heterochromatin

Summary

Summary: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.

Top Publications

  1. Alper B, Lowe B, Partridge J. Centromeric heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast--balancing transcription, RNA interference and chromatin modification. Chromosome Res. 2012;20:521-34 pubmed publisher
    ..different types of chromatin, with euchromatin representing gene rich, transcriptionally active regions and heterochromatin more condensed and gene poor...
  2. He B, Caudy A, Parsons L, Rosebrock A, Pane A, Raj S, et al. Mapping the pericentric heterochromatin by comparative genomic hybridization analysis and chromosome deletions in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome Res. 2012;22:2507-19 pubmed publisher
    b>Heterochromatin represents a significant portion of eukaryotic genomes and has essential structural and regulatory functions...
  3. Mughal N, Coppotelli G, Callegari S, Gastaldello S, Masucci M. Interaction of gamma-herpesvirus genome maintenance proteins with cellular chromatin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62783 pubmed publisher
    ..with chromatin in transfected cells, all GMPs shared the capacity to promote the decondensation of heterochromatin in the A03-1 reporter cell line...
  4. Buscaino A, Lejeune E, Audergon P, Hamilton G, Pidoux A, Allshire R. Distinct roles for Sir2 and RNAi in centromeric heterochromatin nucleation, spreading and maintenance. EMBO J. 2013;32:1250-64 pubmed publisher
    Epigenetically regulated heterochromatin domains govern essential cellular activities. A key feature of heterochromatin domains is the presence of hypoacetylated nucleosomes, which are methylated on lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me)...
  5. Kuscu C, Zaratiegui M, Kim H, Wah D, Martienssen R, Schalch T, et al. CRL4-like Clr4 complex in Schizosaccharomyces pombe depends on an exposed surface of Dos1 for heterochromatin silencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:1795-800 pubmed publisher
    ..H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) and its recognition by HP1 proteins are necessary for pericentromeric heterochromatin formation. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, H3K9me deposition depends on the RNAi pathway...
  6. Rhie B, Song Y, Ryu H, Ahn S. Cellular aging is associated with increased ubiquitylation of histone H2B in yeast telomeric heterochromatin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;439:570-5 pubmed publisher
    ..we report that cellular aging is associated with increased ubiquitylation of histone H2B in yeast telomeric heterochromatin. An increase in ubiquitylation at histone H2B lysine 123 and methylations at both H3K4 and H3 lysine 79 (..
  7. Fu S, Lv Z, Guo X, Zhang X, Han F. Alteration of terminal heterochromatin and chromosome rearrangements in derivatives of wheat-rye hybrids. J Genet Genomics. 2013;40:413-20 pubmed publisher
    Wheat-rye addition and substitution lines and their self progenies revealed variations in telomeric heterochromatin and centromeres...
  8. Koga A, Hirai Y, Hara T, Hirai H. Repetitive sequences originating from the centromere constitute large-scale heterochromatin in the telomere region in the siamang, a small ape. Heredity (Edinb). 2012;109:180-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These structures look similar, by chromosome C-banding, to chromosome-end heterochromatin found in chimpanzee, bonobo and gorilla (African great apes), of which a major component is tandem repeats of ..
  9. Zemach A, Kim M, Hsieh P, Coleman Derr D, Eshed Williams L, Thao K, et al. The Arabidopsis nucleosome remodeler DDM1 allows DNA methyltransferases to access H1-containing heterochromatin. Cell. 2013;153:193-205 pubmed publisher
    ..RdDM is instead inhibited by heterochromatin and absolutely requires the nucleosome remodeler DRD1...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Carone D, Lawrence J. Heterochromatin instability in cancer: from the Barr body to satellites and the nuclear periphery. Semin Cancer Biol. 2013;23:99-108 pubmed publisher
    ..The cell-type specific organization of heterochromatin, established upon cell differentiation, is responsible for maintaining much of the genome in a repressed ..
  2. Bertulat B, De Bonis M, Della Ragione F, Lehmkuhl A, Milden M, Storm C, et al. MeCP2 dependent heterochromatin reorganization during neural differentiation of a novel Mecp2-deficient embryonic stem cell reporter line. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47848 pubmed publisher
    ..HDAC complexes to chromatin thereby modulating gene expression and, importantly regulates higher order heterochromatin structure...
  3. Oliveira S, Cabral de Mello D, Arcanjo A, Xavier C, Souza M, Martins C, et al. Heterochromatin, sex chromosomes and rRNA gene clusters in Coprophanaeus beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Cytogenet Genome Res. 2012;138:46-55 pubmed publisher
    ..However, they show different sex chromosome forms, XY, Xy, XY(p), and heterochromatin seems to be involved in the origin and diversification of these forms...
  4. Tu Z, Zhuang X, Yao Y, Zhang R. BRG1 is required for formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci induced by oncogenic RAS or BRCA1 loss. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1819-29 pubmed publisher
    ..from chromatin and BRCA1 knockdown itself drive senescence by promoting formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF)...
  5. Liu B, Wang Z, Zhang L, Ghosh S, Zheng H, Zhou Z. Depleting the methyltransferase Suv39h1 improves DNA repair and extends lifespan in a progeria mouse model. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1868 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides an explanation for epigenetic alterations in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and a potential strategy for intervention by targeting SUV39H1-mediated heterochromatin remodelling.
  6. Lange U, Siebert S, Wossidlo M, Weiss T, Ziegler Birling C, Walter J, et al. Dissecting the role of H3K64me3 in mouse pericentromeric heterochromatin. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2233 pubmed publisher
    ..chromatin involving chromatin modifiers and 'readers', such as H3K9 histone methyltransferases (Suv)39h and heterochromatin protein 1...
  7. Oya E, Kato H, Chikashige Y, Tsutsumi C, Hiraoka Y, Murakami Y. Mediator directs co-transcriptional heterochromatin assembly by RNA interference-dependent and -independent pathways. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003677 pubmed publisher
    b>Heterochromatin at the pericentromeric repeats in fission yeast is assembled and spread by an RNAi-dependent mechanism, which is coupled with the transcription of non-coding RNA from the repeats by RNA polymerase II...
  8. Creamer K, Job G, Shanker S, Neale G, Lin Y, Bartholomew B, et al. The Mi-2 homolog Mit1 actively positions nucleosomes within heterochromatin to suppress transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:2046-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Snf2/histone deacetylase (HDAC) repressor complex (SHREC) and is known to repress transcription at regions of heterochromatin. However, how Mit1 modifies chromatin to silence transcription is largely unknown...
  9. Sato H, Masuda F, Takayama Y, Takahashi K, Saitoh S. Epigenetic inactivation and subsequent heterochromatinization of a centromere stabilize dicentric chromosomes. Curr Biol. 2012;22:658-67 pubmed publisher
    ..However, some stably maintained non-Robertsonian translocated chromosomes have been reported, suggesting that the excessive centromeres are inactivated by an as yet undetermined mechanism...
  10. Hathaway N, Bell O, Hodges C, Miller E, Neel D, Crabtree G. Dynamics and memory of heterochromatin in living cells. Cell. 2012;149:1447-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This framework predicts the steady-state dynamics and spatial features of the majority of euchromatic H3K9me3 domains over the genome...
  11. Filipponi D, Müller J, Emelyanov A, Bulavin D. Wip1 controls global heterochromatin silencing via ATM/BRCA1-dependent DNA methylation. Cancer Cell. 2013;24:528-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Wip1 plays a key role in the transcriptional regulation of heterochromatin-associated DNA sequences...
  12. Chandra T, Kirschner K, Thuret J, Pope B, Ryba T, Newman S, et al. Independence of repressive histone marks and chromatin compaction during senescent heterochromatic layer formation. Mol Cell. 2012;47:203-14 pubmed publisher
    The expansion of repressive epigenetic marks has been implicated in heterochromatin formation during embryonic development, but the general applicability of this mechanism is unclear...
  13. Yamanaka S, Mehta S, REYES TURCU F, Zhuang F, Fuchs R, Rong Y, et al. RNAi triggered by specialized machinery silences developmental genes and retrotransposons. Nature. 2013;493:557-60 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) guide the degradation of cognate RNAs, but also promote heterochromatin assembly at repetitive DNA elements such as centromeric repeats...
  14. Mungamuri S, Benson E, Wang S, Gu W, Lee S, Aaronson S. p53-mediated heterochromatin reorganization regulates its cell fate decisions. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:478-84, S1 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings uncover a new layer of p53-mediated chromatin regulation through modulation of histone methylation at p53 target promoters...
  15. Coppotelli G, Mughal N, Callegari S, Sompallae R, Caja L, Luijsterburg M, et al. The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 reprograms transcription by mimicry of high mobility group A proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:2950-62 pubmed publisher
    ..that the expression of EBNA1 in transfected human and mouse cells is associated with decreased prevalence of heterochromatin foci, enhanced accessibility of cellular DNA to micrococcal nuclease digestion and decreased average length ..
  16. Solovei I, Wang A, Thanisch K, Schmidt C, Krebs S, Zwerger M, et al. LBR and lamin A/C sequentially tether peripheral heterochromatin and inversely regulate differentiation. Cell. 2013;152:584-98 pubmed publisher
    Eukaryotic cells have a layer of heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery...
  17. Ribeiro Mason K, Boulesteix C, Fleurot R, Aguirre Lavin T, Adenot P, Gall L, et al. H3S10 phosphorylation marks constitutive heterochromatin during interphase in early mouse embryos until the 4-cell stage. J Reprod Dev. 2012;58:467-75 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, in mammalian somatic cells, H3S10P initiates in the pericentromeric heterochromatin during the late G2 phase, and phosphorylation spreads throughout the chromosomes arms in prophase, being ..
  18. Bolderson E, Savage K, Mahen R, Pisupati V, Graham M, Richard D, et al. Kruppel-associated Box (KRAB)-associated co-repressor (KAP-1) Ser-473 phosphorylation regulates heterochromatin protein 1β (HP1-β) mobilization and DNA repair in heterochromatin. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28122-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have shown that the repair of transcriptionally inactive chromatin, named heterochromatin, is dependent upon the phosphorylation of the co-repressor, Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain-..
  19. Figueiredo M, Philip P, Stenberg P, Larsson J. HP1a recruitment to promoters is independent of H3K9 methylation in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003061 pubmed publisher
    b>Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins, recognized readers of the heterochromatin mark methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me), are important regulators of heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing and chromosome structure...
  20. Makarevitch I, Eichten S, Briskine R, Waters A, Danilevskaya O, Meeley R, et al. Genomic distribution of maize facultative heterochromatin marked by trimethylation of H3K27. Plant Cell. 2013;25:780-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Only a portion of the targets of H3K27me3 required Mez2 and/or Mez3, and there was limited evidence for functional consequences of H3K27me3 at these targets...
  21. Wang D, Zhou J, Liu X, Lu D, Shen C, Du Y, et al. Methylation of SUV39H1 by SET7/9 results in heterochromatin relaxation and genome instability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5516-21 pubmed publisher
    ..1 (SUV39H1), a histone methyltransferase, catalyzes histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation and is involved in heterochromatin organization and genome stability...
  22. Drosopoulos W, Kosiyatrakul S, Yan Z, Calderano S, Schildkraut C. Human telomeres replicate using chromosome-specific, rather than universal, replication programs. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:253-66 pubmed publisher
    Telomeric and adjacent subtelomeric heterochromatin pose significant challenges to the DNA replication machinery. Little is known about how replication progresses through these regions in human cells...
  23. Honda S, Lewis Z, Shimada K, Fischle W, Sack R, Selker E. Heterochromatin protein 1 forms distinct complexes to direct histone deacetylation and DNA methylation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:471-7, S1 pubmed publisher
    ..methylation of histone H3 at Lys9 (H3K9me3) and hypoacetylated histones are common molecular features of heterochromatin. Important details of their functions and inter-relationships remain unclear, however...
  24. Wang J, Tadeo X, Hou H, Tu P, Thompson J, Yates J, et al. Epe1 recruits BET family bromodomain protein Bdf2 to establish heterochromatin boundaries. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1886-902 pubmed publisher
    b>Heterochromatin spreading leads to the silencing of genes within its path, and boundary elements have evolved to constrain such spreading...
  25. Casanova M, Pasternak M, el Marjou F, Le Baccon P, Probst A, Almouzni G. Heterochromatin reorganization during early mouse development requires a single-stranded noncoding transcript. Cell Rep. 2013;4:1156-67 pubmed publisher
    The equalization of pericentric heterochromatin from distinct parental origins following fertilization is essential for genome function and development...
  26. Schuster Böckler B, Lehner B. Chromatin organization is a major influence on regional mutation rates in human cancer cells. Nature. 2012;488:504-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, at the megabase scale, a single feature—levels of the heterochromatin-associated histone modification H3K9me3—can account for more than 40% of mutation-rate variation, and a ..
  27. Kubiura M, Okano M, Kimura H, Kawamura F, Tada M. Chromosome-wide regulation of euchromatin-specific 5mC to 5hmC conversion in mouse ES cells and female human somatic cells. Chromosome Res. 2012;20:837-48 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, heterochromatin enriched with H3K9me3, including mouse chromosomal G-bands, pericentric repeats, human satellite 2 and 3, and ..
  28. Choi E, Strålfors A, Catania S, Castillo A, Svensson J, Pidoux A, et al. Factors that promote H3 chromatin integrity during transcription prevent promiscuous deposition of CENP-A(Cnp1) in fission yeast. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002985 pubmed publisher
    ..the de novo assembly of CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin on centromeric DNA, bypassing the normal requirement for heterochromatin. Thus, our analyses show that alterations in the process of chromatin assembly during transcription can ..
  29. Koryakov D, Pokholkova G, Maksimov D, Belyakin S, Belyaeva E, Zhimulev I. Induced transcription results in local changes in chromatin structure, replication timing, and DNA polytenization in a site of intercalary heterochromatin. Chromosoma. 2012;121:573-83 pubmed publisher
    In salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster, the regions of intercalary heterochromatin are characterized by late replication, under-replication, and genetic silencing...
  30. Bulut Karslioglu A, Perrera V, Scaranaro M, de la Rosa Velazquez I, van de Nobelen S, Shukeir N, et al. A transcription factor-based mechanism for mouse heterochromatin formation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:1023-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Heterochromatin is important for genome integrity and stabilization of gene-expression programs...
  31. Hahn M, Dambacher S, Dulev S, Kuznetsova A, Eck S, Wörz S, et al. Suv4-20h2 mediates chromatin compaction and is important for cohesin recruitment to heterochromatin. Genes Dev. 2013;27:859-72 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is currently unknown how cohesin is recruited to pericentric heterochromatin in mammalian cells...
  32. Wang X, Duan C, Tang K, Wang B, Zhang H, Lei M, et al. RNA-binding protein regulates plant DNA methylation by controlling mRNA processing at the intronic heterochromatin-containing gene IBM1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15467-72 pubmed publisher
    DNA methylation-dependent heterochromatin formation is a conserved mechanism of epigenetic silencing of transposons and other repeat elements in many higher eukaryotes...
  33. Sentmanat M, Elgin S. Ectopic assembly of heterochromatin in Drosophila melanogaster triggered by transposable elements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ChIP analysis shows 1360-dependent Heterochromatin Protein 1a (HP1a) accumulation at this otherwise euchromatic site...
  34. Johansson A, Stenberg P, Allgardsson A, Larsson J. POF regulates the expression of genes on the fourth chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster by binding to nascent RNA. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:2121-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide useful insights into the means by which genes in heterochromatic regions can overcome the repressive influence of their hostile environment...
  35. Horakova A, Moseley S, McLaughlin C, Tremblay D, Chadwick B. The macrosatellite DXZ4 mediates CTCF-dependent long-range intrachromosomal interactions on the human inactive X chromosome. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:4367-77 pubmed
    The human X-linked macrosatellite DXZ4 is a large tandem repeat located at Xq23 that is packaged into heterochromatin on the male X chromosome and female active X chromosome and, in response to X chromosome, inactivation is organized ..
  36. Bucksch M, Ziegler M, Kosayakova N, Mulatinho M, Mulhatino M, Llerena J, et al. A new multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization probe set directed against human heterochromatin: HCM-FISH. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60:530-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The so-called heterochromatin-M-FISH (HCM-FISH) probe set enables a one-step characterization of the large heterochromatic regions within ..
  37. Riddle N, Jung Y, Gu T, Alekseyenko A, Asker D, Gui H, et al. Enrichment of HP1a on Drosophila chromosome 4 genes creates an alternate chromatin structure critical for regulation in this heterochromatic domain. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002954 pubmed publisher
    ..Active genes on chromosome 4 are distinct from those in euchromatin or pericentric heterochromatin: while there is a depletion of silencing marks at the transcription start sites (TSSs), HP1a and H3K9me3, but ..
  38. Canzio D, Liao M, Naber N, Pate E, Larson A, Wu S, et al. A conformational switch in HP1 releases auto-inhibition to drive heterochromatin assembly. Nature. 2013;496:377-81 pubmed publisher
    A hallmark of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9)-methylated heterochromatin, conserved from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to humans, is its ability to spread to adjacent genomic regions...
  39. Morozov V, Gavrilova E, Ogryzko V, Ishov A. Dualistic function of Daxx at centromeric and pericentromeric heterochromatin in normal and stress conditions. Nucleus. 2012;3:276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Heat Shock (HS) changes this balance forcing very robust and reversible accumulation of Daxx on CEN/periCEN heterochromatin.   Heterochromatin architecture is essential for the proper orchestration of nuclear processes, while ..
  40. Mirouze M, Lieberman Lazarovich M, Aversano R, Bucher E, Nicolet J, Reinders J, et al. Loss of DNA methylation affects the recombination landscape in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5880-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Because DNA methylation exhibits significant variation even within a single species, our results imply that it may influence the evolution of plant genomes through the control of meiotic recombination...
  41. Ventura M, Catacchio C, Sajjadian S, Vives L, Sudmant P, Marques Bonet T, et al. The evolution of African great ape subtelomeric heterochromatin and the fusion of human chromosome 2. Genome Res. 2012;22:1036-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Chimpanzee and gorilla chromosomes differ from human chromosomes by the presence of large blocks of subterminal heterochromatin thought to be composed primarily of arrays of tandem satellite sequence...
  42. Alper B, Job G, Yadav R, Shanker S, Lowe B, Partridge J. Sir2 is required for Clr4 to initiate centromeric heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast. EMBO J. 2013;32:2321-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast depends on the Clr4 histone methyltransferase, which targets H3K9...
  43. Zhou Q, Ellison C, Kaiser V, Alekseyenko A, Gorchakov A, Bachtrog D. The epigenome of evolving Drosophila neo-sex chromosomes: dosage compensation and heterochromatin formation. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001711 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila Y chromosomes are composed entirely of silent heterochromatin, while male X chromosomes have highly accessible chromatin and are hypertranscribed as a result of dosage ..
  44. Hwang Y, Han D, Kim K, Min S, Kowall N, Yang L, et al. ESET methylates UBF at K232/254 and regulates nucleolar heterochromatin plasticity and rDNA transcription. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:1628-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings show that a novel epigenetic modification of UBF is linked to impaired rDNA transcription and nucleolar chromatin remodeling, which may play key roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. ..
  45. Hu Y, Zhang L, He S, Huang M, Tan J, Zhao L, et al. Cold stress selectively unsilences tandem repeats in heterochromatin associated with accumulation of H3K9ac. Plant Cell Environ. 2012;35:2130-42 pubmed publisher
    Knobs are cytologically observable major interstitial heterochromatin present on maize nuclei, which consist of highly tandem-repetitive elements that are always silenced...
  46. Hayashi A, Ishida M, Kawaguchi R, Urano T, Murakami Y, Nakayama J. Heterochromatin protein 1 homologue Swi6 acts in concert with Ers1 to regulate RNAi-directed heterochromatin assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:6159-64 pubmed publisher
    In fission yeast, the RNAi pathway is required for centromeric heterochromatin assembly...
  47. Sienski G, Donertas D, Brennecke J. Transcriptional silencing of transposons by Piwi and maelstrom and its impact on chromatin state and gene expression. Cell. 2012;151:964-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, loss of Maelstrom affects transposon H3K9me3 patterns only mildly yet leads to increased heterochromatin spreading, suggesting that Maelstrom acts downstream of or in parallel to H3K9me3...
  48. Shim Y, Choi Y, Kang K, Cho K, Oh S, Lee J, et al. Hrp3 controls nucleosome positioning to suppress non-coding transcription in eu- and heterochromatin. EMBO J. 2012;31:4375-87 pubmed publisher
    ..also associated with destabilization of the DNA-histone interaction and cell cycle-dependent alleviation of heterochromatin silencing...
  49. Zheng H, Chen L, Pledger W, Fang J, Chen J. p53 promotes repair of heterochromatin DNA by regulating JMJD2b and SUV39H1 expression. Oncogene. 2014;33:734-44 pubmed publisher
    Constitutive heterochromatin (HC) is important for maintaining chromosome stability, but also delays the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs)...
  50. Benhamed M, Herbig U, Ye T, Dejean A, Bischof O. Senescence is an endogenous trigger for microRNA-directed transcriptional gene silencing in human cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:266-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that miRNA/AGO2-mediated SA-TGS may contribute to tumour suppression by stably repressing proliferation-promoting genes in premalignant cancer cells...
  51. Tsurumi A, Li W. Global heterochromatin loss: a unifying theory of aging?. Epigenetics. 2012;7:680-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These include free radicals, loss of heterochromatin, genetically programmed senescence, telomere shortening, genomic instability, nutritional intake and growth ..
  52. Lee N, Chalamcharla V, Reyes Turcu F, Mehta S, Zofall M, Balachandran V, et al. Mtr4-like protein coordinates nuclear RNA processing for heterochromatin assembly and for telomere maintenance. Cell. 2013;155:1061-74 pubmed publisher
    ..core promotes degradation of mRNAs and noncoding RNAs and associates with different proteins to assemble heterochromatin via distinct mechanisms...
  53. Towbin B, Gonzalez Sandoval A, Gasser S. Mechanisms of heterochromatin subnuclear localization. Trends Biochem Sci. 2013;38:356-63 pubmed publisher
    Transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin becomes the dominant form of chromatin in most terminally differentiated cells. Moreover, in most cells, at least one class of heterochromatin is positioned adjacent to the nuclear lamina...