extracellular traps


Summary: Extracellular structure primarily composed of CHROMATIN and associated PROTEASES.

Top Publications

  1. Zhang S, Huang G, Yuan K, Zhu Q, Sheng H, Yu R, et al. Tanshinone IIA ameliorates chronic arthritis in mice by modulating neutrophil activities. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017;190:29-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were assessed by immunostaining and confocal microscopy...
  2. Panicker S, Mehta D souza P, Zhang N, Klopocki A, Shao B, McEver R. Circulating soluble P-selectin must dimerize to promote inflammation and coagulation in mice. Blood. 2017;130:181-191 pubmed publisher
    ..oligomerization of sP-selectin or sP-selectin-Fc was required to trigger formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Injecting sP-selectin-Fc, but not sP-selectin, into mice augmented integrin-dependent adhesion of ..
  3. Jacob C, Yu N, Yoo D, Perez Zapata L, Barbu E, Kaplan M, et al. Haploinsufficiency of NADPH Oxidase Subunit Neutrophil Cytosolic Factor 2 Is Sufficient to Accelerate Full-Blown Lupus in NZM 2328 Mice. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69:1647-1660 pubmed publisher
    ..compartments, increased expression of type I interferon-responsive genes, and generation of neutrophil extracellular traps, which were observed even in the absence of NADPH oxidase activity...
  4. Granger V, Faille D, Marani V, Noel B, Gallais Y, Szely N, et al. Human blood monocytes are able to form extracellular traps. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;102:775-781 pubmed publisher
    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular DNA filaments formed during neutrophil activation. This process, called netosis, was originally associated with neutrophil antibacterial properties...
  5. Abdol Razak N, Elaskalani O, Metharom P. Pancreatic Cancer-Induced Neutrophil Extracellular Traps: A Potential Contributor to Cancer-Associated Thrombosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been associated with cancer metastasis and cancer-associated thrombosis, but the ability of ..
  6. Ma F, Yi L, Yu N, Wang G, Ma Z, Lin H, et al. Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Biofilms Inhibit the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:86 pubmed publisher
    ..Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are an important mechanism for the trapping and killing of pathogens that are resistant to ..
  7. Nishide M, Nojima S, Ito D, Takamatsu H, Koyama S, Kang S, et al. Semaphorin 4D inhibits neutrophil activation and is involved in the pathogenesis of neutrophil-mediated autoimmune vasculitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76:1440-1448 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteolytic cleavage of SEMA4D as observed in patients with AAV may amplify neutrophil-mediated inflammatory responses. SEMA4D is a promising biomarker and potential therapeutic target for AAV. ..
  8. Wang Y, Wang W, Wang N, Tall A, Tabas I. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Promotes Atherosclerosis and Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Aged Mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:e99-e107 pubmed publisher
    ..Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), a proinflammatory extracellular structure that contributes to atherosclerosis progression, were ..
  9. Ueki S, Ohta N, Takeda M, Konno Y, Hirokawa M. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: the Aftermath of Eosinophil Extracellular Trap Cell Death. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2017;17:33 pubmed publisher
    ..suicidal cell death involving total cell degranulation and development of sticky chromatin structures (extracellular traps (ETs))...

More Information


  1. Martínez Alemán S, Campos García L, Palma Nicolas J, Hernández Bello R, Gonzalez G, Sánchez González A. Understanding the Entanglement: Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) in Cystic Fibrosis. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:104 pubmed publisher
    ..by extruding large amounts of nuclear material through a mechanism of cell death known as Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) into the airways of patients with CF...
  2. Kothary V, Doster R, Rogers L, Kirk L, Boyd K, Romano Keeler J, et al. Group B Streptococcus Induces Neutrophil Recruitment to Gestational Tissues and Elaboration of Extracellular Traps and Nutritional Immunity. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:19 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon interacting with GBS, murine neutrophils elaborate DNA-containing extracellular traps, which immobilize GBS and are studded with antimicrobial molecules including lactoferrin...
  3. Jin L, Batra S, Jeyaseelan S. Diminished neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a novel innate immune deficiency induced by acute ethanol exposure in polymicrobial sepsis, which can be rescued by CXCL1. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006637 pubmed publisher
  4. Gloude N, Khandelwal P, Luebbering N, Lounder D, Jodele S, Alder M, et al. Circulating dsDNA, endothelial injury, and complement activation in thrombotic microangiopathy and GVHD. Blood. 2017;130:1259-1266 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) mechanistically link endothelial damage with complement activation and subsequent TA-TMA...
  5. Rocha Arrieta Y, Rojas M, Vasquez G, Lopez J. The Lymphocytes Stimulation Induced DNA Release, a Phenomenon Similar to NETosis. Scand J Immunol. 2017;86:229-238 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings express that serum from patients with SLE and SLEDAI ? 8 triggers the release of extracellular DNA in neutrophils, B and T cells, that suggested the presence of soluble factors in the serum that favoured this phenomenon. ..
  6. Pisetsky D. Gout, tophi and the wonders of NETs. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:431 pubmed
  7. Laridan E, Denorme F, Desender L, Francois O, Andersson T, Deckmyn H, et al. Neutrophil extracellular traps in ischemic stroke thrombi. Ann Neurol. 2017;82:223-232 pubmed publisher
    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been shown to promote thrombus formation. Little is known about the exact composition of thrombi that cause ischemic stroke...
  8. Khan Z, Shen X, Bernstein E, Giani J, Eriguchi M, Zhao T, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme enhances the oxidative response and bactericidal activity of neutrophils. Blood. 2017;130:328-339 pubmed publisher
    ..ACE overexpression in neutrophils may be useful in boosting the immune response to antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection. ..
  9. Sur Chowdhury C, Giaglis S, Walker U, Buser A, Hahn S, Hasler P. Enhanced neutrophil extracellular trap generation in rheumatoid arthritis: analysis of underlying signal transduction pathways and potential diagnostic utility. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16:R122 pubmed publisher
    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been implicated in a number of autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  10. Schechter M, Buac K, Adekambi T, Cagle S, Celli J, Ray S, et al. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) levels in human plasma are associated with active TB. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182587 pubmed publisher
    Neutrophils are increasingly associated with tuberculosis (TB) disease. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are released by neutrophils as a host antimicrobial defense mechanism, are also associated with tissue damage...
  11. Hoppenbrouwers T, Autar A, Sultan A, Abraham T, van Cappellen W, Houtsmuller A, et al. In vitro induction of NETosis: Comprehensive live imaging comparison and systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176472 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experimental results confirm that under standardized conditions, PMA, living bacteria and Ionomycin all strongly induce NETosis, but real-time confocal imaging reveal different courses of events. ..
  12. Schachern P, Kwon G, Briles D, Ferrieri P, Juhn S, Cureoglu S, et al. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Fibrin in Otitis Media: Analysis of Human and Chinchilla Temporal Bones. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017;143:990-995 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacterial resistance in acute otitis can result in bacterial persistence and biofilm formation, triggering chronic and recurrent infections...
  13. Germic N, Stojkov D, Oberson K, Yousefi S, Simon H. Neither eosinophils nor neutrophils require ATG5-dependent autophagy for extracellular DNA trap formation. Immunology. 2017;152:517-525 pubmed publisher
    The importance of extracellular traps (ETs) in innate immunity is well established, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for their formation remain unclear and in scientific dispute...
  14. Tonello S, Carniato F, Rizzi M, Migliario M, Rocchetti V, Marchese L, et al. Charged polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes trigger in vitro METosis via both oxidative stress and autophagy. Life Sci. 2017;190:58-67 pubmed publisher
    ..are essential in innate immune response against pathogens also because their ability to release extracellular traps named METs (monocytes/macrophages extracellular traps)...
  15. Toussaint M, Jackson D, Swieboda D, Guedán A, Tsourouktsoglou T, Ching Y, et al. Host DNA released by NETosis promotes rhinovirus-induced type-2 allergic asthma exacerbation. Nat Med. 2017;23:681-691 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that rhinovirus infection triggers dsDNA release associated with the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), known as NETosis...
  16. Liu J, Sun L, Liu W, Guo L, Liu Z, Wei X, et al. A Nuclease from Streptococcus mutans Facilitates Biofilm Dispersal and Escape from Killing by Neutrophil Extracellular Traps. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:97 pubmed publisher
    ..are a key host response factor restraining bacterial spreading through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which consist of a nuclear DNA backbone associated with antimicrobial peptides...
  17. An Y, Shi X, Tang X, Wang Y, Shen F, Zhang Q, et al. Aflatoxin B1 Induces Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Autophagy and Extracellular Trap Formation in Macrophages. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:53 pubmed publisher
    ..A recent study reported that AFB1 can induce autophagy, but whether AFB1 can induce extracellular traps (ETs) and the relationships among innate immune responses, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and autophagy and ..
  18. Sørensen O, Borregaard N. Neutrophil extracellular traps - the dark side of neutrophils. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:1612-20 pubmed publisher
    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were discovered as extracellular strands of decondensed DNA in complex with histones and granule proteins, which were expelled from dying neutrophils to ensnare and kill microbes...
  19. Leffler J, Gullstrand B, Jönsen A, Nilsson J, Martin M, Blom A, et al. Degradation of neutrophil extracellular traps co-varies with disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:R84 pubmed publisher
    The ability to degrade neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is reduced in a subset of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  20. Pieterse E, Rother N, Garsen M, Hofstra J, Satchell S, Hoffmann M, et al. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Drive Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1371-1379 pubmed publisher
    An excessive release and impaired degradation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) leads to the continuous exposure of NETs to the endothelium in a variety of hematologic and autoimmune disorders, including lupus nephritis...
  21. Lood C, Arve S, LEDBETTER J, Elkon K. TLR7/8 activation in neutrophils impairs immune complex phagocytosis through shedding of FcgRIIA. J Exp Med. 2017;214:2103-2119 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapeutic approaches aimed at blocking TLR7/8 activation would be predicted to increase phagocytosis of circulating ICs, while disarming their inflammatory potential. ..
    The dynamics of the appearance and regression of neutrophilic extracellular traps (NETs) in the experimental model of the wound infectious-inflammatory process that was caused by infection of open wounds by microbes surrounding ..
  23. Chrysanthopoulou A, Kambas K, Stakos D, Mitroulis I, Mitsios A, Vidali V, et al. Interferon lambda1/IL-29 and inorganic polyphosphate are novel regulators of neutrophil-driven thromboinflammation. J Pathol. 2017;243:111-122 pubmed publisher
    Neutrophils and neutrophil-released meshwork structures termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are major mediators of thromboinflammation and emerging targets for therapy, yet the mechanisms and pathways that control the role of ..
  24. Guggino G, Lo Pizzo M, Di Liberto D, Rizzo A, Cipriani P, Ruscitti P, et al. Interleukin-9 over-expression and T helper 9 polarization in systemic sclerosis patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017;190:208-216 pubmed publisher
    ..In in-vitro studies stimulation with rIL-9 significantly induced NET (neutrophil extracellular traps) release by dying cells (NETosis) in neutrophils, expansion of mast cells and increase of anti-systemic ..
  25. Cooper P, Palmer L, Chapple I. Neutrophil extracellular traps as a new paradigm in innate immunity: friend or foe?. Periodontol 2000. 2013;63:165-97 pubmed publisher
    The discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps in 2004 opened a fascinating new chapter in immune-mediated microbial killing. Brinkman et al...
  26. Saha P, Yeoh B, Olvera R, Xiao X, Singh V, Awasthi D, et al. Bacterial Siderophores Hijack Neutrophil Functions. J Immunol. 2017;198:4293-4303 pubmed publisher
    ..i>Escherichia coli, inhibited PMA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in mouse and human neutrophils...
  27. Iba T, Miki T, Hashiguchi N, Tabe Y, Nagaoka I. Is the neutrophil a 'prima donna' in the procoagulant process during sepsis?. Crit Care. 2014;18:230 pubmed publisher
    ..Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are another source of tissue factor...