sex chromosomes

Summary

Summary: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Grossen C, Neuenschwander S, Perrin N. Temperature-dependent turnovers in sex-determination mechanisms: a quantitative model. Evolution. 2011;65:64-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The frequency of turnovers and prevalence of homomorphic sex chromosomes in cold-blooded vertebrates might thus directly relate to the temperature dependence in sex-determination ..
  2. Chibalina M, Filatov D. Plant Y chromosome degeneration is retarded by haploid purifying selection. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1475-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Sex chromosomes evolved many times independently in many different organisms [1]...
  3. Naurin S, Hansson B, Hasselquist D, Kim Y, Bensch S. The sex-biased brain: sexual dimorphism in gene expression in two species of songbirds. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:37 pubmed publisher
    ..Such differences might correspond to genes with different rates of evolution related to sexual dimorphism in the avian brain, and might therefore be correlated with differences between the species in sex-specific behaviours. ..
  4. Valenzuela N. Co-evolution of genomic structure and selective forces underlying sexual development and reproduction. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2009;127:232-41 pubmed publisher
    ..One example is the presence of sex chromosomes and the development of the sexual phenotype...
  5. Nakamura M. Is a sex-determining gene(s) necessary for sex-determination in amphibians? Steroid hormones may be the key factor. Sex Dev. 2013;7:104-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that steroid hormones could be crucial for sex-determination in R. rugosa, with the consequence that upregulation of CYP19 and FSHR expression is necessary for female and CYP17 for male sex-determination. ..
  6. Leder E, Cano J, Leinonen T, O Hara R, Nikinmaa M, Primmer C, et al. Female-biased expression on the X chromosome as a key step in sex chromosome evolution in threespine sticklebacks. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:1495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..with the exception of genes on the Y (or W) chromosome or sex-determining alleles (in organisms without sex chromosomes), it is likely that many downstream processes resulting in sexual dimorphism are produced by changes in ..
  7. Acosta M, Romero Fernández I, Sanchez A, Marchal J. Comparative analysis by chromosome painting of the sex chromosomes in arvicolid rodents. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2011;132:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In some rodent species from the subfamily Arvicolinae the sex chromosomes contain remarkable features such as giant size, a consequence of heterochromatic enlargement, or asynaptic ..
  8. Cocquet J, Ellis P, Yamauchi Y, Mahadevaiah S, Affara N, Ward M, et al. The multicopy gene Sly represses the sex chromosomes in the male mouse germline after meiosis. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000244 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also suggest that the expansion of sex-linked spermatid-expressed genes in mouse is a consequence of the enhancement of PSCR that accompanies Sly amplification. ..
  9. Hrdlicková R, Nehyba J, Lim S, Grützner F, Bose H. Insights into the evolution of mammalian telomerase: platypus TERT shares similarities with genes of birds and other reptiles and localizes on sex chromosomes. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:216 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the cloning of a platypus TERT (OanTERT) ortholog, and provide a comparison with genes of other vertebrates...

More Information

Publications94

  1. Cioffi M, Sanchez A, Marchal J, Kosyakova N, Liehr T, Trifonov V, et al. Cross-species chromosome painting tracks the independent origin of multiple sex chromosomes in two cofamiliar Erythrinidae fishes. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:186 pubmed publisher
    ..At first, the occurrence of a same sex chromosome system within a family suggests that the sex chromosomes are correlated and originated from ancestral XY chromosomes that were either homomorphic or at an early stage ..
  2. Pansonato Alves J, Vicari M, Oliveira C, Foresti F. Chromosomal diversification in populations of Characidium cf. gomesi (Teleostei, Crenuchidae). J Fish Biol. 2011;78:183-94 pubmed publisher
  3. Noleto R, Amorim A, Vicari M, Artoni R, Cestari M. An unusual ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in Characidium fishes (Crenuchidae, Characiformes) with the presence of rDNA sites. J Fish Biol. 2009;75:448-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This work presents data of Characidium lanei from the South Atlantic basin (Brazil), including an unknown type of ZW sex chromosome system for the groups including the presence of rDNA sites on sex chromosomes.
  4. Bergero R, Charlesworth D. Preservation of the Y transcriptome in a 10-million-year-old plant sex chromosome system. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1470-4 pubmed publisher
    ..systems allow study of the time course of degeneration, because they evolved from a state wholly without sex chromosomes (rather than after a large genome region fused to a preexisting sex chromosome), and, in several taxa, ..
  5. Moghadam H, Pointer M, Wright A, Berlin S, Mank J. W chromosome expression responds to female-specific selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8207-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data provide evidence for the importance of the sex-limited chromosome in a female heterogametic species and show that sex-specific selection can act to preserve sex-limited chromosomes from degrading forces. ..
  6. Yoshido A, Síchová J, Kubickova S, Marec F, Sahara K. Rapid turnover of the W chromosome in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. Chromosome Res. 2013;21:149-64 pubmed publisher
    ..cynthia subsp. indet. Our findings suggest that the curious WZ system of S. cynthia pryeri may represent an ancestral state of the Samia species complex but do not exclude an alternative hypothesis of its derived origin. ..
  7. Natri H, Shikano T, Merilä J. Progressive recombination suppression and differentiation in recently evolved neo-sex chromosomes. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:1131-44 pubmed publisher
    Recombination suppression leads to the structural and functional differentiation of sex chromosomes and is thus a crucial step in the process of sex chromosome evolution...
  8. Anderson J, Rodríguez Marí A, Braasch I, Amores A, HOHENLOHE P, Batzel P, et al. Multiple sex-associated regions and a putative sex chromosome in zebrafish revealed by RAD mapping and population genomics. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40701 pubmed publisher
    ..In zebrafish (Danio rerio), neither heteromorphic sex chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified...
  9. Marreta M, Faldoni F, Parise Maltempi P. Cytogenetic mapping of the W chromosome in the genus Leporinus (Teleostei, Anostomidae) using a highly repetitive DNA sequence. J Fish Biol. 2012;80:630-7 pubmed publisher
    ..sequence in other Leporinus species was studied in an attempt to elucidate the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes in this genus using chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization...
  10. Sin H, Barski A, Zhang F, Kartashov A, Nussenzweig A, Chen J, et al. RNF8 regulates active epigenetic modifications and escape gene activation from inactive sex chromosomes in post-meiotic spermatids. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2737-48 pubmed publisher
    b>Sex chromosomes are uniquely subject to chromosome-wide silencing during male meiosis, and silencing persists into post-meiotic spermatids...
  11. Katsura Y, Satta Y. No evidence for a second evolutionary stratum during the early evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45488 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian sex chromosomes originated from a pair of autosomes, and homologous genes on the sex chromosomes (gametologs) differentiated through recombination arrest between the chromosomes...
  12. Oliveira S, Cabral de Mello D, Arcanjo A, Xavier C, Souza M, Martins C, et al. Heterochromatin, sex chromosomes and rRNA gene clusters in Coprophanaeus beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Cytogenet Genome Res. 2012;138:46-55 pubmed publisher
    ..e. mechanisms maintaining the conserved number of 5S rDNA clusters and those generating variability in the amount of heterochromatin, sex chromosome forms, and distribution of 18S rDNA clusters...
  13. Drosopoulou E, Nakou I, Síchová J, Kubickova S, Marec F, Mavragani Tsipidou P. Sex chromosomes and associated rDNA form a heterochromatic network in the polytene nuclei of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae). Genetica. 2012;140:169-80 pubmed
    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, has a diploid set of 2n = 12 chromosomes including a pair of sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males, but polytene nuclei show only five polytene chromosomes, obviously formed by five ..
  14. de Bello Cioffi M, Sanchez A, Marchal J, Kosyakova N, Liehr T, Trifonov V, et al. Whole chromosome painting reveals independent origin of sex chromosomes in closely related forms of a fish species. Genetica. 2011;139:1065-72 pubmed publisher
    ..XY and X(1)X(2)Y in karyomorphs B and D, respectively), a nascent XY pair (karyomorph C) and not recognized sex chromosomes (karyomorph A)...
  15. Bellott D, Page D. Reconstructing the evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2009;74:345-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Sex chromosomes and their evolution have captivated researchers since their discovery...
  16. da Silva M, Matoso D, Vicari M, De Almeida M, Margarido V, Artoni R. Repetitive DNA and meiotic behavior of sex chromosomes in Gymnotus pantanal (Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae). Cytogenet Genome Res. 2011;135:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study characterizes the first meiotic analysis of sex chromosomes in the order Gymnotiformes...
  17. Pokorná M, Giovannotti M, Kratochvíl L, Kasai F, Trifonov V, O Brien P, et al. Strong conservation of the bird Z chromosome in reptilian genomes is revealed by comparative painting despite 275 million years divergence. Chromosoma. 2011;120:455-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We used chromosome-specific DNA from flow-sorted chicken (Gallus gallus) Z sex chromosomes as a probe in cross-species hybridization to metaphase spreads of 28 species from 17 families representing ..
  18. Kamiya T, Kai W, Tasumi S, Oka A, Matsunaga T, Mizuno N, et al. A trans-species missense SNP in Amhr2 is associated with sex determination in the tiger pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes (fugu). PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002798 pubmed publisher
    Heterogametic sex chromosomes have evolved independently in various lineages of vertebrates. Such sex chromosome pairs often contain nonrecombining regions, with one of the chromosomes harboring a master sex-determining (SD) gene...
  19. Mullon C, Pomiankowski A, Reuter M. The effects of selection and genetic drift on the genomic distribution of sexually antagonistic alleles. Evolution. 2012;66:3743-53 pubmed publisher
    ..remains, however, considerable debate over the distribution of SA genetic variation across autosomes and sex chromosomes, with contradictory evidence coming from data and theory...
  20. Harrison P, Mank J, Wedell N. Incomplete sex chromosome dosage compensation in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, based on de novo transcriptome assembly. Genome Biol Evol. 2012;4:1118-26 pubmed publisher
    Males and females experience differences in gene dose for loci in the nonrecombining region of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. If not compensated, this leads to expression imbalances, with the homogametic sex on average exhibiting greater ..
  21. O Meally D, Ezaz T, Georges A, Sarre S, Graves J. Are some chromosomes particularly good at sex? Insights from amniotes. Chromosome Res. 2012;20:7-19 pubmed publisher
    Several recent studies have produced comparative maps of genes on amniote sex chromosomes, revealing homology of gene content and arrangement across lineages as divergent as mammals and lizards...
  22. Gordon J, Armisén D, Proux Wera E, Ohéigeartaigh S, Byrne K, Wolfe K. Evolutionary erosion of yeast sex chromosomes by mating-type switching accidents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20024-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that, despite its mutational cost, switching confers an evolutionary benefit by providing a way for an isolated germinating spore to reform spores if the environment is too poor. ..
  23. Baxter S, Davey J, Johnston J, Shelton A, Heckel D, Jiggins C, et al. Linkage mapping and comparative genomics using next-generation RAD sequencing of a non-model organism. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19315 pubmed publisher
    ..RAD alleles were assigned to the 31 chromosomes, enabling identification of the spinosad resistance and W/Z sex chromosomes. Paired-end reads for each RAD allele were assembled into contigs and compared to the genome of Bombyx mori (..
  24. Li J, Phillips R, Harwood A, Koop B, Davidson W. Identification of the sex chromosomes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and their comparison with the corresponding chromosomes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Cytogenet Genome Res. 2011;133:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We set out to identify the sex chromosomes in brown trout...
  25. Huynh L, Maney D, Thomas J. Contrasting population genetic patterns within the white-throated sparrow genome (Zonotrichia albicollis). BMC Genet. 2010;11:96 pubmed publisher
    ..It has thus been predicted that nucleotide diversity is negatively correlated with chromosome size in aves. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support this prediction...
  26. Muyle A, Zemp N, Deschamps C, Mousset S, Widmer A, Marais G. Rapid de novo evolution of X chromosome dosage compensation in Silene latifolia, a plant with young sex chromosomes. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001308 pubmed publisher
    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that have originated only ?10 million years ago and is a promising model organism to study sex chromosome evolution in plants. Previous work suggests that S...
  27. Yoshimoto S, Ikeda N, Izutsu Y, Shiba T, Takamatsu N, Ito M. Opposite roles of DMRT1 and its W-linked paralogue, DM-W, in sexual dimorphism of Xenopus laevis: implications of a ZZ/ZW-type sex-determining system. Development. 2010;137:2519-26 pubmed publisher
    ..e. as a ;neofunctionalization' gene for the ZZ/ZW-type system. Finally, we discuss a conserved role of DMRT1 in testis formation during vertebrate evolution...
  28. Marais G, Forrest A, Kamau E, Käfer J, Daubin V, Charlesworth D. Multiple nuclear gene phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of dioecy and sex chromosomes in the genus Silene. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21915 pubmed publisher
    In the plant genus Silene, separate sexes and sex chromosomes are believed to have evolved twice. Silene species that are wholly or largely hermaphroditic are assumed to represent the ancestral state from which dioecy evolved...
  29. Van t Hof A, Nguyen P, Dalíková M, Edmonds N, Marec F, Saccheri I. Linkage map of the peppered moth, Biston betularia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a model of industrial melanism. Heredity (Edinb). 2013;110:283-95 pubmed publisher
    ..found a W homolog of a Z-linked gene (laminin A), possibly resulting from ectopic recombination between the sex chromosomes. The B...
  30. Suh A, Kriegs J, BROSIUS J, Schmitz J. Retroposon insertions and the chronology of avian sex chromosome evolution. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:2993-7 pubmed publisher
    The vast majority of extant birds possess highly differentiated Z and W sex chromosomes. Nucleotide sequence data from gametologs (homologs on opposite sex chromosomes) suggest that this divergence occurred throughout early bird ..
  31. Ichijima Y, Ichijima M, Lou Z, Nussenzweig A, Camerini Otero R, Chen J, et al. MDC1 directs chromosome-wide silencing of the sex chromosomes in male germ cells. Genes Dev. 2011;25:959-71 pubmed publisher
    Chromosome-wide inactivation is an epigenetic signature of sex chromosomes. The mechanism by which the chromosome-wide domain is recognized and gene silencing is induced remains unclear...
  32. Johnson N, Lachance J. The genetics of sex chromosomes: evolution and implications for hybrid incompatibility. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1256:E1-22 pubmed publisher
    Heteromorphic sex chromosomes, where one sex has two different types of sex chromosomes, face very different evolutionary consequences than do autosomes...
  33. Kuhn G, Heslop Harrison J. Characterization and genomic organization of PERI, a repetitive DNA in the Drosophila buzzatii cluster related to DINE-1 transposable elements and highly abundant in the sex chromosomes. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2011;132:79-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to characterize TEs to help elucidate their impact on the genomic architecture, diversity and evolution of chromosomes in the D. buzzatii cluster of species (repleta group)...
  34. Arnold A, Chen X, Link J, Itoh Y, Reue K. Cell-autonomous sex determination outside of the gonad. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:371-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, XX and XY cells are intrinsically different because of the cell-autonomous sex-biasing action of X and Y genes...
  35. Checchi P, Engebrecht J. Heteromorphic sex chromosomes: navigating meiosis without a homologous partner. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:623-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet by definition, sex chromosomes of the heterogametic sex lack a homologous partner...
  36. Cioffi M, Moreira Filho O, Almeida Toledo L, Bertollo L. The contrasting role of heterochromatin in the differentiation of sex chromosomes: an overview from Neotropical fishes. J Fish Biol. 2012;80:2125-39 pubmed publisher
    During the evolutionary process of the sex chromosomes, a general principle that arises is that cessation or a partial restriction of recombination between the sex chromosome pair is necessary...
  37. Bellott D, Skaletsky H, Pyntikova T, Mardis E, Graves T, Kremitzki C, et al. Convergent evolution of chicken Z and human X chromosomes by expansion and gene acquisition. Nature. 2010;466:612-6 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, the sex chromosomes found in both sexes--the Z and X chromosomes--are assumed to have diverged little from their autosomal ..
  38. Bessler J, Andersen E, Villeneuve A. Differential localization and independent acquisition of the H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 chromatin modifications in the Caenorhabditis elegans adult germ line. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000830 pubmed publisher
    ..While H3K9me2 is enriched on unpaired sex chromosomes and undergoes dynamic changes as germ cells progress through meiotic prophase, we demonstrate here that ..
  39. Leggett V, Jacobs P, Nation K, Scerif G, Bishop D. Neurocognitive outcomes of individuals with a sex chromosome trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY: a systematic review. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010;52:119-29 pubmed publisher
    ..To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs)...
  40. Liew W, Bartfai R, Lim Z, Sreenivasan R, Siegfried K, Orban L. Polygenic sex determination system in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34397 pubmed publisher
    ..Most cytogenetic studies failed to find dimorphic sex chromosomes and no primary sex determining switch has been identified even though the assembly of zebrafish genome ..
  41. Myosho T, Otake H, Masuyama H, Matsuda M, Kuroki Y, Fujiyama A, et al. Tracing the emergence of a novel sex-determining gene in medaka, Oryzias luzonensis. Genetics. 2012;191:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Gsdf is downstream of Dmy in the sex-determining cascade of O. latipes, suggesting that emergence of the Dmy-independent Gsdf allele led to the appearance of this novel sex-determining gene in O. luzonensis...
  42. Mank J, Hosken D, Wedell N. Some inconvenient truths about sex chromosome dosage compensation and the potential role of sexual conflict. Evolution. 2011;65:2133-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We show there exists a tremendous diversity in the mechanisms that regulate gene dosage and argue that sexual conflict may be an overlooked agent responsible for some of the variation seen in sex chromosome gene dose regulation...
  43. de Clare M, Pir P, Oliver S. Haploinsufficiency and the sex chromosomes from yeasts to humans. BMC Biol. 2011;9:15 pubmed publisher
    ..Haploinsufficiency is increasingly implicated in human disease, and so predicting this phenotype could provide insights into the genetic mechanisms behind many human diseases, including some cancers...
  44. Yoshimoto S, Ito M. A ZZ/ZW-type sex determination in Xenopus laevis. FEBS J. 2011;278:1020-6 pubmed publisher
    ..laevis. Finally, we discuss sex-determining systems and germ-cell development during vertebrate evolution, especially in view of a conserved role of DMRT1 in gonadal masculinization...
  45. Toups M, Hahn M. Retrogenes reveal the direction of sex-chromosome evolution in mosquitoes. Genetics. 2010;186:763-6 pubmed publisher
    The mosquito Anopheles gambiae has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, while the mosquito Aedes aegypti has homomorphic sex chromosomes. We use retrotransposed gene duplicates to show an excess of movement off the An...
  46. Matsuba C, Alho J, Merilä J. Recombination rate between sex chromosomes depends on phenotypic sex in the common frog. Evolution. 2010;64:3634-7 pubmed publisher
    We show that the recombination rate between the sex chromosomes is controlled by phenotypic, rather than genotypic, sex in sex-reversed common frogs...
  47. Mank J. Sex chromosomes and the evolution of sexual dimorphism: lessons from the genome. Am Nat. 2009;173:141-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, theory has long suggested that the evolution of sexual dimorphism is facilitated by sex chromosomes, as these are the only portions of the genome that differ between males and females...
  48. Warren W, Clayton D, Ellegren H, Arnold A, Hillier L, Künstner A, et al. The genome of a songbird. Nature. 2010;464:757-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate an active involvement of the genome in neural processes underlying vocal communication and identify potential genetic substrates for the evolution and regulation of this behaviour...
  49. Lu L, Xiong Y, Kuang H, Korakavi G, Yu X. Regulation of the DNA damage response on male meiotic sex chromosomes. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2105 pubmed publisher
    During meiotic prophase in males, the sex chromosomes partially synapse to form the XY body, a unique structure that recruits proteins involved in the DNA damage response, which is believed to be important for silencing of the sex ..
  50. Sun S, Hsueh Y, Heitman J. Gene conversion occurs within the mating-type locus of Cryptococcus neoformans during sexual reproduction. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002810 pubmed publisher
    Meiotic recombination of sex chromosomes is thought to be repressed in organisms with heterogametic sex determination (e.g...
  51. Parnell N, Streelman J. Genetic interactions controlling sex and color establish the potential for sexual conflict in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Heredity (Edinb). 2013;110:239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide further empirical evidence for a complex antagonistic sex-color system in this species flock and suggest a possible role for, and effect of, polygenic sex-determining systems in rapid evolutionary diversification...
  52. Bergero R, Qiu S, Forrest A, Borthwick H, Charlesworth D. Expansion of the pseudo-autosomal region and ongoing recombination suppression in the Silene latifolia sex chromosomes. Genetics. 2013;194:673-86 pubmed publisher
    There are two very interesting aspects to the evolution of sex chromosomes: what happens after recombination between these chromosome pairs stops and why suppressed recombination evolves...
  53. Schemberger M, Bellafronte E, Nogaroto V, Almeida M, Schühli G, Artoni R, et al. Differentiation of repetitive DNA sites and sex chromosome systems reveal closely related group in Parodontidae (Actinopterygii: Characiformes). Genetica. 2011;139:1499-508 pubmed publisher
    ..affinis suggest that the ZZ/ZW(1)W(2) sex chromosomes of this species may have arisen from a translocation between the proto-sex chromosome and an autosome...
  54. Livernois A, Waters S, Deakin J, Marshall Graves J, Waters P. Independent evolution of transcriptional inactivation on sex chromosomes in birds and mammals. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003635 pubmed publisher
    ..many X genes escape inactivation in humans, inactivation of the X in marsupials is partial, and the unrelated sex chromosomes of monotreme mammals have incomplete and gene-specific inactivation of X-linked genes...
  55. Sin H, Namekawa S. The great escape: Active genes on inactive sex chromosomes and their evolutionary implications. Epigenetics. 2013;8:887-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In male germ cells, DNA damage response factor RNF8 establishes active epigenetic modifications on the silent sex chromosomes during meiosis, and activates escape genes during a state of sex chromosome-wide silencing in postmeiotic ..
  56. Kvikstad E, Makova K. The (r)evolution of SINE versus LINE distributions in primate genomes: sex chromosomes are important. Genome Res. 2010;20:600-13 pubmed publisher
    ..substantial variation both within individual chromosomes and among chromosome types (autosomes and the two sex chromosomes)...
  57. Vicoso B, Bachtrog D. Lack of global dosage compensation in Schistosoma mansoni, a female-heterogametic parasite. Genome Biol Evol. 2011;3:230-5 pubmed publisher
    Many species have morphologically and genetically differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the XY pair of mammals...
  58. Livernois A, Graves J, Waters P. The origin and evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation. Heredity (Edinb). 2012;108:50-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Homology shared by Xs and Ys (and Zs and Ws) within species demonstrates that differentiated sex chromosomes were once homologous, and that the sex-specific non-recombining Y (or W) was progressively degraded...
  59. Marshall Graves J, Peichel C. Are homologies in vertebrate sex determination due to shared ancestry or to limited options?. Genome Biol. 2010;11:205 pubmed publisher
    The same candidate genes and the same autosomes are repeatedly used as sex chromosomes in vertebrates...
  60. Castillo E, Bidau C, Martí D. Neo-sex chromosome diversity in Neotropical melanopline grasshoppers (Melanoplinae, Acrididae). Genetica. 2010;138:775-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also showed different degrees of homology divergence between the neo-sex chromosomes and emphasize the plasticity of the chromosome complement of the Neotropical Melanoplinae to establish ..
  61. Heard E, Turner J. Function of the sex chromosomes in mammalian fertility. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011;3:a002675 pubmed publisher
    The sex chromosomes play a highly specialized role in germ cell development in mammals, being enriched in genes expressed in the testis and ovary. Sex chromosome abnormalities (e.g...
  62. Itoh Y, Replogle K, Kim Y, Wade J, Clayton D, Arnold A. Sex bias and dosage compensation in the zebra finch versus chicken genomes: general and specialized patterns among birds. Genome Res. 2010;20:512-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These patterns suggest that different avian taxa may have evolved specific compensatory mechanisms...
  63. Bachtrog D. Y-chromosome evolution: emerging insights into processes of Y-chromosome degeneration. Nat Rev Genet. 2013;14:113-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, comparative analysis of young and old Y chromosomes has given further insights into the evolutionary and molecular forces triggering Y-chromosome degeneration and into the evolutionary destiny of the Y chromosome...
  64. Adolfsson S, Ellegren H. Lack of dosage compensation accompanies the arrested stage of sex chromosome evolution in ostriches. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:806-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that dosage compensation is a prerequisite for, not only a consequence of, sex chromosome evolution...
  65. Pease J, Hahn M. Sex chromosomes evolved from independent ancestral linkage groups in winged insects. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:1645-53 pubmed publisher
    The evolution of a pair of chromosomes that differ in appearance between males and females (heteromorphic sex chromosomes) has occurred repeatedly across plants and animals...
  66. Wai C, Moore P, Paull R, Ming R, Yu Q. An integrated cytogenetic and physical map reveals unevenly distributed recombination spots along the papaya sex chromosomes. Chromosome Res. 2012;20:753-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This cytogenetic map provides essential information for evolutionary study of sex chromosomes in Caricaceae and will facilitate the analysis of papaya sex chromosomes.
  67. Wright A, Moghadam H, Mank J. Trade-off between selection for dosage compensation and masculinization on the avian Z chromosome. Genetics. 2012;192:1433-45 pubmed publisher
    ..At the same time, due to their unequal pattern of inheritance in males and females, the sex chromosomes are subject to unbalanced sex-specific selection, which contributes to a nonrandom distribution of sex-biased ..
  68. Meiklejohn C, Landeen E, Cook J, Kingan S, Presgraves D. Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001126 pubmed publisher
    The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g...
  69. Ellegren H. Emergence of male-biased genes on the chicken Z-chromosome: sex-chromosome contrasts between male and female heterogametic systems. Genome Res. 2011;21:2082-6 pubmed publisher
    ..heterogametic organisms display opposing directionalities in the emergence and loss of sex-biased genes on sex chromosomes. This is consistent with theoretical models on the evolution of sexually antagonistic genes in which new ..
  70. Shikano T, Natri H, Shimada Y, Merilä J. High degree of sex chromosome differentiation in stickleback fishes. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:474 pubmed publisher
    ..at early stages of their divergence, we examined the levels and patterns of genetic differentiation between sex chromosomes in nine-spined (Pungitius pungitius) and three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) using ..
  71. Bachtrog D, Kirkpatrick M, Mank J, McDaniel S, Pires J, Rice W, et al. Are all sex chromosomes created equal?. Trends Genet. 2011;27:350-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest directions for research that will greatly increase our general understanding of the forces driving sex-chromosome evolution in diverse organisms...
  72. Li X. Sex chromosomes and sex chromosome abnormalities. Clin Lab Med. 2011;31:463-79, vii pubmed publisher
    ..The author discusses the two general classifications of abnormalities: numerical and structural. Also included are descriptions of unique aspects of X and Y chromosomes, technological advances in detection, and future perspectives...
  73. Böhne A, Schultheis C, Galiana Arnoux D, Froschauer A, Zhou Q, Schmidt C, et al. Molecular analysis of the sex chromosomes of the platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus: Towards the identification of a new type of master sexual regulator in vertebrates. Integr Zool. 2009;4:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..determination systems, with frequent changes during evolution possibly associated with the emergence of new sex chromosomes and sex-determining genes...
  74. Ezaz T, Sarre S, O Meally D, Graves J, Georges A. Sex chromosome evolution in lizards: independent origins and rapid transitions. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2009;127:249-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Approximately 1,000 species of lizards have been karyotyped and among those, fewer than 200 species have sex chromosomes, yet they display remarkable diversity in morphology and degree of degeneration...
  75. Goldberg M, Spigler R, Ashman T. Comparative genetic mapping points to different sex chromosomes in sibling species of wild strawberry (Fragaria). Genetics. 2010;186:1425-33 pubmed publisher
    ..in flowering plants, and thus select taxa can provide unparalleled insight into the evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes that are thought to be shared by plants and animals alike...
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    ..Despite a large predicted role of the sex chromosomes in sexual dimorphism, our study indicates that the autosomes house the majority of genes with sex-biased ..
  77. Cioffi M, Camacho J, Bertollo L. Repetitive DNAs and differentiation of sex chromosomes in neotropical fishes. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2011;132:188-94 pubmed publisher
    ..a potential to accumulate these DNA sequences and, for this reason, the absence of recombination between the sex chromosomes favors, by itself, the accumulation of repetitive sequences on these chromosomes during evolution...
  78. Shin Y, Choi Y, Erdin S, Yatsenko S, Kloc M, Yang F, et al. Hormad1 mutation disrupts synaptonemal complex formation, recombination, and chromosome segregation in mammalian meiosis. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001190 pubmed publisher
    ..Hormad1 deficiency abolishes ?H2AX, ATR, and BRCA1 localization to the sex chromosomes and causes transcriptional de-repression on the X chromosome...
  79. Henzel J, Nabeshima K, Schvarzstein M, Turner B, Villeneuve A, Hillers K. An asymmetric chromosome pair undergoes synaptic adjustment and crossover redistribution during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis: implications for sex chromosome evolution. Genetics. 2011;187:685-99 pubmed publisher
    Heteromorphic sex chromosomes, such as the X/Y pair in mammals, differ in size and DNA sequence yet function as homologs during meiosis; this bivalent asymmetry presents special challenges for meiotic completion...
  80. Wijchers P, Festenstein R. Epigenetic regulation of autosomal gene expression by sex chromosomes. Trends Genet. 2011;27:132-40 pubmed publisher
    ..are usually considered the main architects of sexual dimorphisms, recent studies have demonstrated that sex chromosomes can also induce sex differences in somatic gene expression in the absence of hormonal differences...
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    ..gene dose or copy number--is classically considered to play a critical role in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. As the X and Y diverge through degradation and gene loss on the Y (or the W in female-heterogametic ZW taxa),..
  82. Machado T, Pansonato Alves J, Pucci M, Nogaroto V, Almeida M, Oliveira C, et al. Chromosomal painting and ZW sex chromosomes differentiation in Characidium (Characiformes, Crenuchidae). BMC Genet. 2011;12:65 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the origin and differentiation of sex and NOR-bearing chromosomes by chromosome painting in populations of Characidium to reveal their evolution, phylogeny, and biogeography...
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    ..autosomal genes interacting with X-linked genes have become downregulated in placentals upon the emergence of sex chromosomes. Thus, different driving forces may underlie the evolution of XCI and the highly efficient equilibration of X ..
  84. Hegyi H, Tompa P. Increased structural disorder of proteins encoded on human sex chromosomes. Mol Biosyst. 2012;8:229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..between the GC content of the transcripts and the structural disorder of the coded proteins than the sex chromosomes; (2) the neighbors' protein disorder correlates the strongest on the sex chromosomes; (3) the GO functions on ..
  85. Sahara K, Yoshido A, Traut W. Sex chromosome evolution in moths and butterflies. Chromosome Res. 2012;20:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..It is crammed with repetitive elements which appear to have a high turnover rate but poor in or even devoid of protein-coding genes. It has frequently undergone fusion with autosomes or sporadically lost altogether...