6271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the data suggest that the binding of MzrA to EnvZ influences the ability of EnvZ to receive and/or respond to environmental signals in the periplasm and modulate its biochemical output to OmpR.
  55. Lerner T, Lovering A, Bui N, Uchida K, Aizawa S, Vollmer W, et al. Specialized peptidoglycan hydrolases sculpt the intra-bacterial niche of predatory Bdellovibrio and increase population fitness. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002524 pubmed publisher
  56. Merdanovic M, Clausen T, Kaiser M, Huber R, Ehrmann M. Protein quality control in the bacterial periplasm. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2011;65:149-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria is particularly exposed to environmental changes and respective protein-folding ..