chromatids

Summary

Summary: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)

Top Publications

  1. Tapia Alveal C, Outwin E, Trempolec N, Dziadkowiec D, Murray J, O Connell M. SMC complexes and topoisomerase II work together so that sister chromatids can work apart. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:2065-70 pubmed
    The pairing of sister chromatids in interphase facilitates error-free homologous recombination (HR). Sister chromatids are held together by cohesin, one of three Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) complexes...
  2. Mora Bermúdez F, Gerlich D, Ellenberg J. Maximal chromosome compaction occurs by axial shortening in anaphase and depends on Aurora kinase. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:822-31 pubmed
    ..Acute perturbation of this compaction resulted in failure to rescue segregation defects and in multilobed daughter nuclei, suggesting functions in chromosome segregation and nuclear architecture. ..
  3. Heidinger Pauli J, Unal E, Koshland D. Distinct targets of the Eco1 acetyltransferase modulate cohesion in S phase and in response to DNA damage. Mol Cell. 2009;34:311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Mcd1p and Smc3p acetylation antagonize Wpl1p only in their proper context. Thus, Eco1p antagonizes Wpl1p in distinct ways to modulate cohesion generation during the cell cycle and after DNA damage. ..
  4. Wang L, Mayer B, Stemmann O, Nigg E. Centromere DNA decatenation depends on cohesin removal and is required for mammalian cell division. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:806-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that centromere decatenation can occur only after separase activation and cohesin removal, providing a plausible explanation for the persistence of centromere threads after anaphase onset. ..
  5. Peters J, Tedeschi A, Schmitz J. The cohesin complex and its roles in chromosome biology. Genes Dev. 2008;22:3089-114 pubmed publisher
    ..Cohesin mediates cohesion between replicated sister chromatids and is therefore essential for chromosome segregation in dividing cells...
  6. Chan K, Palmai Pallag T, Ying S, Hickson I. Replication stress induces sister-chromatid bridging at fragile site loci in mitosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:753-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that, after replication stress, sister chromatids are interlinked by replication intermediates primarily at genetic loci with intrinsic replication difficulties, ..
  7. Falconer E, Chavez E, Henderson A, Poon S, McKinney S, Brown L, et al. Identification of sister chromatids by DNA template strand sequences. Nature. 2010;463:93-7 pubmed publisher
    It is generally assumed that sister chromatids are genetically and functionally identical and that segregation to daughter cells is a random process...
  8. Kuznetsov S, Pellegrini M, Shuda K, Fernandez Capetillo O, Liu Y, Martin B, et al. RAD51C deficiency in mice results in early prophase I arrest in males and sister chromatid separation at metaphase II in females. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:581-92 pubmed
    ..oocytes can progress normally to metaphase I after superovulation but display precocious separation of sister chromatids, aneuploidy, and broken chromosomes at metaphase II...
  9. Schmitz J, Watrin E, Lenart P, Mechtler K, Peters J. Sororin is required for stable binding of cohesin to chromatin and for sister chromatid cohesion in interphase. Curr Biol. 2007;17:630-6 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that sororin interacts with chromatin-bound cohesin and functions during the establishment or maintenance of cohesion in S or G2 phase, respectively. ..

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wang L, Schwarzbraun T, Speicher M, Nigg E. Persistence of DNA threads in human anaphase cells suggests late completion of sister chromatid decatenation. Chromosoma. 2008;117:123-35 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they show that topoisomerase activity is required during anaphase for the resolution of PICH-positive threads, implying that the complete separation of sister chromatids occurs later than previously assumed.
  2. Lee J, Kitajima T, Tanno Y, Yoshida K, Morita T, Miyano T, et al. Unified mode of centromeric protection by shugoshin in mammalian oocytes and somatic cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:42-52 pubmed
    Reductional chromosome segregation in germ cells, where sister chromatids are pulled to the same pole, accompanies the protection of cohesin at centromeres from separase cleavage...
  3. Yang X, Boateng K, Strittmatter L, Burgess R, Makaroff C. Arabidopsis separase functions beyond the removal of sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:323-33 pubmed publisher
  4. Minca E, Kowalski D. Multiple Rad5 activities mediate sister chromatid recombination to bypass DNA damage at stalled replication forks. Mol Cell. 2010;38:649-61 pubmed publisher
    ..the formation of recombination-dependent, X-shaped DNA structures containing Holliday junctions between sister chromatids. Mutants lacking these damage-induced chromatid junctions were defective in resolving stalled forks, restarting ..
  5. Hauf S, Biswas A, Langegger M, Kawashima S, Tsukahara T, Watanabe Y. Aurora controls sister kinetochore mono-orientation and homolog bi-orientation in meiosis-I. EMBO J. 2007;26:4475-86 pubmed
    ..regulators of mitotic chromosome segregation, where they are required for the faithful bi-orientation of sister chromatids. In contrast to mitosis, sister chromatids have to be oriented toward the same spindle pole in meiosis-I, while ..
  6. Skibbens R. Buck the establishment: reinventing sister chromatid cohesion. Trends Cell Biol. 2010;20:507-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Cohesion is thus crucial for identifying replication products as sister chromatids from S-phase until mitosis...
  7. Yang X, Boateng K, Yuan L, Wu S, Baskin T, Makaroff C. The radially swollen 4 separase mutation of Arabidopsis thaliana blocks chromosome disjunction and disrupts the radial microtubule system in meiocytes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19459 pubmed publisher
    ..separase, is required at the onset of anaphase to cleave the cohesin complex that joins replicated sister chromatids. However, in various eukaryotes, separase has acquired additional and distinct functions...
  8. Solomon D, Kim T, Diaz Martinez L, Fair J, Elkahloun A, Harris B, et al. Mutational inactivation of STAG2 causes aneuploidy in human cancer. Science. 2011;333:1039-43 pubmed publisher
    ..mutations of STAG2, a gene encoding a subunit of the cohesin complex, which regulates the separation of sister chromatids during cell division...
  9. Lopez Serra L, Lengronne A, Borges V, Kelly G, Uhlmann F. Budding yeast Wapl controls sister chromatid cohesion maintenance and chromosome condensation. Curr Biol. 2013;23:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, as a conserved regulator of cohesin dynamics on chromosomes, Wapl controls cohesion maintenance after its establishment in S phase and adjusts the chromosome condensation status. ..
  10. Chelysheva L, Vezon D, Belcram K, Gendrot G, Grelon M. The Arabidopsis BLAP75/Rmi1 homologue plays crucial roles in meiotic double-strand break repair. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000309 pubmed publisher
    ..step mediated by RAD51 and associated proteins and that it is necessary to repair meiotic DSBs onto sister chromatids as well as onto the homologous chromosome...
  11. Pauli A, van Bemmel J, Oliveira R, Itoh T, Shirahige K, van Steensel B, et al. A direct role for cohesin in gene regulation and ecdysone response in Drosophila salivary glands. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1787-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that cohesin regulates expression of a distinct set of genes, including those mediating the ecdysone response. ..
  12. Goldfarb T, Lichten M. Frequent and efficient use of the sister chromatid for DNA double-strand break repair during budding yeast meiosis. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000520 pubmed publisher
    ..However, recombination between sister chromatids also has an important role in meiosis...
  13. Wang M, Tang D, Wang K, Shen Y, Qin B, Miao C, et al. OsSGO1 maintains synaptonemal complex stabilization in addition to protecting centromeric cohesion during rice meiosis. Plant J. 2011;67:583-94 pubmed publisher
    Shugoshin is a conserved protein in eukaryotes that protects the centromeric cohesin of sister chromatids from cleavage by separase during meiosis...
  14. Dreier M, Bekier M, Taylor W. Regulation of sororin by Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2976-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding how chromatids are linked and separated at the appropriate time will help uncover the basis of aneuploidy and will shed light ..
  15. Maiato H, Lince Faria M. The perpetual movements of anaphase. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:2251-69 pubmed publisher
    One of the most extraordinary events in the lifetime of a cell is the coordinated separation of sister chromatids during cell division...
  16. Feytout A, Vaur S, Genier S, Vazquez S, Javerzat J. Psm3 acetylation on conserved lysine residues is dispensable for viability in fission yeast but contributes to Eso1-mediated sister chromatid cohesion by antagonizing Wpl1. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1771-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Psm3 acetylation contributes to Eso1 counteracting of Wpl1 to secure stable cohesin interaction with postreplicative chromosomes but that it is not the sole molecular event by which this occurs...
  17. Kegel A, Betts Lindroos H, Kanno T, Jeppsson K, Ström L, Katou Y, et al. Chromosome length influences replication-induced topological stress. Nature. 2011;471:392-6 pubmed publisher
  18. Hohl M, Kwon Y, Galván S, Xue X, Tous C, Aguilera A, et al. The Rad50 coiled-coil domain is indispensable for Mre11 complex functions. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:1124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that functions of Mre11 complex are integrated by the coiled coils of Rad50. ..
  19. Robinson N, Blood K, McCallum S, Edwards P, Bell S. Sister chromatid junctions in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. EMBO J. 2007;26:816-24 pubmed
  20. Li H, Wang Y, Liu X. Plk1-dependent phosphorylation regulates functions of DNA topoisomerase IIalpha in cell cycle progression. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:6209-21 pubmed publisher
  21. Losada A. The regulation of sister chromatid cohesion. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1786:41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review I summarize recent advances in our understanding of cohesin function and regulation in mitosis, and discuss the consequences of impairing the cohesion process at the level of the whole organism. ..
  22. Ocampo Hafalla M, Uhlmann F. Cohesin loading and sliding. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:685-91 pubmed publisher
    ..several essential subunits in budding yeast, cohesin forms a ring-like complex that is thought to embrace sister chromatids, thereby physically linking them until their timely segregation during cell division...
  23. Baudrimont A, Penkner A, Woglar A, Mamnun Y, Hulek M, Struck C, et al. A new thermosensitive smc-3 allele reveals involvement of cohesin in homologous recombination in C. elegans. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24799 pubmed publisher
    The cohesin complex is required for the cohesion of sister chromatids and for correct segregation during mitosis and meiosis...
  24. Haering C, Farcas A, Arumugam P, Metson J, Nasmyth K. The cohesin ring concatenates sister DNA molecules. Nature. 2008;454:297-301 pubmed publisher
    ..As predicted by the ring entrapment model, this procedure produced dimeric DNA-cohesin structures that are resistant to protein denaturation. We conclude that cohesin rings concatenate individual sister minichromosome DNA molecules. ..
  25. Vaur S, Feytout A, Vazquez S, Javerzat J. Pds5 promotes cohesin acetylation and stable cohesin-chromosome interaction. EMBO Rep. 2012;13:645-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that Eso1 requires Pds5 to counteract anti-establishment. This allows both cohesion establishment and Pds5-dependent stable cohesin binding to chromosomes...
  26. Thein K, Kleylein Sohn J, Nigg E, Gruneberg U. Astrin is required for the maintenance of sister chromatid cohesion and centrosome integrity. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:345-54 pubmed
    ..Once all of the chromosomes are aligned, the connection between the sister chromatids is severed by the cysteine protease separase...
  27. Xie A, Hartlerode A, Stucki M, Odate S, Puget N, Kwok A, et al. Distinct roles of chromatin-associated proteins MDC1 and 53BP1 in mammalian double-strand break repair. Mol Cell. 2007;28:1045-57 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a specialized adaptation of the "histone code" in which distinct histone tail-protein interactions promote engagement of distinct DSBR pathways. ..
  28. Zhang N, Ge G, Meyer R, Sethi S, Basu D, Pradhan S, et al. Overexpression of Separase induces aneuploidy and mammary tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:13033-8 pubmed publisher
    Separase is an endopeptidase that separates sister chromatids by cleaving cohesin Rad21 during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition...
  29. Chandramouly G, Kwok A, Huang B, Willis N, Xie A, Scully R. BRCA1 and CtIP suppress long-tract gene conversion between sister chromatids. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2404 pubmed publisher
    ..events, controlling the balance between short- (STGC) and long-tract gene conversion (LTGC) between sister chromatids. Brca1 mutant cells reveal a bias towards LTGC that is corrected by expression of wild-type but not cancer-..
  30. Niu H, Li X, Job E, Park C, Moazed D, Gygi S, et al. Mek1 kinase is regulated to suppress double-strand break repair between sister chromatids during budding yeast meiosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5456-67 pubmed
    ..recombination between homologous chromosomes by suppressing double-strand break (DSB) repair between sister chromatids. Previous work has shown that in the absence of the meiosis-specific recombinase gene, DMC1, cells arrest in ..
  31. Losada A. Cohesin regulation: fashionable ways to wear a ring. Chromosoma. 2007;116:321-9 pubmed
    ..Its ring-shaped structure first suggested that it may perform its task by embracing the sister chromatids. The interaction of cohesin with chromatin is tightly regulated throughout the cell cycle, and several proteins ..
  32. Gause M, Webber H, Misulovin Z, Haller G, Rollins R, Eissenberg J, et al. Functional links between Drosophila Nipped-B and cohesin in somatic and meiotic cells. Chromosoma. 2008;117:51-66 pubmed
    ..These results support the idea that direct regulation of cohesin function underlies the diverse functions of Nipped-B and its orthologs...
  33. Zhang N, Pati D. Handcuff for sisters: a new model for sister chromatid cohesion. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:399-402 pubmed
    High fidelity chromosome transmission requires the pairing of sister chromatids by a group of conserved proteins called cohesins during S-phase. Sister chromatid cohesion is maintained until anaphase onset...
  34. Schubert V, Weissleder A, Ali H, Fuchs J, Lermontova I, Meister A, et al. Cohesin gene defects may impair sister chromatid alignment and genome stability in Arabidopsis thaliana. Chromosoma. 2009;118:591-605 pubmed publisher
    ..g., for genome stability, apparently by facilitating correct recombination repair of double-strand breaks)...
  35. Onn I, Guacci V, Koshland D. The zinc finger of Eco1 enhances its acetyltransferase activity during sister chromatid cohesion. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:6126-34 pubmed publisher
  36. Mishra A, Hu B, Kurze A, Beckouët F, Farcas A, Dixon S, et al. Both interaction surfaces within cohesin's hinge domain are essential for its stable chromosomal association. Curr Biol. 2010;20:279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The ring model predicts that sister chromatid cohesion would be lost by transient hinge opening...
  37. Zhang N, Panigrahi A, Mao Q, Pati D. Interaction of Sororin protein with polo-like kinase 1 mediates resolution of chromosomal arm cohesion. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41826-37 pubmed publisher
  38. Remeseiro S, Cuadrado A, Carretero M, Martinez P, Drosopoulos W, Canamero M, et al. Cohesin-SA1 deficiency drives aneuploidy and tumourigenesis in mice due to impaired replication of telomeres. EMBO J. 2012;31:2076-89 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a novel mechanism for aneuploidy generation that involves impaired telomere replication upon loss of cohesin-SA1, with clear implications in tumourigenesis...
  39. Shimada K, Gasser S. The origin recognition complex functions in sister-chromatid cohesion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell. 2007;128:85-99 pubmed
    ..We conclude that ORC mediates sister-chromatid interaction on a pathway that is additive with Cohesin-mediated pairing...
  40. Milutinovich M, Unal E, Ward C, Skibbens R, Koshland D. A multi-step pathway for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e12 pubmed
    The cohesion of sister chromatids is mediated by cohesin, a protein complex containing members of the structural maintenance of chromosome (Smc) family. How cohesins tether sister chromatids is not yet understood...
  41. Skibbens R. Cell biology of cancer: BRCA1 and sister chromatid pairing reactions?. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:449-52 pubmed
    ..Future research into sister chromatid pairing mechanisms are likely to provide critical new insights into the underlying causes of cancer...
  42. Carlile T, Amon A. Meiosis I is established through division-specific translational control of a cyclin. Cell. 2008;133:280-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate an essential role for Clb-CDK regulation in establishing the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern...
  43. Unal E, Heidinger Pauli J, Kim W, Guacci V, Onn I, Gygi S, et al. A molecular determinant for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Science. 2008;321:566-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cohesin holds the replicated chromosomes (sister chromatids) together to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. The mechanism of how cohesion is established is unknown...
  44. Liu D, Vader G, Vromans M, Lampson M, Lens S. Sensing chromosome bi-orientation by spatial separation of aurora B kinase from kinetochore substrates. Science. 2009;323:1350-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, centromere tension can be sensed by increased spatial separation of Aurora B from kinetochore substrates, which reduces phosphorylation and stabilizes kinetochore microtubules...
  45. Sakuno T, Watanabe Y. Studies of meiosis disclose distinct roles of cohesion in the core centromere and pericentromeric regions. Chromosome Res. 2009;17:239-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that cohesion at the core centromere and pericentromeric regions plays distinct roles, especially in defining the orientation of kinetochores...
  46. Xiong B, Gerton J. Regulators of the cohesin network. Annu Rev Biochem. 2010;79:131-53 pubmed publisher
    Chromosome cohesion is the term used to describe the cellular process in which sister chromatids are held together from the time of their replication until the time of separation at the metaphase to anaphase transition...
  47. Nozawa R, Nagao K, Masuda H, Iwasaki O, Hirota T, Nozaki N, et al. Human POGZ modulates dissociation of HP1alpha from mitotic chromosome arms through Aurora B activation. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:719-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal POGZ as an essential protein that links HP1alpha dissociation with Aurora B kinase activation during mitosis...
  48. Blobel G. Three-dimensional organization of chromatids by nuclear envelope-associated structures. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2010;75:545-54 pubmed publisher
    ..NPCs), the nuclear lamina, and nuclear envelope junctions (NEJs), have evolved to organize, among other things, chromatids within the three-dimensional space of the nucleus...
  49. Hagemann C, Weigelin B, Schommer S, Schulze M, Al Jomah N, Anacker J, et al. The cohesin-interacting protein, precocious dissociation of sisters 5A/sister chromatid cohesion protein 112, is up-regulated in human astrocytic tumors. Int J Mol Med. 2011;27:39-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the mechanism by which Pds5A functions in GBM cells remains unclear, its overexpression in high grade gliomas implies that it could play a pivotal role during the development and progression of astrocytic tumors...
  50. Nishiyama T, Ladurner R, Schmitz J, Kreidl E, Schleiffer A, Bhaskara V, et al. Sororin mediates sister chromatid cohesion by antagonizing Wapl. Cell. 2010;143:737-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism we describe here may therefore be widely conserved among different species...
  51. Hirose Y, Suzuki R, Ohba T, Hinohara Y, Matsuhara H, Yoshida M, et al. Chiasmata promote monopolar attachment of sister chromatids and their co-segregation toward the proper pole during meiosis I. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001329 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that chiasmata also play a crucial role in the attachment of sister chromatids to the same spindle pole and in their co-segregation during meiosis I in fission yeast...
  52. Chen Z, McCrosky S, Guo W, Li H, Gerton J. A genetic screen to discover pathways affecting cohesin function in Schizosaccharomyces pombe identifies chromatin effectors. G3 (Bethesda). 2012;2:1161-8 pubmed publisher
    Cohesion, the force that holds sister chromatids together from the time of DNA replication until separation at the metaphase to anaphase transition, is mediated by the cohesin complex...
  53. Monje Casas F, Prabhu V, Lee B, Boselli M, Amon A. Kinetochore orientation during meiosis is controlled by Aurora B and the monopolin complex. Cell. 2007;128:477-90 pubmed
    Kinetochores of sister chromatids attach to microtubules emanating from the same pole (coorientation) during meiosis I and microtubules emanating from opposite poles (biorientation) during meiosis II...
  54. Uroz L, Rajmil O, Templado C. Premature separation of sister chromatids in human male meiosis. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:982-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We carried out meiotic studies in an infertile male to detect meiotic nondisjunction mechanisms leading to aneuploidy in spermatogenesis...
  55. Rolef Ben Shahar T, Heeger S, Lehane C, East P, Flynn H, Skehel M, et al. Eco1-dependent cohesin acetylation during establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Science. 2008;321:563-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that Eco1 modifies cohesin to stabilize sister chromatid cohesion in parallel with a cohesion establishment reaction that is in principle Eco1-independent...
  56. Yin S, Ai J, Shi L, Wei L, Yuan J, Ouyang Y, et al. Shugoshin1 may play important roles in separation of homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids during mouse oocyte meiosis. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3516 pubmed publisher
    Homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis I and sister chromatids separate in meiosis II, generating haploid gametes...
  57. Ishiguro T, Tanaka K, Sakuno T, Watanabe Y. Shugoshin-PP2A counteracts casein-kinase-1-dependent cleavage of Rec8 by separase. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:500-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our studies prove the key notion that the balance between Rec8 phosphorylation and its dephosphorylation by Sgo1-PP2A regulates the step-wise loss of chromosomal cohesion in meiosis...
  58. Schöckel L, Mockel M, Mayer B, Boos D, Stemmann O. Cleavage of cohesin rings coordinates the separation of centrioles and chromatids. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:966-72 pubmed publisher
    Cohesin pairs sister chromatids by forming a tripartite Scc1-Smc1-Smc3 ring around them. In mitosis, cohesin is removed from chromosome arms by the phosphorylation-dependent prophase pathway...
  59. Merriman J, Jennings P, McLaughlin E, Jones K. Effect of aging on superovulation efficiency, aneuploidy rates, and sister chromatid cohesion in mice aged up to 15 months. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:49 pubmed publisher
    ..technique used here allowed us to measure with accuracy the distance between the kinetochores in the sister chromatids of the eggs analyzed for aneuploidy. We observed that this distance increased in eggs from older females, from 0...
  60. Zhang L, Kim K, KLECKNER N, Storlazzi A. Meiotic double-strand breaks occur once per pair of (sister) chromatids and, via Mec1/ATR and Tel1/ATM, once per quartet of chromatids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20036-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigate whether, at a given initiation site, DSBs occur independently among the four available chromatids. For a single DSB "hot spot", the proportions of nuclei exhibiting zero, one, or two (or more) ..
  61. Ghosh S, Gardner J, Smoyer C, Friederichs J, Unruh J, Slaughter B, et al. Acetylation of the SUN protein Mps3 by Eco1 regulates its function in nuclear organization. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2546-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Acetylation of Mps3 by Eco1 is one of the few regulatory mechanisms known to control nuclear organization...
  62. Kotadia S, Montembault E, Sullivan W, Royou A. Cell elongation is an adaptive response for clearing long chromatid arms from the cleavage plane. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:745-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Rho guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (Pebble)-depleted cells failed to elongate during segregation of long chromatids. As a result, Pebble-depleted adult flies exhibited morphological defects likely caused by cell death during ..
  63. Xu H, Boone C, Brown G. Genetic dissection of parallel sister-chromatid cohesion pathways. Genetics. 2007;176:1417-29 pubmed
  64. Unal E, Heidinger Pauli J, Koshland D. DNA double-strand breaks trigger genome-wide sister-chromatid cohesion through Eco1 (Ctf7). Science. 2007;317:245-8 pubmed
    ..Cohesion between sister chromatids is thought to be generated only during ongoing DNA replication by an obligate coupling between cohesion ..
  65. Sollier J, Driscoll R, Castellucci F, Foiani M, Jackson S, Branzei D. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Esc2 and Smc5-6 proteins promote sister chromatid junction-mediated intra-S repair. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1671-82 pubmed publisher
  66. Jin H, Guacci V, Yu H. Pds5 is required for homologue pairing and inhibits synapsis of sister chromatids during yeast meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:713-25 pubmed publisher
    ..subunit Rec8 remains bound to chromosomes with only minor defects in sister chromatid cohesion, but sister chromatids synapse instead of homologues. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are formed but are not repaired efficiently...
  67. Beckouët F, Hu B, Roig M, Sutani T, Komata M, Uluocak P, et al. An Smc3 acetylation cycle is essential for establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Mol Cell. 2010;39:689-99 pubmed publisher
    ..A cycle of Smc3 NBD acetylation is therefore an essential aspect of the chromosome cycle in eukaryotic cells. ..
  68. Dudas A, Ahmad S, Gregan J. Sgo1 is required for co-segregation of sister chromatids during achiasmate meiosis I. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:951-5 pubmed
    ..Here we show that sister chromatids frequently segregate to opposite poles during meiosis I in fission yeast cells that lack both chiasmata and the ..
  69. Daum J, Potapova T, Sivakumar S, Daniel J, Flynn J, Rankin S, et al. Cohesion fatigue induces chromatid separation in cells delayed at metaphase. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1018-24 pubmed publisher
    ..For balanced chromosome segregation in mitosis, kinetochores on sister chromatids bind and pull on microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles...
  70. Duncan F, Hornick J, Lampson M, Schultz R, Shea L, Woodruff T. Chromosome cohesion decreases in human eggs with advanced maternal age. Aging Cell. 2012;11:1121-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The inter-kinetochore distance between sister chromatids increased significantly with maternal age, indicating weakened cohesion...
  71. Borges V, Smith D, Whitehouse I, Uhlmann F. An Eco1-independent sister chromatid cohesion establishment pathway in S. cerevisiae. Chromosoma. 2013;122:121-34 pubmed publisher
    Cohesion between sister chromatids, mediated by the chromosomal cohesin complex, is a prerequisite for their alignment on the spindle apparatus and segregation in mitosis. Budding yeast cohesin first associates with chromosomes in G1...
  72. Karamysheva Z, Diaz Martinez L, Crow S, Li B, Yu H. Multiple anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome degrons mediate the degradation of human Sgo1. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1772-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the spindle checkpoint kinase Bub1 contributes to the maintenance of Sgo1 steady-state protein levels in an APC/C-independent mechanism...
  73. Zhang N, Kuznetsov S, Sharan S, Li K, Rao P, Pati D. A handcuff model for the cohesin complex. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:1019-31 pubmed publisher
    The cohesin complex is responsible for the accurate separation of sister chromatids into two daughter cells. Several models for the cohesin complex have been proposed, but the one-ring embrace model currently predominates the field...
  74. Behlke Steinert S, Touat Todeschini L, Skoufias D, Margolis R. SMC5 and MMS21 are required for chromosome cohesion and mitotic progression. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:2211-8 pubmed
    ..Our results thus establish that SMC5 is crucial for mitotic progression and maintenance of sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis, and that this role of SMC5 seems to be independent of the SMC5/6 complex...
  75. Brito I, Yu H, Amon A. Condensins promote coorientation of sister chromatids during meiosis I in budding yeast. Genetics. 2010;185:55-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike during mitosis and meiosis II, when sister chromatids attach to microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles (biorientation), accurate meiosis I chromosome ..
  76. Bzymek M, Thayer N, Oh S, Kleckner N, Hunter N. Double Holliday junctions are intermediates of DNA break repair. Nature. 2010;464:937-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This system uses diploid cells and provides the possibility for allelic recombination either between sister chromatids or between homologues, as well as direct comparison with meiotic recombination at the same locus...
  77. Lafont A, Song J, Rankin S. Sororin cooperates with the acetyltransferase Eco2 to ensure DNA replication-dependent sister chromatid cohesion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:20364-9 pubmed publisher
    Sister chromatids are held together, from the time they are made during S phase until they are pulled apart just before cell division, by a protein complex called cohesin...
  78. Ivanov D, Nasmyth K. A physical assay for sister chromatid cohesion in vitro. Mol Cell. 2007;27:300-10 pubmed
    Cohesion between sister chromatids depends on a multiprotein complex called cohesin that has been proposed to hold sister DNAs together by trapping them inside a large tripartite ring...
  79. Watanabe K, Pacher M, Dukowic S, Schubert V, Puchta H, Schubert I. The STRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE OF CHROMOSOMES 5/6 complex promotes sister chromatid alignment and homologous recombination after DNA damage in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2688-99 pubmed publisher
    Sister chromatids are often arranged as incompletely aligned entities in interphase nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana...
  80. Yan R, Thomas S, Tsai J, Yamada Y, McKee B. SOLO: a meiotic protein required for centromere cohesion, coorientation, and SMC1 localization in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:335-49 pubmed publisher
    Sister chromatid cohesion is essential to maintain stable connections between homologues and sister chromatids during meiosis and to establish correct centromere orientation patterns on the meiosis I and II spindles...
  81. Terzoudi G, Hatzi V, Donta Bakoyianni C, Pantelias G. Chromatin dynamics during cell cycle mediate conversion of DNA damage into chromatid breaks and affect formation of chromosomal aberrations: biological and clinical significance. Mutat Res. 2011;711:174-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, experimental data at single cell level obtained using hybrid cells suggest that the proposed hypothesis applies only to the irradiated component of the hybrid...
  82. Liu Y, Ma C, Jayaram M. Co-segregation of yeast plasmid sisters under monopolin-directed mitosis suggests association of plasmid sisters with sister chromatids. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:4144-58 pubmed publisher
    ..have characterized the segregation of a single-copy STB reporter plasmid by manipulating mitosis to force sister chromatids to co-segregate either without mother-daughter bias or with a finite daughter bias...
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    ..4 Mbp in size. We identified additional rearrangements including a reciprocal translocation and a putative ring chromosome. Some of the deletions and inversions are germinally transmitted...
  84. Tanaka H, Kubota Y, Tsujimura T, Kumano M, Masai H, Takisawa H. Replisome progression complex links DNA replication to sister chromatid cohesion in Xenopus egg extracts. Genes Cells. 2009;14:949-63 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of the physical interactions between AND-1 and DNA polymerases, we discuss a model to describe how replisome progression complex establishes sister chromatid cohesion...
  85. Terret M, Sherwood R, Rahman S, Qin J, Jallepalli P. Cohesin acetylation speeds the replication fork. Nature. 2009;462:231-4 pubmed publisher
    Cohesin not only links sister chromatids but also inhibits the transcriptional machinery's interaction with and movement along chromatin...
  86. Callender T, Hollingsworth N. Mek1 suppression of meiotic double-strand break repair is specific to sister chromatids, chromosome autonomous and independent of Rec8 cohesin complexes. Genetics. 2010;185:771-82 pubmed publisher
    ..by the activity of a meiosis-specific kinase, Mek1, which is localized to the protein cores of condensed sister chromatids. Analysis of meiotic double-strand break (DSB) repair in haploid and disomic haploid strains reveals that Mek1 ..
  87. Wechsler T, Newman S, West S. Aberrant chromosome morphology in human cells defective for Holliday junction resolution. Nature. 2011;471:642-6 pubmed publisher
    In somatic cells, Holliday junctions can be formed between sister chromatids during the recombinational repair of DNA breaks or after replication fork demise...
  88. Alonso B, Chaussinand G, Armengaud J, Godon C. A role for GPN-loop GTPase yGPN1 in sister chromatid cohesion. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:1828-37 pubmed
    ..Moreover, analysis of yGPN1 protein-protein interaction network highlights the yGPN1 links with DNA replication, sister chromatid cohesion/separation and the gene expression process...
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    ..In this review we discuss possible mechanisms that could explain the variety of condensin actions during chromosome segregation...
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    Acetylation of the Smc3 subunit of cohesin is essential to establish functional cohesion between sister chromatids. Smc3 acetylation is catalyzed by members of the Eco family of acetyltransferases, although the mechanism by which ..
  91. Wendt K, Peters J. How cohesin and CTCF cooperate in regulating gene expression. Chromosome Res. 2009;17:201-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review what is known about the roles of cohesin and CTCF in regulating gene expression in mammalian cells, and we discuss how cohesin might mediate the insulator function of CTCF...
  92. Panigrahi A, Zhang N, Mao Q, Pati D. Calpain-1 cleaves Rad21 to promote sister chromatid separation. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4335-47 pubmed publisher
    Defining the mechanisms of chromosomal cohesion and dissolution of the cohesin complex from chromatids is important for understanding the chromosomal missegregation seen in many tumor cells...