extracellular vesicles

Summary

Summary: Membrane limited structures derived from cell membranes and cytoplasmic material, and released into EXTRACELLULAR SPACE. They circulate through the EXTRACELLULAR FLUID and through the peripheral blood in the MICROVASCULATURE where cells, much larger, cannot, thereby affecting a variety of intercellular communication processes.

Top Publications

  1. Choi C, Park E, Yun S, Lee S, Kim S, Kim G. Potential Usefulness of Streptococcus pneumoniae Extracellular Membrane Vesicles as Antibacterial Vaccines. J Immunol Res. 2017;2017:7931982 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that S. pneumoniae EMVs or their individual immunogenic antigens may be useful as new vaccine agents. ..
  2. Pastor Y, Camacho A, Gil A, Ramos R, Cerain A, Penuelas I, et al. Effective protection of mice against Shigella flexneri with a new self-adjuvant multicomponent vaccine. J Med Microbiol. 2017;66:946-958 pubmed publisher
    ..Further development is required, such as additional immune analyses, to evaluate whether this new subunit vaccine can be useful in achieving full protection against Shigella. ..
  3. McBride J, Rodriguez Menocal L, Badiavas E. Extracellular Vesicles as Biomarkers and Therapeutics in Dermatology: A Focus on Exosomes. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:1622-1629 pubmed publisher
    b>Extracellular vesicles (exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies) are ubiquitous in human tissues, circulation, and body fluids...
  4. Coumans F, Brisson A, Buzas E, Dignat George F, Drees E, El Andaloussi S, et al. Methodological Guidelines to Study Extracellular Vesicles. Circ Res. 2017;120:1632-1648 pubmed publisher
    Owing to the relationship between extracellular vesicles (EVs) and physiological and pathological conditions, the interest in EVs is exponentially growing. EVs hold high hopes for novel diagnostic and translational discoveries...
  5. De Palma M, Biziato D, Petrova T. Microenvironmental regulation of tumour angiogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer. 2017;17:457-474 pubmed publisher
  6. Brett S, Lucien F, Guo C, Williams K, Kim Y, Durfee P, et al. Immunoaffinity based methods are superior to kits for purification of prostate derived extracellular vesicles from plasma samples. Prostate. 2017;77:1335-1343 pubmed publisher
    The ability to isolate extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes or microparticles is an important method that is currently not standardized...
  7. Eirin A, Zhu X, Puranik A, Tang H, McGurren K, Van Wijnen A, et al. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate kidney inflammation. Kidney Int. 2017;92:114-124 pubmed publisher
    ..MSC-derived extracellular vesicles emerged as a novel noncellular alternative...
  8. Hauser P, Wang S, Didenko V. Apoptotic Bodies: Selective Detection in Extracellular Vesicles. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1554:193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In result current purification approaches do not fully discriminate between different categories of extracellular vesicles. Here, we present a fluorescence technique that specifically identifies apoptotic bodies in preparations ..
  9. Sadovska L, Zandberga E, Sagini K, Jēkabsons K, Riekstiņa U, Kalniņa Z, et al. A novel 3D heterotypic spheroid model for studying extracellular vesicle-mediated tumour and immune cell communication. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:1930-1935 pubmed publisher
    Cancer-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important mediators of tumour-host interactions, and they have been shown to exert various functional effects in immune cells...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Krämer Albers E, Ping Kuo Elsner W. Extracellular Vesicles: Goodies for the Brain?. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016;41:371-2 pubmed publisher
  2. Xu Y, Qin S, An T, Tang Y, Huang Y, Zheng L. MiR-145 detection in urinary extracellular vesicles increase diagnostic efficiency of prostate cancer based on hydrostatic filtration dialysis method. Prostate. 2017;77:1167-1175 pubmed publisher
    b>Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can be detected in body fluids and may serve as disease biomarkers. Increasing evidence suggests that circulating miRNAs in serum and urine may be potential non-invasive biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa)...
  3. Ragni E, Banfi F, Barilani M, Cherubini A, Parazzi V, Larghi P, et al. Extracellular Vesicle-Shuttled mRNA in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Communication. Stem Cells. 2017;35:1093-1105 pubmed publisher
    ..MSC homing at injury sites suggests that paracrine functions could, at least in part, be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs); EVs are newly identified players that are studied mainly as predictive or diagnostic biomarkers...
  4. Mellisho E, Velasquez A, Núñez M, Cabezas J, Cueto J, Fader C, et al. Identification and characteristics of extracellular vesicles from bovine blastocysts produced in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178306 pubmed publisher
    b>Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified within different body fluids and cell culture media. However, there is very little information on the secretion of these vesicles during early embryonic development...
  5. Tong M, Chen Q, James J, Wise M, Stone P, Chamley L. In vivo targets of human placental micro-vesicles vary with exposure time and pregnancy. Reproduction. 2017;153:835-845 pubmed publisher
    Throughout human gestation, the placenta extrudes vast quantities of extracellular vesicles (EVs) of different sizes into the maternal circulation...
  6. Black A, Orso E, Kelsch R, Pereira M, Kamhieh Milz J, Salama A, et al. Analysis of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles in plateletpheresis concentrates: a multicenter study. Transfusion. 2017;57:1459-1469 pubmed publisher
    Routine quantification of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (PL-EVs) may be useful in the quality control (QC) of platelet concentrates (PCs)...
  7. Shinohara H, Kuranaga Y, Kumazaki M, Sugito N, Yoshikawa Y, Takai T, et al. Regulated Polarization of Tumor-Associated Macrophages by miR-145 via Colorectal Cancer-Derived Extracellular Vesicles. J Immunol. 2017;199:1505-1515 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies showed that cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) contribute to tumor development and modulation of the tumor microenvironment...
  8. Tkach M, Kowal J, Zucchetti A, Enserink L, Jouve M, Lankar D, et al. Qualitative differences in T-cell activation by dendritic cell-derived extracellular vesicle subtypes. EMBO J. 2017;36:3012-3028 pubmed publisher
    Exosomes, nano-sized secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs), are actively studied for their diagnostic and therapeutic potential...
  9. Pearson L, Klaharn I, Thongsawang B, Manuprasert W, Saejew T, Somparn P, et al. Multiple extracellular vesicle types in peritoneal dialysis effluent are prominent and contain known biomarkers. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178601 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released as part of normal cellular processes...
  10. Claßen L, Tykocinski L, Wiedmann F, Birr C, Schiller P, Tucher C, et al. Extracellular vesicles mediate intercellular communication: Transfer of functionally active microRNAs by microvesicles into phagocytes. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1535-1549 pubmed publisher
    Cell activation and apoptosis lead to the formation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes or microvesicles (MVs)...
  11. Iraci N, Gaude E, Leonardi T, Costa A, Cossetti C, Peruzzotti Jametti L, et al. Extracellular vesicles are independent metabolic units with asparaginase activity. Nat Chem Biol. 2017;13:951-955 pubmed publisher
    b>Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane particles involved in the exchange of a broad range of bioactive molecules between cells and the microenvironment...
  12. Harden M, Munger K. Human papillomavirus 16 E6 and E7 oncoprotein expression alters microRNA expression in extracellular vesicles. Virology. 2017;508:63-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Extracellular vesicles released by cancer cells are mediators of intercellular communication that have been reported to contribute to carcinogenesis...
  13. Spaans F, Kao C, Morton J, Quon A, Sawamura T, Tannetta D, et al. Syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles impair rat uterine vascular function via the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180364 pubmed publisher
    Syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEVs) are placenta derived particles that are released into the maternal circulation during pregnancy. Abnormal levels of STBEVs have been proposed to affect maternal vascular function...
  14. Shigemoto Kuroda T, Oh J, Kim D, Jeong H, Park S, Lee H, et al. MSC-derived Extracellular Vesicles Attenuate Immune Responses in Two Autoimmune Murine Models: Type 1 Diabetes and Uveoretinitis. Stem Cell Reports. 2017;8:1214-1225 pubmed publisher
    Accumulating evidence shows that extracellular vesicles (EVs) produced by mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) exert their therapeutic effects in several disease models...
  15. Li Z, Liang Y, Pan K, Li H, Yu M, Guo W, et al. Schwann cells secrete extracellular vesicles to promote and maintain the proliferation and multipotency of hDPCs. Cell Prolif. 2017;50: pubmed publisher
    ..SC secretion and SC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) were collected and used to treat hDPCs; and proliferation and multiple differentiation of hDPCs were ..
  16. Cambier L, de Couto G, Ibrahim A, Echavez A, Valle J, Liu W, et al. Y RNA fragment in extracellular vesicles confers cardioprotection via modulation of IL-10 expression and secretion. EMBO Mol Med. 2017;9:337-352 pubmed publisher
    Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) reduce myocardial infarct size via secreted extracellular vesicles (CDC-EVs), including exosomes, which alter macrophage polarization...
  17. Vandenabeele P, Riquet F, Cappe B. Necroptosis: (Last) Message in a Bubble. Immunity. 2017;47:1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Two independent reports-in Immunity (Yoon et al., 2017) and Cell (Gong et al., 2017)-reveal that MLKL affects homeostatic membrane trafficking and necroptosis-enhanced bubble formation involving interaction with the ESCRT machinery. ..
  18. Li M, Lee K, Hsu M, NAU G, Mylonakis E, Ramratnam B. Lactobacillus-derived extracellular vesicles enhance host immune responses against vancomycin-resistant enterococci. BMC Microbiol. 2017;17:66 pubmed publisher
    Probiotic bacteria are known to modulate host immune responses against various pathogens. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as potentially important mediators of host-pathogen interactions...
  19. Borroto Escuela D, Agnati L, Bechter K, Jansson A, Tarakanov A, Fuxe K. The role of transmitter diffusion and flow versus extracellular vesicles in volume transmission in the brain neural-glial networks. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015;370: pubmed publisher
  20. Pachler K, Lener T, Streif D, Dunai Z, Desgeorges A, Feichtner M, et al. A Good Manufacturing Practice-grade standard protocol for exclusively human mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles. Cytotherapy. 2017;19:458-472 pubmed publisher
    b>Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may contribute to biological processes such as tissue regeneration, immunomodulation and neuroprotection...
  21. Zargarian S, Shlomovitz I, Erlich Z, Hourizadeh A, Ofir Birin Y, Croker B, et al. Phosphatidylserine externalization, "necroptotic bodies" release, and phagocytosis during necroptosis. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2002711 pubmed publisher
    ..Necroptotic cells that expose PS release extracellular vesicles containing proteins and pMLKL to their surroundings...
  22. Motta Mejia C, Kandzija N, Zhang W, Mhlomi V, Cerdeira A, Burdujan A, et al. Placental Vesicles Carry Active Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Their Activity is Reduced in Preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2017;70:372-381 pubmed publisher
    ..Syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV), comprising microvesicles (STBMV) and exosomes, carry signals from the syncytiotrophoblast to the ..
  23. Kuravi S, Yates C, Foster M, Harrison P, Hazeldine J, Hampson P, et al. Changes in the pattern of plasma extracellular vesicles after severe trauma. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183640 pubmed publisher
    b>Extracellular vesicles (EV) released into the circulation after traumatic injury may influence complications...
  24. Patten D, Hussein E, Davies S, Humphreys P, Collett A. Commensal-derived OMVs elicit a mild proinflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells. Microbiology. 2017;163:702-711 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate a unique interaction between commensal-derived OMVs and host cells. ..
  25. Hodroge A, Trécherel E, Cornu M, Darwiche W, Mansour A, Ait Mohand K, et al. Oligogalacturonic Acid Inhibits Vascular Calcification by Two Mechanisms: Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Osteogenic Conversion and Interaction With Collagen. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1391-1401 pubmed publisher
    ..During the calcification process, extracellular vesicles (also known as matrix vesicles) released by vascular smooth muscle cells interact with type I collagen and ..
  26. Guo K, Yao J, Yu Q, Li Z, Huang H, Cheng J, et al. The expression pattern of long non-coding RNA PVT1 in tumor tissues and in extracellular vesicles of colorectal cancer correlates with cancer progression. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317699122 pubmed publisher
    ..so far are discovered in either cells or tissues, but no research about long non-coding RNAs detection in extracellular vesicles has been reported yet...
  27. Yoon S, Kovalenko A, Bogdanov K, Wallach D. MLKL, the Protein that Mediates Necroptosis, Also Regulates Endosomal Trafficking and Extracellular Vesicle Generation. Immunity. 2017;47:51-65.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..of receptors and ligands, modulating their induced signaling and facilitating the generation of extracellular vesicles. This role was exerted on two quantitative grades: a constitutive one independent of RIPK3, and an ..
  28. Niu Z, Pang R, Liu W, Li Q, Cheng R, Yeung W. Polymer-based precipitation preserves biological activities of extracellular vesicles from an endometrial cell line. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186534 pubmed publisher
    b>Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles released by cells and act as media for transfer of proteins, small RNAs and mRNAs to distant sites. They can be isolated by different methods...
  29. Hoefler B, Stubbendieck R, Josyula N, Moisan S, Schulze E, Straight P. A Link between Linearmycin Biosynthesis and Extracellular Vesicle Genesis Connects Specialized Metabolism and Bacterial Membrane Physiology. Cell Chem Biol. 2017;24:1238-1249.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that extracellular vesicles may traffic the lipid-like linearmycins...
  30. Couch Y, Akbar N, Davis S, Fischer R, Dickens A, Neuhaus A, et al. Inflammatory Stroke Extracellular Vesicles Induce Macrophage Activation. Stroke. 2017;48:2292-2296 pubmed publisher
    b>Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are protein-lipid complexes released from cells, as well as actively exocytosed, as part of normal physiology, but also during pathological processes such as those occurring during a stroke...
  31. Khan S, Simpson J, Lynch J, Turay D, Mirshahidi S, Gonda A, et al. Racial differences in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins in extracellular vesicles (EV) from prostate cancer patients. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183122 pubmed publisher
    ..EVs could serve as reservoirs of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets that may have clinical utility in reducing prostate cancer health disparities...
  32. Viegas C, Costa R, Santos L, Videira P, Silva Z, Araújo N, et al. Gla-rich protein function as an anti-inflammatory agent in monocytes/macrophages: Implications for calcification-related chronic inflammatory diseases. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177829 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, GRP was detected at protein and mRNA levels in extracellular vesicles released by macrophages, which may act as vehicles for extracellular trafficking and release...
  33. Gerlach J, Maguire C, Krüger A, Joshi L, Prina Mello A, Griffin M. Urinary nanovesicles captured by lectins or antibodies demonstrate variations in size and surface glycosylation profile. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2017;12:1217-1229 pubmed publisher
    The use of carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) to isolate urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) was investigated and the captured subpopulations were characterized...
  34. Martinez M, Andriantsitohaina R. Extracellular Vesicles in Metabolic Syndrome. Circ Res. 2017;120:1674-1686 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, extracellular vesicles (EVs) may represent novel effectors that might help to elucidate disease-specific pathways in metabolic ..
  35. Matsuzaki J, Ochiya T. Circulating microRNAs and extracellular vesicles as potential cancer biomarkers: a systematic review. Int J Clin Oncol. 2017;22:413-420 pubmed publisher
    Circulating non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, and the protein components of extracellular vesicles are promising biomarkers for the non-invasive detection of cancer at an early stage...
  36. Stik G, Crequit S, Petit L, Durant J, Charbord P, Jaffredo T, et al. Extracellular vesicles of stromal origin target and support hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:2217-2230 pubmed publisher
    b>Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recently reported as crucial mediators in cell-to-cell communication in development and disease...
  37. Arbelaiz A, Azkargorta M, Krawczyk M, Santos Laso A, Lapitz A, Perugorria M, et al. Serum extracellular vesicles contain protein biomarkers for primary sclerosing cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatology. 2017;66:1125-1143 pubmed publisher
    ..In the search for novel biomarkers, serum extracellular vesicles (EV) were isolated from CCA (n = 43), PSC (n = 30), or HCC (n = 29) patients and healthy individuals (..
  38. Todorova D, Simoncini S, Lacroix R, Sabatier F, Dignat George F. Extracellular Vesicles in Angiogenesis. Circ Res. 2017;120:1658-1673 pubmed publisher
    During the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs), which include apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes, have emerged as important players in cell-to-cell communication in normal physiology and pathological conditions...
  39. Baker S, Polanco J, Götz J. Extracellular Vesicles Containing P301L Mutant Tau Accelerate Pathological Tau Phosphorylation and Oligomer Formation but Do Not Seed Mature Neurofibrillary Tangles in ALZ17 Mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;54:1207-1217 pubmed
    ..Here, we compared the seeding potential of lysates and extracellular vesicles enriched for exosomes (EVs) from wild-type and human P301L tau transgenic rTg4510 mouse brains...
  40. Pellegrini K, Patil D, Douglas K, Lee G, Wehrmeyer K, Torlak M, et al. Detection of prostate cancer-specific transcripts in extracellular vesicles isolated from post-DRE urine. Prostate. 2017;77:990-999 pubmed publisher
    ..use whole urine or cell pellets for the analysis of prostate cancer-associated genes, although the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has also recently been of interest...
  41. Gool E, Stojanovic I, Schasfoort R, Sturk A, van Leeuwen T, Nieuwland R, et al. Surface Plasmon Resonance is an Analytically Sensitive Method for Antigen Profiling of Extracellular Vesicles. Clin Chem. 2017;63:1633-1641 pubmed publisher
    Identification, enumeration, and characterization of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are hampered by the small size of EVs, a low refractive index, and low numbers of antigens on their surface...
  42. Mohankumar S, Patel T. Extracellular vesicle long noncoding RNA as potential biomarkers of liver cancer. Brief Funct Genomics. 2016;15:249-56 pubmed publisher
    Analysis of extracellular vesicles (EV) and their contents may be useful as disease biomarkers if they reflect the contents of cells of origin, differ between normal and diseased tissue and can be reliably detected...
  43. Evans Osses I, Mojoli A, Monguió Tortajada M, Marcilla A, Aran V, Amorim M, et al. Microvesicles released from Giardia intestinalis disturb host-pathogen response in vitro. Eur J Cell Biol. 2017;96:131-142 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of biogenesis and content of MVs derived from trophozoites might have important implications in the pathogenesis of the disease. ..
  44. Fernando M, Jiang C, Krzyzanowski G, Ryan W. New evidence that a large proportion of human blood plasma cell-free DNA is localized in exosomes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183915 pubmed publisher
    ..Size of extracellular vesicles isolated from plasma was heterogeneous and showed a mean value of 92.6 nm and a mode 39.7 nm...
  45. Gangadaran P, Hong C, Ahn B. Current Perspectives on In Vivo Noninvasive Tracking of Extracellular Vesicles with Molecular Imaging. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:9158319 pubmed publisher
    Clinical and preclinical in vivo tracking of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a crucial tool for the development and optimization of EV-based diagnosis and treatment...
  46. Muraca M, Piccoli M, Franzin C, Tolomeo A, Jurga M, Pozzobon M, et al. Diverging Concepts and Novel Perspectives in Regenerative Medicine. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..effects of transplanted cells are mediated by paracrine signals, and that such signals can be found in extracellular vesicles isolated from culture media, opens novel therapeutic perspectives in the field of regenerative medicine.
  47. Carreras Planella L, Soler Majoral J, Rubio Esteve C, Lozano Ramos S, Franquesa M, Bonet J, et al. Characterization and proteomic profile of extracellular vesicles from peritoneal dialysis efflux. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176987 pubmed publisher
    ..As in other pathologies, the identification and characterization of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the peritoneal dialysis efflux (PDE) may represent a non-invasive alternative to identify ..
  48. Jung A, Hoffmann K, Herkt C, Schulz C, Bertrams W, Schmeck B. Legionella pneumophila Outer Membrane Vesicles: Isolation and Analysis of Their Pro-inflammatory Potential on Macrophages. J Vis Exp. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of L. pneumophila OMVs from liquid culture by ultracentrifugation and for the downstream analysis of their pro-inflammatory potential on macrophages. ..
  49. Soekmadji C, Corcoran N, Oleinikova I, Jovanovic L, Ramm G, Nelson C, et al. Extracellular vesicles for personalized therapy decision support in advanced metastatic cancers and its potential impact for prostate cancer. Prostate. 2017;77:1416-1423 pubmed publisher
    The use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, as liquid biopsy-derived biomarkers for cancers have been investigated...
  50. Van Deun J, Mestdagh P, Agostinis P, Akay Ö, Anand S, Anckaert J, et al. EV-TRACK: transparent reporting and centralizing knowledge in extracellular vesicle research. Nat Methods. 2017;14:228-232 pubmed publisher
    ..org) that centralizes EV biology and methodology with the goal of stimulating authors, reviewers, editors and funders to put experimental guidelines into practice. ..
  51. de Candia P, De Rosa V, Gigantino V, Botti G, Ceriello A, Matarese G. Immunometabolism of human autoimmune diseases: from metabolites to extracellular vesicles. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:3119-3134 pubmed publisher
    ..More recently, adipocytes were discovered to also release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing a plethora of biological molecules, including metabolites and microRNAs, which can ..
  52. Gilani S, Anderson U, Jayachandran M, Weissgerber T, Zand L, White W, et al. Urinary Extracellular Vesicles of Podocyte Origin and Renal Injury in Preeclampsia. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28:3363-3372 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that renal expression of podocyte-specific proteins would be reflected in urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) of podocyte origin and accompanied by increased urinary soluble nephrin levels (nephrinuria) in ..
  53. De S, Kuwahara S, Hosojima M, Ishikawa T, Kaseda R, Sarkar P, et al. Exocytosis-Mediated Urinary Full-Length Megalin Excretion Is Linked With the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy. Diabetes. 2017;66:1391-1404 pubmed publisher
    ..C-megalin excretion from IRPTCs via extracellular vesicles was significantly blocked by an exosome-specific inhibitor, GW4869, indicating that this excretion is ..