endolymph

Summary

Summary: The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Ikeda K, Kusakari J, Takasaka T, Saito Y. Early effects of acetazolamide on anionic activities of the guinea pig endolymph: evidence for active function of carbonic anhydrase in the cochlea. Hear Res. 1987;31:211-6 pubmed
    ..The calculated PCO2 in endolymph was 39.6 mmHg...
  2. Guibbolini M, Borelli G, Mayer Gostan N, Priouzeau F, de Pontual H, Allemand D, et al. Characterization and variations of organic parameters in teleost fish endolymph during day-night cycle, starvation and stress conditions. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006;145:99-107 pubmed
    The aim of the present work was to examine the modifications of the organic composition of fish endolymph under environmental conditions (day-night cycle, starvation and Cl2-stress) known to modify otolith growth...
  3. Farris H, Wells G, Ricci A. Steady-state adaptation of mechanotransduction modulates the resting potential of auditory hair cells, providing an assay for endolymph [Ca2+]. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12526-36 pubmed
    ..physiological estimate of endolymphatic Ca2+ near the MET channel (56 +/- 11 microM), a value similar to bulk endolymph levels...
  4. Salt A, DeMott J. Longitudinal endolymph movements induced by perilymphatic injections. Hear Res. 1998;123:137-47 pubmed
    b>Endolymph movements and endocochlear potential (EP) changes were measured during disturbances of perilymphatic pressure. induced by injecting artificial perilymph into scala tympani (ST) or scala vestibuli (SV) of the guinea pig cochlea...
  5. Lee J, Marcus D. Endolymphatic sodium homeostasis by Reissner's membrane. Neuroscience. 2003;119:3-8 pubmed
    Cochlear sensory transduction depends on active extrusion of sodium ion (Na(+)) from the luminal fluid, endolymph. Reissner's membrane epithelium forms much of the barrier between cochlear endolymph and perilymph and we hypothesized that ..
  6. Valli P, Buizza A, Botta L, Zucca G, Ghezzi L, Valli S. Convection, buoyancy or endolymph expansion: what is the actual mechanism responsible for the caloric response of semicircular canals?. J Vestib Res. 2002;12:155-65 pubmed
    ..suggested that the main mechanism responsible for caloric nystagmus is buoyancy due to calorization of the endolymph, without the need of continuous convective currents. Finally, other authors (Scherer and Clarke, Arai et al...
  7. Royaux I, Belyantseva I, Wu T, Kachar B, Everett L, Marcus D, et al. Localization and functional studies of pendrin in the mouse inner ear provide insight about the etiology of deafness in pendred syndrome. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2003;4:394-404 pubmed
    ..of specialized epithelial cells thought to play a key role in regulating the composition and resorption of endolymph. In the cochlea, pendrin was abundant in the apical membrane of cells in the spiral prominence and outer sulcus ..
  8. Marcus D, Wu T, Wangemann P, Kofuji P. KCNJ10 (Kir4.1) potassium channel knockout abolishes endocochlear potential. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002;282:C403-7 pubmed
    ..1) K(+) channel in strial intermediate cells did not generate an endocochlear potential. Endolymph volume and K(+) concentration ([K(+)]) were reduced...
  9. Wangemann P, Itza E, Albrecht B, Wu T, Jabba S, Maganti R, et al. Loss of KCNJ10 protein expression abolishes endocochlear potential and causes deafness in Pendred syndrome mouse model. BMC Med. 2004;2:30 pubmed
    ..We investigated the relationship between pendrin and deafness using mice that have (Slc26a4+/+) or lack a complete Slc26a4 gene (Slc26a4-/-)...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Grunder S, Muller A, Ruppersberg J. Developmental and cellular expression pattern of epithelial sodium channel alpha, beta and gamma subunits in the inner ear of the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;13:641-8 pubmed
    ..was to investigate whether ENaC is expressed in inner ear of rats and could account for Na(+) reabsorption from endolymph. We detected mRNA for the three channel-forming subunits (alpha, beta and gamma ENaC) in cochlea, vestibular ..
  2. Merchant S, Adams J, Nadol J. Pathophysiology of Meniere's syndrome: are symptoms caused by endolymphatic hydrops?. Otol Neurotol. 2005;26:74-81 pubmed
    ..However, this hypothesis of hydrops as being the final common pathway has not been proven conclusively...
  3. Valk W, Wit H, Albers F. Rupture of Reissner's membrane during acute endolymphatic hydrops in the guinea pig: a model for Ménière's disease?. Acta Otolaryngol. 2006;126:1030-5 pubmed
    ..This might be consistent with the hypothesis that an endolymphatic hydrops is a marker of disordered inner ear homeostasis rather than the cause of the clinical symptoms of Ménière's disease...
  4. Quraishi I, Raphael R. Computational model of vectorial potassium transport by cochlear marginal cells and vestibular dark cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C591-602 pubmed
    Cochlear marginal cells and vestibular dark cells transport potassium into the inner ear endolymph, a potassium-rich fluid, the homeostasis of which is essential for hearing and balance...
  5. Ferrary E, Sterkers O. Mechanisms of endolymph secretion. Kidney Int Suppl. 1998;65:S98-103 pubmed
    ..The lumen of the membranous labyrinth is filled with endolymph, a K-rich, positively polarized fluid, whereas the surrounding spaces are filled with perilymph, with a ..
  6. Salt A, DeMott J. Longitudinal endolymph flow associated with acute volume increase in the guinea pig cochlea. Hear Res. 1997;107:29-40 pubmed
    b>Endolymph volume disturbances were induced by microinjections of artificial endolymph into the second turn of the guinea pig cochlea at rates less than 60 nl/min...
  7. Delprat B, Puel J, Geering K. Dynamic expression of FXYD6 in the inner ear suggests a role of the protein in endolymph homeostasis and neuronal activity. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2534-40 pubmed
    ..cochlea (from birth to postnatal day 30) shows that FXYD6 is expressed in several epithelial cells important for endolymph homeostasis...
  8. Dai C, Steyger P. A systemic gentamicin pathway across the stria vascularis. Hear Res. 2008;235:114-24 pubmed
    ..cell uptake of GTTR is competitively inhibited by gentamicin, suggesting that a regulatable barrier for gentamicin entry into endolymph exists at the interface between marginal cells, the intra-strial space and intermediate cells.
  9. Yamane H, Sunami K, Iguchi H, Sakamoto H, Imoto T, Rask Andersen H. Assessment of Meniere's disease from a radiological aspect - saccular otoconia as a cause of Meniere's disease?. Acta Otolaryngol. 2012;132:1054-60 pubmed
    ..These structures could be involved in the pathogenesis of MD...
  10. Couloigner V, Loiseau A, Sterkers O, Amiel C, Ferrary E. Effect of locally applied drugs on the endolymphatic sac potential. Laryngoscope. 1998;108:592-8 pubmed
    ..The endolymphatic sac is assumed to be involved in the secretion/resorption of endolymph. The epithelial transport systems have been indirectly studied by the recording of the endolymphatic sac ..
  11. Ghanem T, Breneman K, Rabbitt R, Brown H. Ionic composition of endolymph and perilymph in the inner ear of the oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau. Biol Bull. 2008;214:83-90 pubmed
    The concentrations of free Na+, K+, Ca(+, and Cl(-)in endolymph and perilymph from the inner ear of the oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, were measured in vivo using double-barreled ion-selective electrodes...
  12. Bartolami S, Gaboyard S, Quentin J, Travo C, Cavalier M, Barhanin J, et al. Critical roles of transitional cells and Na/K-ATPase in the formation of vestibular endolymph. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16541-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the crucial role of endolymph as an electrochemical motor for mechanotransduction, little is known about the processes that govern endolymph ..
  13. Wood J, Muchinsky S, Filoteo A, Penniston J, Tempel B. Low endolymph calcium concentrations in deafwaddler2J mice suggest that PMCA2 contributes to endolymph calcium maintenance. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2004;5:99-110 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that PMCA2 might transport calcium into the endolymph and that dfw2J mice would have low endolymph calcium concentrations, possibly contributing to their deafness and ..
  14. Hirt B, Penkova Z, Eckhard A, Liu W, Rask Andersen H, Muller M, et al. The subcellular distribution of aquaporin 5 in the cochlea reveals a water shunt at the perilymph-endolymph barrier. Neuroscience. 2010;168:957-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Auditory function critically depends on the homeostasis of the cochlear fluids perilymph and endolymph. In particular, the ion and water regulation of the endolymph is essential for sensory transduction...
  15. Borelli G, Guibbolini M, Mayer Gostan N, Priouzeau F, De Pontual H, Allemand D, et al. Daily variations of endolymph composition: relationship with the otolith calcification process in trout. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:2685-92 pubmed
    ..parameters of the otolith calcification process in the trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were analysed in plasma and endolymph over the day:night cycle...
  16. Kim C, Kim H, O Chang S, Oh S, Lee J, Lee J. Developmental change of Na(+)-absorptive function in Reissner's membrane epithelia. Neuroreport. 2009;20:1275-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Development of Na transport in epithelial cells of the Reissner's membrane may contribute considerably to the accomplishment of low Na concentration in the endolymph during early neonatal period.
  17. Borelli G, Mayer Gostan N, Merle P, De Pontual H, Boeuf G, Allemand D, et al. Composition of biomineral organic matrices with special emphasis on turbot (Psetta maxima) otolith and endolymph. Calcif Tissue Int. 2003;72:717-25 pubmed
    ..OM of all biominerals shows carbonic anhydrase activity but no activity was detectable in the endolymph. OM of all biominerals also displays an anticalcifying activity...
  18. Kim S, Kim K, Raveendran N, Wu T, Pondugula S, Marcus D. Regulation of ENaC-mediated sodium transport by glucocorticoids in Reissner's membrane epithelium. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C544-57 pubmed publisher
    ..epithelium forms much of the barrier that produces and sustains the large ionic differences between cochlear endolymph and perilymph...
  19. Gow A, Davies C, Southwood C, Frolenkov G, Chrustowski M, Ng L, et al. Deafness in Claudin 11-null mice reveals the critical contribution of basal cell tight junctions to stria vascularis function. J Neurosci. 2004;24:7051-62 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these data indicate that endocochlear potential is an essential component of the power source for the mammalian cochlear amplifier...
  20. Chen J, Nathans J. Estrogen-related receptor beta/NR3B2 controls epithelial cell fate and endolymph production by the stria vascularis. Dev Cell. 2007;13:325-37 pubmed
    In the mammalian inner ear, endolymph is produced and resorbed by a complex series of epithelia...
  21. Salt A. The endolymphatic sinus is a possible detector of endolymph volume status. Hear Res. 2007;224:117-8 pubmed
  22. Kim H, Wangemann P. Failure of fluid absorption in the endolymphatic sac initiates cochlear enlargement that leads to deafness in mice lacking pendrin expression. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14041 pubmed publisher
    ..Failure of fluid absorption in the endolymphatic sac due to lack of Slc26a4 expression appears to initiate cochlear enlargement in mice, and possibly humans, lacking functional Slc26a4 expression...
  23. Salt A, Inamura N, Thalmann R, Vora A. Calcium gradients in inner ear endolymph. Am J Otolaryngol. 1989;10:371-5 pubmed
    ..resulting from the ablation of the endolymphatic duct and sac in guinea pigs may be caused by a disturbance of endolymph calcium homeostasis...
  24. Muller M, Verhagen J. Optimization of the mechanical performance of a two-duct semicircular duct system--part 2: excitation of endolymph movements. J Theor Biol. 2002;216:425-42 pubmed
    The endolymph flow inside the semicircular ducts is analytically investigated by considering a system of two hydrodynamically interconnected ducts. Rotation of this system adds an amount of motion (momentum) to parts of it...
  25. Rabbitt R, Yamauchi A, Boyle R, Highstein S. How endolymph pressure modulates semicircular canal primary afferent discharge. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;942:313-21 pubmed
    ..The most sensitive primary afferents responded to changes in endolymph pressures as low as 0...
  26. Rask Andersen H, DeMott J, Bagger Sjoback D, Salt A. Morphological changes of the endolymphatic sac induced by microinjection of artificial endolymph into the cochlea. Hear Res. 1999;138:81-90 pubmed
    ..Morphological changes of the endolymphatic sac were analyzed in guinea pigs following microinjection of artificial endolymph into the cochlea or withdrawal of a quantity of native endolymph...
  27. Salt A, DeMott J. Longitudinal endolymph movements and endocochlear potential changes induced by stimulation at infrasonic frequencies. J Acoust Soc Am. 1999;106:847-56 pubmed
    ..The effects of stimulation at infrasonic frequencies (0.1 to 10 Hz) on endocochlear potential (EP) and endolymph movements in the guinea pig cochlea were studied...
  28. Payan P, Edeyer A, De Pontual H, Borelli G, Boeuf G, Mayer Gostan N. Chemical composition of saccular endolymph and otolith in fish inner ear: lack of spatial uniformity. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:R123-31 pubmed
    ..In both trout and turbot, spatial chemical investigation of the endolymph surrounding the otolith (sagitta) showed a lack of uniformity...
  29. Thalmann R, Thalmann I. Source and role of endolymph macromolecules. Acta Otolaryngol. 1999;119:293-6 pubmed
    Evaluation of some 200 endolymph proteins indicates that they are predominantly derived from plasma. However, the profile of endolymph proteins is remarkably similar to that of perilymph and entirely different from that of plasma...
  30. Li H, Steyger P. Systemic aminoglycosides are trafficked via endolymph into cochlear hair cells. Sci Rep. 2011;1:159 pubmed publisher
    ..it remains unknown whether systemically-administered aminoglycosides cross the blood-labyrinth barrier into endolymph and enter hair cells...
  31. Paparella M, Djalilian H. Etiology, pathophysiology of symptoms, and pathogenesis of Meniere's disease. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2002;35:529-45, vi pubmed
    ..Various factors associated with the phenomenon of hydrops include functional or anatomic obstruction of endolymphatic flow, malabsorption of endolymph, genetic anomalies, vasodilation, allergy, viral infection, and autoimmunity.
  32. Stankovic K, Brown D, Alper S, Adams J. Localization of pH regulating proteins H+ATPase and Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in the guinea pig inner ear. Hear Res. 1997;114:21-34 pubmed
    ..large positive endolymphatic potential in the cochlea, a passive movement of protons would be directed out of endolymph leading to endolymphatic alkalization...
  33. Hibino H, Nin F, Tsuzuki C, Kurachi Y. How is the highly positive endocochlear potential formed? The specific architecture of the stria vascularis and the roles of the ion-transport apparatus. Pflugers Arch. 2010;459:521-33 pubmed publisher
    Cochlear endolymph, an extracellular solution containing 150 mM K(+), exhibits a positive potential of +80 mV. This is called the endocochlear potential (EP) and is essential for audition...
  34. Kakigi A, Salt A, Takeda T. Effect of artificial endolymph injection into the cochlear duct on perilymph potassium. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2010;71 Suppl 1:16-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the relationship between endolymphatic hydrops and perilymphatic potassium...
  35. Abbas L, Whitfield T. Nkcc1 (Slc12a2) is required for the regulation of endolymph volume in the otic vesicle and swim bladder volume in the zebrafish larva. Development. 2009;136:2837-48 pubmed publisher
    b>Endolymph is the specialised extracellular fluid present inside the inner ear...
  36. Patuzzi R. Ion flow in stria vascularis and the production and regulation of cochlear endolymph and the endolymphatic potential. Hear Res. 2011;277:4-19 pubmed publisher
    ..of what is known about ion transport through the cells of the mammalian stria vascularis, and discusses how the endolymph and endocochlear potential in scala media are produced by the stria's main cell types...
  37. Muller M, Verhagen J. A new quantitative model of total endolymph flow in the system of semicircular ducts. J Theor Biol. 1988;134:473-501 pubmed
    1. A new concept of endolymph flow in the vertebrate vestibular system is presented. This approach describes quantitatively the flow in the entire system of three semicircular ducts interconnected by the utriculus and the crus commune...
  38. Neyroud N, Tesson F, Denjoy I, Leibovici M, Donger C, Barhanin J, et al. A novel mutation in the potassium channel gene KVLQT1 causes the Jervell and Lange-Nielsen cardioauditory syndrome. Nat Genet. 1997;15:186-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that KVLQT1 is responsible for both JLN and RW syndromes and has a key role not only in the ventricular repolarization but also in normal hearing, probably via the control of endolymph homeostasis.
  39. Dravis C, Wu T, Chumley M, Yokoyama N, Wei S, Wu D, et al. EphB2 and ephrin-B2 regulate the ionic homeostasis of vestibular endolymph. Hear Res. 2007;223:93-104 pubmed
    ..reverse signaling exhibit a hyperactive circling (waltzing) locomotion associated with a decreased amount of endolymph fluid that normally fills the vestibular labyrinth...
  40. Muñoz D, Kendrick I, Rassam M, Thorne P. Vesicular storage of adenosine triphosphate in the guinea-pig cochlear lateral wall and concentrations of ATP in the endolymph during sound exposure and hypoxia. Acta Otolaryngol. 2001;121:10-5 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to provide further evidence of ATP storage in the cochlea and to see whether ATP levels in the endolymph are affected by noise and hypoxia...
  41. Salt A. Regulation of endolymphatic fluid volume. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;942:306-12 pubmed
    Direct measurements of the dispersal of markers in endolymph have failed to support previously established hypotheses of endolymph homeostasis, specifically longitudinal flow, radial flow, and dynamic flow theories...
  42. Borelli G, Mayer Gostan N, De Pontual H, Boeuf G, Payan P. Biochemical relationships between endolymph and otolith matrix in the trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and turbot (Psetta maxima). Calcif Tissue Int. 2001;69:356-64 pubmed
    This paper compares the organic compositions of the otolith and endolymph of trout and turbot. Irrespective of the method of demineralization (0...
  43. Arenberg I, Kobayashi H, Obert A, Gibson W. Intraoperative electrocochleography of endolymphatic hydrops surgery using clicks and tone bursts. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1993;504:58-67 pubmed
    ..When tone burst ECoG information is combined with click stimuli, our basic understanding of click ECoG is enhanced and our ability to assess electrophysiologic changes intraoperatively is improved. ..
  44. Delprat B, Schaer D, Roy S, Wang J, Puel J, Geering K. FXYD6 is a novel regulator of Na,K-ATPase expressed in the inner ear. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:7450-6 pubmed
    ..sensitivity of the cochlea, which mediates the transduction of sound waves into nerve impulses, depends on the endolymph ionic composition and the endocochlear potential...
  45. Johnson S, Kennedy H, Holley M, Fettiplace R, Marcotti W. The resting transducer current drives spontaneous activity in prehearing mammalian cochlear inner hair cells. J Neurosci. 2012;32:10479-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that, in vivo, spontaneous Ca(2+) action potentials are intrinsically generated by IHCs up to the onset of hearing and that they are likely to influence the final sensory-independent refinement of the developing cochlea. ..
  46. Naganawa S, Satake H, Kawamura M, Fukatsu H, Sone M, Nakashima T. Separate visualization of endolymphatic space, perilymphatic space and bone by a single pulse sequence; 3D-inversion recovery imaging utilizing real reconstruction after intratympanic Gd-DTPA administration at 3 Tesla. Eur Radiol. 2008;18:920-4 pubmed publisher
    ..zero) by setting the inversion time between the null point of Gd-containing perilymph fluid and that of the endolymph fluid without Gd...
  47. Kondo T, Suzuki M, Konomi U, Otsuka K, Inagaki T, Shimizu S, et al. Changes in the cupula after disruption of the membranous labyrinth. Acta Otolaryngol. 2012;132:228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Large or elongated volume of the cupula was also observed, which was not observed in our previous study using gentamicin. The CAP could be recorded even when the cupular change was severe. ..
  48. Bosher S. The nature of the negative endocochlear potentials produced by anoxia and ethacrynic acid in the rat and guinea-pig. J Physiol. 1979;293:329-45 pubmed
    1. The alterations in the Na+ and K+ concentrations of the cochlear endolymph and in the endocochlear potential were followed simultaneously by means of ion-sensitive and conventional micro-electrodes during simple anoxia, during anoxia ..
  49. Pau H, Limberg W. [Flow kinetics of the endolymph in caloric stimulation]. Laryngorhinootologie. 1989;68:342-6 pubmed
    From our experiment in fluid mechanics there is strong evidence that caloric nystagmus is caused by streaming endolymph in weightlessness as well as by gravity...
  50. Ohashi T, Nishino H, Arai Y, Hyodo M, Takatsu M. Clinical significance of the summating potential-action potential ratio and the action potential latency difference for condensation and rarefaction clicks in Meniere's disease. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2009;118:307-12 pubmed
  51. Wang X, Kong W. Firing properties and classification of MVN neurons in rats. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2003;23:201-2, 205 pubmed
    ..I It was concluded that the neuronal firing rate in MVN was changed by caloric stimulation in middle ear cavity. The response was different in various neurons. ..
  52. Sawada S, Takeda T, Kitano H, Takeuchi S, Kakigi A, Azuma H. Aquaporin-2 regulation by vasopressin in the rat inner ear. Neuroreport. 2002;13:1127-9 pubmed
    ..have suggested a close relationship between vasopressin and endolymphatic hydrops, or the increased volume of endolymph in the inner ear. Endolymphatic hydrops is also thought to occur in Ménière's disease patients...
  53. Gan R, Dai C, Wood M. Laser interferometry measurements of middle ear fluid and pressure effects on sound transmission. J Acoust Soc Am. 2006;120:3799-810 pubmed
    ..These findings show how the efficiency of the middle ear system for sound transmission changes during the presence of fluid in the cavity and variations of middle ear pressure. ..
  54. Santos C, Belinha J, Gentil F, Parente M, Jorge R. An alternative 3D numerical method to study the biomechanical behaviour of the human inner ear semicircular canal. Acta Bioeng Biomech. 2017;19:3-15 pubmed
    ..One of the most efficient treatments at the moment is vestibular rehabilitation, permitting to improve the symptoms. However, this rehabilitation therapy is a highly empirical process, which needs to be enhanced and better understood...
  55. Li X, Zhou F, Marcus D, Wangemann P. Endolymphatic Na? and K? concentrations during cochlear growth and enlargement in mice lacking Slc26a4/pendrin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65977 pubmed publisher
    ..High Na(+) (?141 mM) and low K(+) concentrations (?11 mM) were found at embryonic day (E) 16.5 in cochlear endolymph of Slc26a4 (?/+) and Slc26a4 (?/?) mice. Shortly before birth the K(+) concentration began to rise...
  56. Thorne P, Munoz D, Housley G. Purinergic modulation of cochlear partition resistance and its effect on the endocochlear potential in the Guinea pig. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2004;5:58-65 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a novel sound transduction regulatory mechanism, which, via extracellular ATP, has the capability of adjusting hearing sensitivity...
  57. Wang M, Qiu J, Mi W, Wang F, Qu J. In vitro effect of altering potassium concentration in artificial endolymph on apoptosis and ultrastructure features of olfactory bulb neural precursor cells. Neurosci Lett. 2011;487:383-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Several mammalian stem cell lines are being successfully transplanted into, or migrated to, the endolymph (EL) fluids environment of the cochlea. However, the survival rate of transplanted cells is relatively low...
  58. Taguchi D, Takeda T, Kakigi A, Okada T, Nishioka R, Kitano H. Expression and immunolocalization of aquaporin-6 (Aqp6) in the rat inner ear. Acta Otolaryngol. 2008;128:832-40 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its lack of expression on the plasma membrane indicates that Aqp6 does not have a direct role in water flux via the plasma membrane...
  59. Zhang M, Surles J. Voltage-dependent outer hair cell stereocilia stiffness at acoustic frequencies. Neuroreport. 2008;19:855-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a decrease in stiffness may serve as an important adjusting factor inside the cochlear amplifying loop...
  60. Holme R, Steel K. Genes involved in deafness. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:309-14 pubmed
    ..To date, mutations in at least 35 genes are known to cause hearing loss. We are now beginning to understand the function of many of these genes, which affect diverse aspects of ear development and function...
  61. Wangemann P, Shen Z, Liu J. K(+)-induced stimulation of K+ secretion involves activation of the IsK channel in vestibular dark cells. Hear Res. 1996;100:201-10 pubmed
    Vestibular dark cells in the inner ear secrete K+ from perilymph containing 4 mM K+ to endolymph containing 145 mM K+...
  62. Klis J, Smoorenburg G. Cochlear potentials and their modulation by low-frequency sound in early endolymphatic hydrops. Hear Res. 1988;32:175-84 pubmed
    ..Modulation of summating potentials by the low-frequency bias was smaller on the operated side. In most cochleae an endolymphatic hydrops was observed. Three cochleae showed a collapse of Reissner's membrane...
  63. Klis J, Prijs V, Latour J, Smoorenburg G. Modulation of cochlear tuning by low-frequency sound. Hear Res. 1988;36:163-73 pubmed
    ..The relationship of these phenomena with the pathophysiology of Ménière's disease and with possible active mechanisms in cochlear transduction is discussed...
  64. Ye Y. [Experimental endolymphatic hydrops and its related morphological and functional changes in guinea pigs]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 1990;12:84-9 pubmed
    ..The criteria of ENG elicited by the quantitative angular acceleration stimuli for evaluating the semicircular canal function in guinea pigs is proposed for the first time in our experiment...