synaptonemal complex

Summary

Summary: The three-part structure of ribbon-like proteinaceous material that serves to align and join the paired homologous CHROMOSOMES. It is formed during the ZYGOTENE STAGE of the first meiotic division. It is a prerequisite for CROSSING OVER.

Top Publications

  1. Chen S, Tsubouchi T, Rockmill B, Sandler J, Richards D, Vader G, et al. Global analysis of the meiotic crossover landscape. Dev Cell. 2008;15:401-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we uncover a surprising role for the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 in repressing crossing over at the centromere.
  2. Kong A, Thorleifsson G, Stefansson H, Masson G, Helgason A, Gudbjartsson D, et al. Sequence variants in the RNF212 gene associate with genome-wide recombination rate. Science. 2008;319:1398-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, if the frequency of the haplotype changes, the average recombination rate will increase for one sex and decrease for the other, but the sex-averaged recombination rate of the population can stay relatively constant...
  3. Eichinger C, Jentsch S. Synaptonemal complex formation and meiotic checkpoint signaling are linked to the lateral element protein Red1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11370-5 pubmed publisher
    ..by a specialized DNA damage checkpoint pathway and is guided by a unique chromosomal structure called synaptonemal complex (SC), but how these events are coordinated is unclear...
  4. Hayashi M, Mlynarczyk Evans S, Villeneuve A. The synaptonemal complex shapes the crossover landscape through cooperative assembly, crossover promotion and crossover inhibition during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis. Genetics. 2010;186:45-58 pubmed publisher
    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a highly ordered proteinaceous structure that assembles at the interface between aligned homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase...
  5. Fukuda T, Daniel K, Wojtasz L, Toth A, Hoog C. A novel mammalian HORMA domain-containing protein, HORMAD1, preferentially associates with unsynapsed meiotic chromosomes. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:158-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of mutant strains lacking different components of the synaptonemal complex (SC) revealed that establishment of the SC is required for the displacement of HORMAD1 from the chromosome ..
  6. Zickler D. From early homologue recognition to synaptonemal complex formation. Chromosoma. 2006;115:158-74 pubmed
    ..into three mechanistically distinct steps, namely, recognition, presynaptic alignment, and synapsis by the synaptonemal complex (SC)...
  7. Eijpe M, Heyting C, Gross B, Jessberger R. Association of mammalian SMC1 and SMC3 proteins with meiotic chromosomes and synaptonemal complexes. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 4):673-82 pubmed
    ..Several independent experimental approaches revealed interactions of the SMC proteins with synaptonemal complex-specific proteins SCP2 and SCP3...
  8. Phillips C, Meng X, Zhang L, Chretien J, Urnov F, Dernburg A. Identification of chromosome sequence motifs that mediate meiotic pairing and synapsis in C. elegans. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:934-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings help to illuminate how chromosome sites mediate essential aspects of meiotic chromosome dynamics...
  9. Kouznetsova A, Benavente R, Pastink A, Hoog C. Meiosis in mice without a synaptonemal complex. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28255 pubmed publisher
    The synaptonemal complex (SC) promotes fusion of the homologous chromosomes (synapsis) and crossover recombination events during meiosis...

More Information

Publications62

  1. De Almeida M, Zacaro A, Cella D. Cytogenetic analysis of Epicauta atomaria (Meloidae) and Palembus dermestoides (Tenebrionidae) with Xyp sex determination system using standard staining, C-bands, NOR and synaptonemal complex microspreading techniques. Hereditas. 2000;133:147-57 pubmed
    ..dermestoides. The yp chromosome did not show typical C-bands in these species. As for the synaptonemal complex, the nucleolar material is associated to the 7th bivalent in E. atomaria and 3rd and 7th bivalents in P...
  2. de la Fuente R, Sanchez A, Marchal J, Viera A, Parra M, Rufas J, et al. A synaptonemal complex-derived mechanism for meiotic segregation precedes the evolutionary loss of homology between sex chromosomes in arvicolid mammals. Chromosoma. 2012;121:433-46 pubmed publisher
    ..duodecimcostatus are asynaptic and develop a synaptonemal complex-derived structure that mediates pairing and facilitates segregation. In A...
  3. Smolikov S, Eizinger A, Schild Prufert K, Hurlburt A, McDonald K, Engebrecht J, et al. SYP-3 restricts synaptonemal complex assembly to bridge paired chromosome axes during meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2007;176:2015-25 pubmed
    b>Synaptonemal complex (SC) formation must be regulated to occur only between aligned pairs of homologous chromosomes, ultimately ensuring proper chromosome segregation in meiosis...
  4. Schild Prufert K, Saito T, Smolikov S, Gu Y, Hincapie M, Hill D, et al. Organization of the synaptonemal complex during meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2011;189:411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..SYP proteins (SYP-1, SYP-2, SYP-3, and SYP-4) have been proposed to form the central region of the synaptonemal complex (SC) thereby bridging the axes of paired meiotic chromosomes in Caenorhabditis elegans...
  5. Wang M, Tang D, Wang K, Shen Y, Qin B, Miao C, et al. OsSGO1 maintains synaptonemal complex stabilization in addition to protecting centromeric cohesion during rice meiosis. Plant J. 2011;67:583-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found that the centromeric localization of OsSGO1 depends on OsAM1, not other meiotic proteins such as OsREC8, PAIR2, OsMER3, or ZEP1...
  6. Di Giacomo M, Barchi M, Baudat F, Edelmann W, Keeney S, Jasin M. Distinct DNA-damage-dependent and -independent responses drive the loss of oocytes in recombination-defective mouse mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:737-42 pubmed
    ..The absence of ATM caused defects in folliculogenesis that were similar to those in Dmc1 mutants and that could be suppressed by Spo11 mutation, implying that oocyte death in Atm-deficient animals is a response to defective DSB repair...
  7. Baudrimont A, Penkner A, Woglar A, Machacek T, Wegrostek C, Gloggnitzer J, et al. Leptotene/zygotene chromosome movement via the SUN/KASH protein bridge in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001219 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigation of movement in meiotic regulator mutants substantiated that proper orchestration of the meiotic program and effective repair of DNA double-strand breaks were necessary for the wild-type behavior of matefin/SUN-1 aggregates...
  8. Qiao H, Offenberg H, Anderson L. Altered distribution of MLH1 foci is associated with changes in cohesins and chromosome axis compaction in an asynaptic mutant of tomato. Chromosoma. 2012;121:291-305 pubmed publisher
    In most multicellular eukaryotes, synapsis [synaptonemal complex (SC) formation] between pairs of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis is closely linked with crossing over...
  9. COLAIACOVO M, MacQueen A, Martinez Perez E, McDonald K, Adamo A, La Volpe A, et al. Synaptonemal complex assembly in C. elegans is dispensable for loading strand-exchange proteins but critical for proper completion of recombination. Dev Cell. 2003;5:463-74 pubmed
    Here we probe the relationships between assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC) and progression of recombination between homologous chromosomes during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis...
  10. Yuan L, Liu J, Hoja M, Wilbertz J, Nordqvist K, Hoog C. Female germ cell aneuploidy and embryo death in mice lacking the meiosis-specific protein SCP3. Science. 2002;296:1115-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the absence of synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3) promotes aneuploidy in murine oocytes by inducing defective meiotic chromosome segregation...
  11. Zhu Z, Mori S, Oshiumi H, Matsuzaki K, Shinohara M, Shinohara A. Cyclin-dependent kinase promotes formation of the synaptonemal complex in yeast meiosis. Genes Cells. 2010;15:1036-50 pubmed publisher
    ..dependent on Clb5 and/or Clb6, is frequently observed in zygotene and pachytene, when formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC) occurs...
  12. Franklin A, McElver J, Sunjevaric I, Rothstein R, Bowen B, Cande W. Three-dimensional microscopy of the Rad51 recombination protein during meiotic prophase. Plant Cell. 1999;11:809-24 pubmed
    ..These observations are consistent with a role for Rad51 in the homology search phase of chromosome pairing in addition to its known role in meiotic recombination...
  13. Moens P, Marcon E, Shore J, Kochakpour N, Spyropoulos B. Initiation and resolution of interhomolog connections: crossover and non-crossover sites along mouse synaptonemal complexes. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1017-27 pubmed
    ..orient to positions between the aligned cores where they initiate structural interhomolog contacts prior to synaptonemal complex (SC) formation, possibly future crossover sites...
  14. Pradillo M, Lopez E, Romero C, Sanchez Moran E, Cuñado N, Santos J. An analysis of univalent segregation in meiotic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana: a possible role for synaptonemal complex. Genetics. 2007;175:505-11 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that in Arabidopsis there is a system, depending on the SC formation, that would facilitate regular disjunction of homologous univalents to opposite poles at anaphase I...
  15. de Carvalho C, COLAIACOVO M. SUMO-mediated regulation of synaptonemal complex formation during meiosis. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1986-92 pubmed
  16. Prieto I, Kouznetsova A, Fütterer A, Trachana V, Leonardo E, Alonso Guerrero A, et al. Synaptonemal complex assembly and H3K4Me3 demethylation determine DIDO3 localization in meiosis. Chromosoma. 2009;118:617-32 pubmed publisher
    ..of homologous chromosomes is a key meiotic event, mediated by a large proteinaceous structure termed the synaptonemal complex. Here, we describe a role in meiosis for the murine death-inducer obliterator (Dido) gene...
  17. Costa Y, Speed R, Ollinger R, Alsheimer M, Semple C, Gautier P, et al. Two novel proteins recruited by synaptonemal complex protein 1 (SYCP1) are at the centre of meiosis. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:2755-62 pubmed
    Completion of meiosis in mammals depends on the formation of the synaptonemal complex, a tripartite structure that physically links homologous chromosomes during prophase I...
  18. de Vries F, de Boer E, van den Bosch M, Baarends W, Ooms M, Yuan L, et al. Mouse Sycp1 functions in synaptonemal complex assembly, meiotic recombination, and XY body formation. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1376-89 pubmed
    ..Crossovers were rare in metaphase I of Sycp1(-/-) mice. We propose that SYCP1 has a coordinating role, and ensures formation of crossovers. Unexpectedly, Sycp1(-/-) spermatocytes did not form XY bodies...
  19. Tease C, Hulten M. Inter-sex variation in synaptonemal complex lengths largely determine the different recombination rates in male and female germ cells. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2004;107:208-15 pubmed
    ..Thus the meiosis-specific pairing structure, the synaptonemal complex (SC), is considerably longer in oocytes in comparison to spermatocytes...
  20. Qiao H, Chen J, Reynolds A, Hoog C, PADDY M, Hunter N. Interplay between synaptonemal complex, homologous recombination, and centromeres during mammalian meiosis. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002790 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that SC fragments retained during diplonema stabilize nascent bivalents and help orchestrate local chromosome reorganization that promotes centromere and chiasma function...
  21. Judis L, Chan E, Schwartz S, Seftel A, Hassold T. Meiosis I arrest and azoospermia in an infertile male explained by failure of formation of a component of the synaptonemal complex. Fertil Steril. 2004;81:205-9 pubmed
    ..To characterize the early stages of meiosis in a male with unexplained azoospermia...
  22. Voelkel Meiman K, Taylor L, Mukherjee P, Humphryes N, Tsubouchi H, MacQueen A. SUMO localizes to the central element of synaptonemal complex and is required for the full synapsis of meiotic chromosomes in budding yeast. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003837 pubmed publisher
    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a widely conserved structure that mediates the intimate alignment of homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase and is required for proper homolog segregation at meiosis I...
  23. Clemons A, Brockway H, Yin Y, Kasinathan B, Butterfield Y, Jones S, et al. akirin is required for diakinesis bivalent structure and synaptonemal complex disassembly at meiotic prophase I. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:1053-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The synaptonemal complex (SC), which mediates homologous chromosome association before crossover formation, disassembles ..
  24. Davies O, Maman J, Pellegrini L. Structural analysis of the human SYCE2-TEX12 complex provides molecular insights into synaptonemal complex assembly. Open Biol. 2012;2:120099 pubmed publisher
    The successful completion of meiosis is essential for all sexually reproducing organisms. The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a large proteinaceous structure that holds together homologous chromosomes during meiosis, providing the structural ..
  25. Jordan P, Karppinen J, Handel M. Polo-like kinase is required for synaptonemal complex disassembly and phosphorylation in mouse spermatocytes. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5061-72 pubmed publisher
    During meiosis, accurate coordination of the completion of homologous recombination and synaptonemal complex (SC) disassembly during the prophase to metaphase I (G2/MI) transition is essential to avoid aneuploid gametes and infertility...
  26. Fritsche M, Reinholdt L, Lessard M, Handel M, Bewersdorf J, Heermann D. The impact of entropy on the spatial organization of synaptonemal complexes within the cell nucleus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36282 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that while effects of entropy impact SC organization, the dedicated action of proteins or actin cables is required to fine-tune the spatial ordering of SCs within the cell nucleus. ..
  27. Parra M, Viera A, Gómez R, Page J, Carmena M, Earnshaw W, et al. Dynamic relocalization of the chromosomal passenger complex proteins inner centromere protein (INCENP) and aurora-B kinase during male mouse meiosis. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:961-74 pubmed
    ..INCENP labels the synaptonemal complex central element from zygotene up to late pachytene when it begins to relocalize to heterochromatic ..
  28. Tease C, Hartshorne G, Hulten M. Altered patterns of meiotic recombination in human fetal oocytes with asynapsis and/or synaptonemal complex fragmentation at pachytene. Reprod Biomed Online. 2006;13:88-95 pubmed
    ..Immunostaining was used to identify the synaptonemal complex (SC, the meiosis-specific proteinaceous structure that binds homologous chromosomes) and the DNA mismatch ..
  29. Nabeshima K, Villeneuve A, COLAIACOVO M. Crossing over is coupled to late meiotic prophase bivalent differentiation through asymmetric disassembly of the SC. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:683-9 pubmed
    ..shortening during diplonema is accompanied by coiling of chromosome axes and highly asymmetric departure of synaptonemal complex (SC) central region proteins SYP-1 and SYP-2, which diminish over most of the length of each desynapsing ..
  30. Codina Pascual M, Navarro J, Oliver Bonet M, Kraus J, Speicher M, Arango O, et al. Behaviour of human heterochromatic regions during the synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:1490-7 pubmed
    ..Alterations of synapsis can disturb or arrest meiosis and result in infertility. Synaptic abnormalities are frequently observed in infertile patients but also in fertile men...
  31. Wang K, Wang M, Tang D, Shen Y, Qin B, Li M, et al. PAIR3, an axis-associated protein, is essential for the recruitment of recombination elements onto meiotic chromosomes in rice. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:12-9 pubmed publisher
    During meiosis, the paired homologous chromosomes are tightly held together by the synaptonemal complex (SC). This complex consists of two parallel axial/lateral elements (AEs/LEs) and one central element...
  32. Fukuda T, Pratto F, Schimenti J, Turner J, Camerini Otero R, Hoog C. Phosphorylation of chromosome core components may serve as axis marks for the status of chromosomal events during mammalian meiosis. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002485 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that modifications of chromosome axis components serve as signals that facilitate chromosomal events including recombination, checkpoint control, transcription, and synapsis regulation...
  33. Zanders S, Sonntag Brown M, Chen C, Alani E. Pch2 modulates chromatid partner choice during meiotic double-strand break repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2011;188:511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model in which Pch2 is required to promote full Mek1 activity and thereby promotes interhomolog repair...
  34. Reynolds N, Collier B, Bingham V, Gray N, Cooke H. Translation of the synaptonemal complex component Sycp3 is enhanced in vivo by the germ cell specific regulator Dazl. RNA. 2007;13:974-81 pubmed
    ..Sycp3 is also essential for meiosis, specifically for the formation of the synaptonemal complex lateral element with a mouse knockout model displaying a block in meiotic prophase similar to the Dazl ..
  35. Loidl J. S. pombe linear elements: the modest cousins of synaptonemal complexes. Chromosoma. 2006;115:260-71 pubmed
    ..Yet, LinEs are necessary for full meiotic pairing levels and for meiotic recombination. In this review, the composition of LinEs, their evolutionary relationship to SCs and their possible functions are discussed...
  36. Barlow A, Benson F, West S, Hulten M. Distribution of the Rad51 recombinase in human and mouse spermatocytes. EMBO J. 1997;16:5207-15 pubmed
    ..The foci always co-localized with lateral element proteins, components of the synaptonemal complex (SC)...
  37. Barlow C, Liyanage M, Moens P, Tarsounas M, Nagashima K, Brown K, et al. Atm deficiency results in severe meiotic disruption as early as leptonema of prophase I. Development. 1998;125:4007-17 pubmed
    ..in the nucleus of spermatogonia and to a lesser extent in spermatoctyes, but without localization to the synaptonemal complex. We propose a model in which ATM acts to monitor meiosis by participation in the regulation or surveillance ..
  38. Wang C, Carlton P, Golubovskaya I, Cande W. Interlock formation and coiling of meiotic chromosome axes during synapsis. Genetics. 2009;183:905-15 pubmed publisher
    ..During zygotene, as homologous chromosomes pair and synapse, a synaptonemal complex forms via the assembly of a transverse element between the two axial elements...
  39. Cheng C, Lo Y, Liang S, Ti S, Lin F, Yeh C, et al. SUMO modifications control assembly of synaptonemal complex and polycomplex in meiosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2067-81 pubmed
    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a proteinaceous complex that apparently mediates synapsis between homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Zip1 protein is the integral component of the SC...
  40. Resnick T, Dej K, Xiang Y, Hawley R, Ahn C, Orr Weaver T. Mutations in the chromosomal passenger complex and the condensin complex differentially affect synaptonemal complex disassembly and metaphase I configuration in Drosophila female meiosis. Genetics. 2009;181:875-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In meiosis, we demonstrate a role for dcap-g in disassembly of the synaptonemal complex and for proper retention of the chromosomes in a metaphase I-arrested state...
  41. Peretz G, Arie L, Bakhrat A, Abdu U. The Drosophila hus1 gene is required for homologous recombination repair during meiosis. Mech Dev. 2009;126:677-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we further analyzed the function of hus1 during meiosis and discovered that the synaptonemal complex (SC) disassembles abnormally in hus1 mutants...
  42. Hollingsworth N, Ponte L. Genetic interactions between HOP1, RED1 and MEK1 suggest that MEK1 regulates assembly of axial element components during meiosis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1997;147:33-42 pubmed
    ..by the condensation of sister chromatids along a protein core as precursors to the formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC)...
  43. Moens P. Zebrafish: chiasmata and interference. Genome. 2006;49:205-8 pubmed
    ..These observations may provide the physical basis for the reported limited genetic recombination in the centromeric region of androgenetic offspring of a male...
  44. Takeo S, Lake C, Morais de Sá E, Sunkel C, Hawley R. Synaptonemal complex-dependent centromeric clustering and the initiation of synapsis in Drosophila oocytes. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1845-51 pubmed publisher
    The pairing of homologous chromosomes and the intimate synapsis of the paired homologs by the synaptonemal complex (SC) are essential for subsequent meiotic processes including recombination and chromosome segregation...
  45. Henderson K, Keeney S. Tying synaptonemal complex initiation to the formation and programmed repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4519-24 pubmed
    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes recombine and become closely apposed along their lengths within the synaptonemal complex (SC)...
  46. Yu H, Koshland D. Meiotic condensin is required for proper chromosome compaction, SC assembly, and resolution of recombination-dependent chromosome linkages. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:937-47 pubmed
    ..is necessary for proper chromosomal localization of Red1 and Hop1 and the subsequent assembly of the synaptonemal complex. Finally, condensin has a Red1/Hop1-independent role in the resolution of recombination-dependent linkages ..
  47. Cuñado N, Terrones J, Sanchez L, Martinez P, Santos J. Synaptonemal complex analysis in spermatocytes and oocytes of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (Pisces, Scophthalmidae). Genome. 2001;44:1143-7 pubmed
    A surface-spreading synaptonemal complex (SC) technique was used to analyze spermatocytes and oocytes of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) to visualize the process of chromosome synapsis...
  48. Agarwal S, Roeder G. Zip3 provides a link between recombination enzymes and synaptonemal complex proteins. Cell. 2000;102:245-55 pubmed
    In budding yeast, absence of the meiosis-specific Zip3 protein (also known as Cst9) causes synaptonemal complex formation to be delayed and incomplete...
  49. Santucci Darmanin S, Walpita D, Lespinasse F, Desnuelle C, Ashley T, Paquis Flucklinger V. MSH4 acts in conjunction with MLH1 during mammalian meiosis. FASEB J. 2000;14:1539-47 pubmed
    ..Immunolocalization analysis shows that MSH4 is present at sites along the synaptonemal complex as soon as homologous chromosomes synapse...
  50. Solari A. Synaptonemal complex analysis in human male infertility. Eur J Histochem. 1999;43:265-76 pubmed
    ..b>Synaptonemal complex analysis shows that in many carriers of chromosomal aberrations that lead to pachytene configurations ..
  51. Bardhan A. Complex regulation of sister kinetochore orientation in meiosis-I. J Biosci. 2010;35:485-95 pubmed
    ..Kinetochores have a central role in the reduction process. In this review, we discuss the complexity of this role of kinetochores in meiosis-I...
  52. Sun F, Oliver Bonet M, Liehr T, Starke H, Ko E, Rademaker A, et al. Discontinuities and unsynapsed regions in meiotic chromosomes have a trans effect on meiotic recombination of some chromosomes in human males. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2007;119:27-32 pubmed
    ..and unsynapsed regions (splits) were most frequently observed in the heterochromatic regions of bivalent synaptonemal complex (SC) 9, and we have previously demonstrated that gaps and splits significantly altered the distribution of ..
  53. Chua P, Roeder G. Zip2, a meiosis-specific protein required for the initiation of chromosome synapsis. Cell. 1998;93:349-59 pubmed
    ..of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZIP2 gene, which encodes a novel meiosis-specific protein essential for synaptonemal complex formation. In the zip2 mutant, chromosomes are homologously paired but not synapsed...