Summary: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.

Top Publications

  1. Olivier M, Foret B, Le Vern Y, Guilloteau L. Capacities of migrating CD1b+ lymph dendritic cells to present Salmonella antigens to naive T cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30430 pubmed publisher
    ..known as professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) able to initiate specific T-cell responses to pathogens in lymph nodes (LN) draining the site of infection...
  2. Hillman S, Hedrick M, Drewes R, Withers P. Lymph flux rates from various lymph sacs in the cane toad Rhinella marina: an experimental evaluation of the roles of compliance, skeletal muscles and the lungs in the movement of lymph. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:3161-6 pubmed publisher
    A new method for quantitatively determining lymph flux from various lymphatic sacs of an anuran, the cane toad, was developed...
  3. Hedenstierna G, Lattuada M. Lymphatics and lymph in acute lung injury. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2008;14:31-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymph flow will be discussed as part of the drainage and fluid balance of lung tissue and abdomen as well as a qualitative analysis of inflammatory processes. Measurement of lung lymph is still a technical challenge...
  4. Lattuada M, Hedenstierna G. Abdominal lymph flow in an endotoxin sepsis model: influence of spontaneous breathing and mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:2792-8 pubmed
    b>Lymph flow from the abdomen was investigated in a sepsis model...
  5. Yrlid U, Cerovic V, Milling S, Jenkins C, Klavinskis L, Macpherson G. A distinct subset of intestinal dendritic cells responds selectively to oral TLR7/8 stimulation. Eur J Immunol. 2006;36:2639-48 pubmed
    ..To examine this we collected intestinal lymph DC (iL-DC) under steady-state conditions and after feeding resiquimod (R-848), a synthetic TLR7/8 ligand, which we ..
  6. MacDonald A, Arkill K, Tabor G, McHale N, Winlove C. Modeling flow in collecting lymphatic vessels: one-dimensional flow through a series of contractile elements. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H305-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The computational model is able to reproduce the pumping behavior of the real vessel using a simple contraction function producing fast contraction pulses traveling in the retrograde direction to the flow. ..
  7. Stanczyk M, Olszewski W, Gewartowska M, Domaszewska Szostek A. Lack of functioning lymphatics and accumulation of tissue fluid/lymph in interstitial "lakes" in colon cancer tissue. Lymphology. 2010;43:158-67 pubmed
    ..The most favorable site of entry of tumor cells to lymphatics seems to be the interface of the tumor and surrounding tissue with open lymphatics. ..
  8. Hope J, Howard C, Prentice H, Charleston B. Isolation and purification of afferent lymph dendritic cells that drain the skin of cattle. Nat Protoc. 2006;1:982-7 pubmed
    ..Cannulation of afferent lymphatic vessels allows the isolation of large numbers of lymph DCs. First, lymph nodes that are draining the skin are surgically removed (takes approximately 1 h)...
  9. Schneider M, Conway E, Carmeliet P. Lymph makes you fat. Nat Genet. 2005;37:1023-4 pubmed

More Information


  1. Szolnoky G, Szendi Horváth K, Seres L, Boda K, Kemeny L. Manual lymph drainage efficiently reduces postoperative facial swelling and discomfort after removal of impacted third molars. Lymphology. 2007;40:138-42 pubmed
    ..severe postoperative edema and pain, and operation on the third molar can cause local inflammation that impairs lymph transport...
  2. Qin X, Dong W, Sharpe S, Sheth S, Palange D, Rider T, et al. Role of lipase-generated free fatty acids in converting mesenteric lymph from a noncytotoxic to a cytotoxic fluid. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;303:G969-78 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have shown that mesenteric lymph plays a very important role in the development of multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome under critical conditions...
  3. Zhao Z, Niu C, Zhang Y, Hou Y, Li J, Jiang H. Exogenous normal lymph alleviating kidney injury by improving coagulation function in disseminated intravascular coagulation rats. Ren Fail. 2012;34:221-6 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of exogenous normal lymph on kidney injury in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) rats and to probe its mechanism. The DIC model was established by intravenous injection of Dextran 500...
  4. Vrieling M, Santema W, Van Rhijn I, Rutten V, Koets A. ?? T cell homing to skin and migration to skin-draining lymph nodes is CCR7 independent. J Immunol. 2012;188:578-84 pubmed publisher
    In most species, ?? T cells preferentially reside in epithelial tissues like the skin. Lymph duct cannulation experiments in cattle revealed that bovine dermal ?? T cells are able to migrate from the skin to the draining lymph nodes via ..
  5. Quick C, Venugopal A, Dongaonkar R, Laine G, Stewart R. First-order approximation for the pressure-flow relationship of spontaneously contracting lymphangions. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H2144-9 pubmed publisher
    To return lymph to the great veins of the neck, it must be actively pumped against a pressure gradient...
  6. Roozendaal R, Mebius R, Kraal G. The conduit system of the lymph node. Int Immunol. 2008;20:1483-7 pubmed publisher
    The lymphoid compartment of lymph nodes is impermeable to many molecules that are delivered via afferent lymphatic vessels. In the lymphoid compartment, fibroblast reticular cells form an interconnected network-the conduit system...
  7. Li J, Zhou Q, Wood R, Kuzin I, Bottaro A, Ritchlin C, et al. CD23(+)/CD21(hi) B-cell translocation and ipsilateral lymph node collapse is associated with asymmetric arthritic flare in TNF-Tg mice. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R138 pubmed publisher
    ..flow in mouse models of RA, and identified that asymmetric knee flare is associated with ipsilateral popliteal lymph node (PLN) collapse and the translocation of CD23(+)/CD21(hi) B-cells (B-in) into the paracortical sinus space of ..
  8. Levy G, Fishman J, Xu D, Chandler B, Feketova E, Dong W, et al. Parasympathetic stimulation via the vagus nerve prevents systemic organ dysfunction by abrogating gut injury and lymph toxicity in trauma and hemorrhagic shock. Shock. 2013;39:39-44 pubmed publisher
    We tested if vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) would prevent gut injury, mesenteric lymph toxicity, and systemic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS). Four groups of experiments were performed...
  9. Fanous M, Phillips A, Windsor J. Mesenteric lymph: the bridge to future management of critical illness. JOP. 2007;8:374-99 pubmed
    ..Toxic factors in mesenteric lymph may induce an inflammatory systemic response while bypassing the portal circulation and liver...
  10. Miteva D, Rutkowski J, Dixon J, Kilarski W, Shields J, Swartz M. Transmural flow modulates cell and fluid transport functions of lymphatic endothelium. Circ Res. 2010;106:920-31 pubmed publisher
  11. Garcia Z, Lemaitre F, Van Rooijen N, Albert M, Levy Y, Schwartz O, et al. Subcapsular sinus macrophages promote NK cell accumulation and activation in response to lymph-borne viral particles. Blood. 2012;120:4744-50 pubmed publisher
    ..virus Ankara vaccine in mice results in the accumulation of NK cells in the subcapsular area of the draining lymph node and their activation, a process that is strictly dependent on type I IFN signaling...
  12. Mittal A, Phillips A, Middleditch M, Ruggiero K, Loveday B, Delahunt B, et al. The proteome of mesenteric lymph during acute pancreatitis and implications for treatment. JOP. 2009;10:130-42 pubmed
    The protein fraction of mesenteric lymph during acute pancreatitis and other critical illness is thought to contain toxic factors. However, we do not have a complete description of the mesenteric lymph proteome during acute pancreatitis...
  13. de Veer M, Kemp J, Chatelier J, Elhay M, Meeusen E. The kinetics of soluble and particulate antigen trafficking in the afferent lymph, and its modulation by aluminum-based adjuvant. Vaccine. 2010;28:6597-602 pubmed publisher
    ..flow from the site of injection; however it does reduce the amount of soluble antigen entering into afferent lymph. Large numbers of neutrophils, but not DCs, were recruited into the lymph in both saline and aluminium-injected ..
  14. Maybauer D, Talke P, Westphal M, Maybauer M, Traber L, Enkhbaatar P, et al. Positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation increases extravascular lung water due to a decrease in lung lymph flow. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2006;34:329-33 pubmed was designed as a prospective laboratory experiment to evaluate the effects of PEEP on EVLW and pulmonary lymph flow (QL) under physiologic conditions...
  15. Pascale F, Pascale F, Contreras V, Bonneau M, Courbet A, Chilmonczyk S, et al. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells migrate in afferent skin lymph. J Immunol. 2008;180:5963-72 pubmed
    Conventional dendritic cells enter lymph nodes by migrating from peripheral tissues via the lymphatic route, whereas plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), also called IFN-producing cells (IPC), are described to gain nodes from blood via ..
  16. BOLLMAN J, Cain J, GRINDLAY J. Techniques for the collection of lymph from the liver, small intestine, or thoracic duct of the rat. J Lab Clin Med. 1948;33:1349-52 pubmed
  17. Ruddell A, Harrell M, Minoshima S, Maravilla K, Iritani B, White S, et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of tumor-induced lymph flow. Neoplasia. 2008;10:706-13, 1 p following 713 pubmed
    The growth of metastatic tumors in mice can result in markedly increased lymph flow through tumor-draining lymph nodes (LNs), which is associated with LN lymphangiogenesis...
  18. Peltz E, Moore E, Zurawel A, Jordan J, Damle S, Redzic J, et al. Proteome and system ontology of hemorrhagic shock: exploring early constitutive changes in postshock mesenteric lymph. Surgery. 2009;146:347-57 pubmed publisher
    Postshock mesenteric lymph (PSML) is the mechanistic link between splanchnic ischemia reperfusion (IR) and remote organ injury...
  19. Jordan J, Moore E, Damle S, Eckels P, Johnson J, Roach J, et al. Gelsolin is depleted in post-shock mesenteric lymph. J Surg Res. 2007;143:130-5 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that following hemorrhagic shock with splanchnic hypoperfusion, mesenteric lymph contains lipid components that cause neutrophil and EC activation and that protein concentrations are severely ..
  20. D ALESSIO D, Lu W, Sun W, Zheng S, Yang Q, Seeley R, et al. Fasting and postprandial concentrations of GLP-1 in intestinal lymph and portal plasma: evidence for selective release of GLP-1 in the lymph system. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R2163-9 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that GLP-1 levels would be higher in samples of intestinal lymph compared with plasma and could provide a novel system in which to study meal-induced hormone secretion...
  21. Schulz O, Jaensson E, Persson E, Liu X, Worbs T, Agace W, et al. Intestinal CD103+, but not CX3CR1+, antigen sampling cells migrate in lymph and serve classical dendritic cell functions. J Exp Med. 2009;206:3101-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct visualization of cells in lymph vessels and flow cytometry of mouse intestinal lymph revealed that CD103(+) DCs, but not CX3CR1-expressing cells, ..
  22. Pieperhoff S, Rickelt S, Heid H, Claycomb W, Zimbelmann R, Kuhn C, et al. The plaque protein myozap identified as a novel major component of adhering junctions in endothelia of the blood and the lymph vascular systems. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:1709-19 pubmed publisher
    ..cytoplasmic plaques of the adherens junctions (AJs) connecting the endothelial cells of the mammalian blood and lymph vascular systems, including the desmoplakin-containing complexus adhaerentes of the virgultar cells of lymph node ..
  23. Quere I. [Lymphatic system: Anatomy, histology and physiology]. Presse Med. 2010;39:1269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This article provides an overview of current fundamental knowledge relating to lymphoedema based on both the historical anatomy description and the most recent data about lymphangiogenesis...
  24. Zhang L, Zhao Z, Niu C, Zhang J. [Interference effects of lymph plasma on endotoxic shock in rats]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2011;27:75-80 pubmed
    To investigate the interference effects of lymph plasma on endotoxic shock and its mechanism. Sixty Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, model group and lymph plasma group...
  25. Zhao Z, Niu C, Zhang L, Zhang J, Han R, Zhang Y, et al. Exogenous normal lymph alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury in rats. Ren Fail. 2013;35:806-11 pubmed publisher
    ..circulation plays an important regulatory role in the pathogenesis of hemorrhage shock, and that exogenous normal lymph (ENL) has a beneficial effect on multiple organ injuries...
  26. Jordan J, Moore E, Sarin E, Damle S, Kashuk S, Silliman C, et al. Arachidonic acid in postshock mesenteric lymph induces pulmonary synthesis of leukotriene B4. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:1161-6 pubmed publisher
    Mesenteric lymph is the mechanistic link between splanchnic hypoperfusion and acute lung injury (ALI), but the culprit mediator(s) remains elusive...
  27. Hodge L, Bearden M, Schander A, Huff J, Williams A, King H, et al. Lymphatic pump treatment mobilizes leukocytes from the gut associated lymphoid tissue into lymph. Lymphat Res Biol. 2010;8:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to document LPT-induced mobilization of leukocytes from the GALT into the lymphatic circulation...
  28. Lee K, McKimmie C, Gilchrist D, Pallas K, Nibbs R, Garside P, et al. D6 facilitates cellular migration and fluid flow to lymph nodes by suppressing lymphatic congestion. Blood. 2011;118:6220-9 pubmed publisher
    ..important for efficient flow of antigen-bearing fluid and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from peripheral sites to lymph nodes (LNs)...
  29. Shekhar S, Milling S, Jenkins C, MacPherson G. Identification and phenotypic characterization of ?? T cells in rat lymph. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93:168-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We have, for the first time, identified ?? T cells in steady-state thoracic duct lymph (TDL) from rats. The lymph contains ?? T cells expressing CD8 but not CD4, CD25, MHC-II or CD103...
  30. Alitalo K. The lymphatic vasculature in disease. Nat Med. 2011;17:1371-80 pubmed publisher
    ..immune surveillance function, as they import various antigens and activated antigen-presenting cells into the lymph nodes and export immune effector cells and humoral response factors into the blood circulation...
  31. Murali R, Cochran A, Cook M, Hillman J, Karim R, Moncrieff M, et al. Interobserver reproducibility of histologic parameters of melanoma deposits in sentinel lymph nodes: implications for management of patients with melanoma. Cancer. 2009;115:5026-37 pubmed publisher
    Histologic parameters of melanoma deposits in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) have been shown to be predictive of clinical outcome and the presence or absence of tumor in non-SLNs, but assessment of these parameters is prone to ..
  32. Hojo T, Nagao T, Kikuyama M, Akashi S, Kinoshita T. Evaluation of sentinel node biopsy by combined fluorescent and dye method and lymph flow for breast cancer. Breast. 2010;19:210-3 pubmed publisher
    Conservative breast resection with subsequent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is an increasingly popular initial approach for the treatment of breast cancer due to decreased invasiveness...
  33. Condon M, Senthil M, Xu D, Mason L, Sheth S, Spolarics Z, et al. Intravenous injection of mesenteric lymph produced during hemorrhagic shock decreases RBC deformability in the rat. J Trauma. 2011;70:489-95 pubmed publisher
    To test the hypothesis that gut-derived factors carried in trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) lymph are sufficient to induce red blood cells (RBC) injury, to investigate their potential mechanisms of action, and to define the time post-T/HS ..
  34. Weitman E, Aschen S, Farias Eisner G, Albano N, Cuzzone D, Ghanta S, et al. Obesity impairs lymphatic fluid transport and dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70703 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to identify the pathologic consequences of diet induced obesity (DIO) on the lymphatic system...
  35. Fujiyoshi N, Feketeova E, Lu Q, Xu D, Hasko G, Deitch E. Amiloride moderates increased gut permeability and diminishes mesenteric lymph-mediated priming of neutrophils in trauma/hemorrhagic shock. Surgery. 2006;140:810-7 pubmed
    ..We have shown previously that mesenteric lymph duct ligation prevents T/HS-induced lung endothelial injury and neutrophil activation, suggesting that toxic ..
  36. Unno N, Nishiyama M, Suzuki M, Yamamoto N, Inuzuka K, Sagara D, et al. Quantitative lymph imaging for assessment of lymph function using indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2008;36:230-6 pubmed publisher
    A new diagnostic imaging technique that can assess lymph function is needed as a screening test in daily practice. This study assessed the use of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence lymphography in subjects without leg oedema.
  37. Mohammad A, Amayreh L, Mazzara J, Reineke J. Rapid lymph accumulation of polystyrene nanoparticles following pulmonary administration. Pharm Res. 2013;30:424-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated uptake and biodistribution of polystyrene nanoparticles (PN) of 50 nm, 100 nm, 250 nm, and 900 nm diameters in mice following administration to lungs via pharyngeal aspiration...
  38. Proulx S, Kwok E, You Z, Beck C, Shealy D, Ritchlin C, et al. MRI and quantification of draining lymph node function in inflammatory arthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1117:106-23 pubmed
    ..Using this approach to study synovitis and draining lymph node (LN) function we first demonstrated that the LNs of TNF-Tg mice at 5 months are significantly larger and have ..
  39. Gashev A, Wang W, Laine G, Stewart R, Zawieja D. Characteristics of the active lymph pump in bovine prenodal mesenteric lymphatics. Lymphat Res Biol. 2007;5:71-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that the prenodal lymphatics have adapted to the local conditions of lymph flow and are functioning differently than the postnodal vessels.
  40. Hodge L, King H, Williams A, Reder S, Belavadi T, Simecka J, et al. Abdominal lymphatic pump treatment increases leukocyte count and flux in thoracic duct lymph. Lymphat Res Biol. 2007;5:127-33 pubmed
    ..In this study, the thoracic duct of eight anesthetized mongrel dogs was catheterized, so the immediate effects of LPT on lymph flow and leukocyte output could be measured.
  41. Karlsen T, McCormack E, Mujic M, Tenstad O, Wiig H. Minimally invasive quantification of lymph flow in mice and rats by imaging depot clearance of near-infrared albumin. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;302:H391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a new method to quantify lymph flow in mice and rats, based on optically monitoring the depot clearance of near-infrared fluorescently labeled ..
  42. Neuss H, Raue W, Koplin G, Schwenk W, Reetz C, Mall J. Intraoperative application of fibrin sealant does not reduce the duration of closed suction drainage following radical axillary lymph node dissection in melanoma patients: a prospective randomized trial in 58 patients. World J Surg. 2008;32:1450-5 pubmed publisher
    Patients suffering from malignant melanoma often require radical lymph node dissection of the axillary nodal basin...
  43. Dixon J, Zawieja D, Gashev A, Cote G. Measuring microlymphatic flow using fast video microscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2005;10:064016 pubmed
    ..tracking methods are adapted and integrated with an ultra-high-speed imaging camera to obtain measurements of lymph velocities throughout the entire lymphatic contraction cycle in the ratmesentery, something that previous systems ..
  44. Contreras V, Urien C, Guiton R, Alexandre Y, Vu Manh T, Andrieu T, et al. Existence of CD8?-like dendritic cells with a conserved functional specialization and a common molecular signature in distant mammalian species. J Immunol. 2010;185:3313-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the minor sheep CD26(+) skin lymph DC subset shares significant transcriptomic similarities with mouse CD8alpha(+) and human blood DC Ag 3(+) DCs...
  45. Yuan K, Fang J, Hsieh S, Shih H. Comparative proteomic analysis of rodent plasma and mesenteric lymph. Chin J Physiol. 2013;56:163-73 pubmed
    The lymph has long been considered as the plasma filtrate and the proteomes of the lymph have received scanty attention...
  46. Knight J, Baird D, Hein W, Pernthaner A. The gastrointestinal nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis down-regulates immune gene expression in migratory cells in afferent lymph. BMC Immunol. 2010;11:51 pubmed publisher
  47. Pernthaner A, Cole S, Morrison L, Green R, Shaw R, Hein W. Cytokine and antibody subclass responses in the intestinal lymph of sheep during repeated experimental infections with the nematode parasite Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;114:135-48 pubmed
    ..genes, and parasite-specific IgM, IgG1, IgG2, IgA and total IgE levels, were monitored daily in intestinal lymph of sheep infected repeatedly with the nematode parasite Trichostrongylus colubriformis...
  48. Gershwin L, Anderson M, Wang C, Berghaus L, Kenny T, Gunther R. Assessment of IgE response and cytokine gene expression in pulmonary efferent lymph collected after ovalbumin inhalation during experimental infection of calves with bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Am J Vet Res. 2011;72:134-45 pubmed publisher
    To assess IgE response and cytokine gene expressions in pulmonary lymph collected from bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)-infected calves after ovalbumin inhalation.
  49. Dixon J, Greiner S, Gashev A, Cote G, Moore J, Zawieja D. Lymph flow, shear stress, and lymphocyte velocity in rat mesenteric prenodal lymphatics. Microcirculation. 2006;13:597-610 pubmed
    ..To measure lymphocyte velocity, lymphatic contraction, and shear stress in phasically contracting lymphatics in situ...
  50. Fang J, Shih L, Yuan K, Fang K, Hwang T, Hsieh S. Proteomic analysis of post-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph. Shock. 2010;34:291-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mediators and mechanisms of the toxic effects of mesenteric lymph remain unclear...
  51. Mittal A, Middleditch M, Ruggiero K, Loveday B, Delahunt B, Jullig M, et al. Changes in the mesenteric lymph proteome induced by hemorrhagic shock. Shock. 2010;34:140-9 pubmed publisher factors produced by the intestine and transported by the aqueous and protein fraction of mesenteric lymph are now thought to contribute significantly to the development of distant organ failure in hemorrhagic shock...
  52. Venugopal A, Stewart R, Laine G, Dongaonkar R, Quick C. Lymphangion coordination minimally affects mean flow in lymphatic vessels. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H1183-9 pubmed
    ..To determine the effects of lymphangion interaction on lymph flow, we adapted an existing mathematical model of a lymphangion (characterizing lymphangion contractility, lymph ..
  53. Halliday A, McAllister H, Smith W. Kinetics of the local immune response in the gastric lymph of lambs after primary and challenge infection with Teladorsagia circumcincta. Parasite Immunol. 2010;32:81-90 pubmed publisher
    ..from the previously infected sheep, and secondary cellular and humoral responses were observed in the gastric lymph. Increases in CD4+ and CD25+ T lymphoblast traffic on day 3, followed by CD21+ and IgA+ lymphoblasts on day 5, and ..
  54. Deitch E, Qin X, Sheth S, Tiesi G, Palange D, Dong W, et al. Anticoagulants influence the in vitro activity and composition of shock lymph but not its in vivo activity. Shock. 2011;36:177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our recent observation that the anticoagulant heparin induces increased mesenteric lymph lipase activity and consequent in vitro endothelial cell cytotoxicity prompted us to investigate the effect of ..
  55. Damle S, Moore E, Nydam T, Banerjee M, Gamboni Robertson F, Su X, et al. Postshock mesenteric lymph induces endothelial NF-kappaB activation. J Surg Res. 2007;143:136-40 pubmed
    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) has been shown to activate pulmonary endothelial cells and cause lung injury...
  56. Zampell J, Avraham T, Yoder N, Fort N, Yan A, Weitman E, et al. Lymphatic function is regulated by a coordinated expression of lymphangiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic cytokines. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;302:C392-404 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that neutralization of IFN-? significantly increases inflammatory lymph node lymphangiogenesis independently of changes in VEGF-A or VEGF-C expression, suggesting that alterations in the ..
  57. Moll R, Sievers E, Hämmerling B, Schmidt A, Barth M, Kuhn C, et al. Endothelial and virgultar cell formations in the mammalian lymph node sinus: endothelial differentiation morphotypes characterized by a special kind of junction (complexus adhaerens). Cell Tissue Res. 2009;335:109-41 pubmed publisher
    The lymph node sinus are channel structures of unquestionable importance in immunology and pathology, specifically in the filtering of the lymph, the transport and processing of antigens, the adhesion and migration of immune cells, and ..
  58. Motoyama S, Maruyama K, Sato Y, Usami S, Nakatsu T, Saito H, et al. Status of involved lymph nodes and direction of metastatic lymphatic flow between submucosal and t2-4 thoracic squamous cell esophageal cancers. World J Surg. 2009;33:512-7 pubmed publisher
    Three-field lymph node dissection for thoracic esophageal cancer is associated with high morbidity and reduced quality of life after surgery. Consequently, minimized lymphadenectomy would be desirable, if appropriate...
  59. Li Y, Wang J, Li Y, Lin Z. A modified rat model for cannulation and collection of thoracic duct lymph. Lymphology. 2011;44:82-8 pubmed
    Difficulty in collecting lymph samples in small animals has impeded studies on lymphatic function and lymph composition...
  60. Cheville A, Brinkmann D, Ward S, Durski J, Laack N, Yan E, et al. The addition of SPECT/CT lymphoscintigraphy to breast cancer radiation planning spares lymph nodes critical for arm drainage. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;85:971-7 pubmed publisher
    ..cohort study was designed to determine whether the amount of radiation delivered to the nonpathological lymph nodes (LNs) that drain the arm can be significantly reduced by integrating single-photon emission computed ..
  61. Davis M, Rahbar E, Gashev A, Zawieja D, Moore J. Determinants of valve gating in collecting lymphatic vessels from rat mesentery. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H48-60 pubmed publisher
    Secondary lymphatic valves are essential for minimizing backflow of lymph and are presumed to gate passively according to the instantaneous trans-valve pressure gradient...
  62. Blum K, Hadamitzky C, Gratz K, Pabst R. Effects of autotransplanted lymph node fragments on the lymphatic system in the pig model. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;120:59-66 pubmed publisher
    Secondary lymphedema often develops after removal of lymph nodes in combination with radiation therapy, in particular in patients with breast cancer, inguinal cancer, cervical cancer and melanoma...
  63. Ohtani O, Ohtani Y. Lymph circulation in the liver. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2008;291:643-52 pubmed publisher
    The liver produces a large amount of lymph, which is estimated to be 25 to 50 % of lymph flowing through the thoracic duct...
  64. Celebioglu F, Perbeck L, Frisell J, Grondal E, Svensson L, Danielsson R. Lymph drainage studied by lymphoscintigraphy in the arms after sentinel node biopsy compared with axillary lymph node dissection following conservative breast cancer surgery. Acta Radiol. 2007;48:488-95 pubmed
    To investigate lymphatic drainage as measured by lymphoscintigraphy in the arms of patients undergoing either sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  65. Senthil M, Watkins A, Barlos D, Xu D, Lu Q, Abungu B, et al. Intravenous injection of trauma-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph causes lung injury that is dependent upon activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway. Ann Surg. 2007;246:822-30 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that gut-derived factors carried in trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) lymph is sufficient to induce lung injury...
  66. Hedrick M, Drewes R, Hillman S, Withers P. Lung ventilation contributes to vertical lymph movement in anurans. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:3940-5 pubmed
    ..b>Lymph is ultimately pumped into the venous system by paired, dorsally located lymph hearts...
  67. Clement C, Cannizzo E, Nastke M, Sahu R, Olszewski W, Miller N, et al. An expanded self-antigen peptidome is carried by the human lymph as compared to the plasma. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9863 pubmed publisher
    The pre-nodal afferent lymph is the fluid which directly derives from the extracellular milieu from every parenchymal organ and, as it continues to circulate between the cells, it collects products deriving from the organ metabolism/..
  68. Rutkowski P, Nowecki Z, Kulik J, Ruka W, Siedlecki J. Molecular staging by multimarker reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of lymphatic drainage and blood from melanoma patients after lymph node dissection. Melanoma Res. 2008;18:246-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the presence of melanoma cells in lymphatic drainage and blood in melanoma patients after lymph node dissection (LND) via the highly sensitive multimarker (MM) RT-PCR assay...
  69. Sambol J, Lee M, Caputo F, Kawai K, Badami C, Kawai T, et al. Mesenteric lymph duct ligation prevents trauma/hemorrhage shock-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus we tested the hypothesis that factors carried in intestinal (mesenteric) lymph contribute to negative inotropic effects in rats subjected to a laparotomy (T) plus hemorrhagic shock (HS; mean ..
  70. Tokunaga M, Ohyama S, Hiki N, Fukunaga T, Yamada K, Sano T, et al. Investigation of the lymphatic stream of the stomach in gastric cancer with solitary lymph node metastasis. World J Surg. 2009;33:1235-9 pubmed publisher
    Understanding the lymphatic drainage route in gastric cancer is crucial for complete lymph node retrieval from sites susceptible to metastasis. However, the lymphatic stream of the stomach is complex and remains incompletely characterized.
  71. Biris A, Galanzha E, Li Z, Mahmood M, Xu Y, Zharov V. In vivo Raman flow cytometry for real-time detection of carbon nanotube kinetics in lymph, blood, and tissues. J Biomed Opt. 2009;14:021006 pubmed publisher
    ..for in vivo real-time detection of circulating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or cancer cells labeled with CNTs in the lymph, blood, and tissues of live animals with fast spectral acquisition times of down to few milliseconds...
  72. Hemati B, Contreras V, Urien C, Bonneau M, Takamatsu H, Mertens P, et al. Bluetongue virus targets conventional dendritic cells in skin lymph. J Virol. 2009;83:8789-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The virus initially replicates in the draining lymph node and then disseminates to secondary organs where it induces edema, hemorrhages, and necrosis...
  73. Li F, Liu Y, Niu C, Du S, Jiang H, Zhao Z. [Changes in lymph circulation in rats with experimental disseminated intravascular coagulation]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2006;18:488-90 pubmed
    To explore changes in lymph circulation in rats with experimental disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
  74. Lee K, Lee J, Park C, Lee K, Cho H, Ha S. Lymph node metastasis and lymph vascular space invasion in microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16:1184-7 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to determine whether the depth of invasion was related to lymph vascular space invasion (LVSI) and lymph node metastasis and whether there was a correlation between LVSI and lymph node metastasis in stage ..
  75. Zharov V, Galanzha E, Tuchin V. In vivo photothermal flow cytometry: imaging and detection of individual cells in blood and lymph flow. J Cell Biochem. 2006;97:916-32 pubmed
    ..application of this technique for studying normal and abnormal cells in their native condition in blood or lymph flow in vivo...
  76. Modi S, Stanton A, Mortimer P, Levick J. Clinical assessment of human lymph flow using removal rate constants of interstitial macromolecules: a critical review of lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphat Res Biol. 2007;5:183-202 pubmed
    ..Lymphedema is by definition primarily a disease of impaired lymphatic drainage and lymph flow, and progress in lymphedema research, currently an increasingly active field, requires a clinically viable ..
  77. Quick C, Venugopal A, Gashev A, Zawieja D, Stewart R. Intrinsic pump-conduit behavior of lymphangions. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1510-8 pubmed
    ..They can act primarily like pumps when actively transporting lymph against a pressure gradient...
  78. Harrell M, Iritani B, Ruddell A. Tumor-induced sentinel lymph node lymphangiogenesis and increased lymph flow precede melanoma metastasis. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:774-86 pubmed
    ..using B16-F10 melanoma cells implanted in syngeneic C57Bl/6 mice, which form tumors metastasizing to draining lymph nodes and subsequently to the lungs...
  79. Mendoza A, Breart B, Ramos Perez W, Pitt L, Gobert M, Sunkara M, et al. The transporter Spns2 is required for secretion of lymph but not plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1104-10 pubmed publisher
    Plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates vascular permeability, and plasma and lymph S1P guide lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs...
  80. Sharma R, Wang W, Rasmussen J, Joshi A, Houston J, Adams K, et al. Quantitative imaging of lymph function. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H3109-18 pubmed
    ..100-200 microl of 32 microM indocyanine green (ICG) and 64 microM hyaluronan NIR imaging conjugate to target the lymph vascular endothelial receptor (LYVE)-1 on the lymph endothelium...
  81. Kastenmüller W, Torabi Parizi P, Subramanian N, Lämmermann T, Germain R. A spatially-organized multicellular innate immune response in lymph nodes limits systemic pathogen spread. Cell. 2012;150:1235-48 pubmed publisher
    The lymphatic network that transports interstitial fluid and antigens to lymph nodes constitutes a conduit system that can be hijacked by invading pathogens to achieve systemic spread unless dissemination is blocked in the lymph node ..
  82. Junt T, Moseman E, Iannacone M, Massberg S, Lang P, Boes M, et al. Subcapsular sinus macrophages in lymph nodes clear lymph-borne viruses and present them to antiviral B cells. Nature. 2007;450:110-4 pubmed
    b>Lymph nodes prevent the systemic dissemination of pathogens such as viruses that infect peripheral tissues after penetrating the body's surface barriers...
  83. Zhang T, Guan G, Liu G, Sun J, Chen B, Li X, et al. Disturbance of lymph circulation develops renal fibrosis in rats with or without contralateral nephrectomy. Nephrology (Carlton). 2008;13:128-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show the time course of renal lesions caused by long-term ligation of renal hilar lymphatic vessels in rats with or without contralateral nephrectomy...
  84. Mole D, McFerran N, Collett G, O NEILL C, Diamond T, Garden O, et al. Tryptophan catabolites in mesenteric lymph may contribute to pancreatitis-associated organ failure. Br J Surg. 2008;95:855-67 pubmed publisher
    Multiple organ failure (MOF) is the key determinant of mortality in acute pancreatitis (AP). Mesenteric lymph cytotoxicity contributes to organ failure in experimental models of systemic inflammation...
  85. Paliwal R, Paliwal S, Mishra N, Mehta A, Vyas S. Engineered chylomicron mimicking carrier emulsome for lymph targeted oral delivery of methotrexate. Int J Pharm. 2009;380:181-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vivo studies were carried out on albino rats and response was estimated collecting blood and lymph both...
  86. Tomei A, Siegert S, Britschgi M, Luther S, Swartz M. Fluid flow regulates stromal cell organization and CCL21 expression in a tissue-engineered lymph node microenvironment. J Immunol. 2009;183:4273-83 pubmed publisher
    In the paracortex of the lymph node (LN), T zone fibroblastic reticular cells (TRCs) orchestrate an immune response by guiding lymphocyte migration both physically, by creating three-dimensional (3D) cell networks, and chemically, by ..
  87. Montalto E, Mangraviti S, Costa G, Carrega P, Morandi B, Pezzino G, et al. Seroma fluid subsequent to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer derives from an accumulation of afferent lymph. Immunol Lett. 2010;131:67-72 pubmed publisher
    ..It represents a subcutaneous accumulation of fluid frequently reported after surgical procedures such as axillary lymph node dissection...