Summary: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.

Top Publications

  1. Logarinho E, Maffini S, Barisic M, Marques A, Toso A, Meraldi P, et al. CLASPs prevent irreversible multipolarity by ensuring spindle-pole resistance to traction forces during chromosome alignment. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:295-303 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that CLASPs and ninein confer spindle-pole resistance to traction forces exerted during chromosome congression, thereby preventing irreversible spindle multipolarity and aneuploidy. ..
  2. Jakopec V, Topolski B, Fleig U. Sos7, an essential component of the conserved Schizosaccharomyces pombe Ndc80-MIND-Spc7 complex, identifies a new family of fungal kinetochore proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3308-20 pubmed publisher
  3. Coffman V, Wu P, Parthun M, Wu J. CENP-A exceeds microtubule attachment sites in centromere clusters of both budding and fission yeast. J Cell Biol. 2011;195:563-72 pubmed publisher
    The stoichiometries of kinetochores and their constituent proteins in yeast and vertebrate cells were determined using the histone H3 variant CENP-A, known as Cse4 in budding yeast, as a counting standard...
  4. McIntosh J, O TOOLE E, Zhudenkov K, Morphew M, Schwartz C, Ataullakhanov F, et al. Conserved and divergent features of kinetochores and spindle microtubule ends from five species. J Cell Biol. 2013;200:459-74 pubmed publisher
    Interfaces between spindle microtubules and kinetochores were examined in diverse species by electron tomography and image analysis...
  5. Tan L, Kapoor T. Examining the dynamics of chromosomal passenger complex (CPC)-dependent phosphorylation during cell division. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:16675-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a model in which the CPC establishes phosphorylation gradients to coordinate the spatiotemporal dynamics needed for error-free cell division. ..
  6. Chen J, Lu L, Ohi M, Creamer K, English C, Partridge J, et al. Cdk1 phosphorylation of the kinetochore protein Nsk1 prevents error-prone chromosome segregation. J Cell Biol. 2011;195:583-93 pubmed publisher
    ..A nonphosphorylatable Nsk1 mutant binds prematurely to kinetochores and spindle, cementing improper k-MT attachments and leading to high rates of lagging chromosomes that ..
  7. Guo Y, Kim C, Ahmad S, Zhang J, Mao Y. CENP-E--dependent BubR1 autophosphorylation enhances chromosome alignment and the mitotic checkpoint. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:205-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This CENP-E-dependent BubR1 autophosphorylation at unattached kinetochores is important for a full-strength mitotic checkpoint to prevent single chromosome loss...
  8. De Antoni A, Maffini S, Knapp S, Musacchio A, Santaguida S. A small-molecule inhibitor of Haspin alters the kinetochore functions of Aurora B. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:269-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This result suggests that a target of 5-ITu, possibly Haspin itself, may further contribute to SAC signaling downstream of Aurora B. ..
  9. Yamagishi Y, Yang C, Tanno Y, Watanabe Y. MPS1/Mph1 phosphorylates the kinetochore protein KNL1/Spc7 to recruit SAC components. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:746-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) senses unattached kinetochores and prevents premature entry to anaphase, thus ensuring that all chromosomes attach to opposite spindle poles (..

More Information


  1. Kops G, Shah J. Connecting up and clearing out: how kinetochore attachment silences the spindle assembly checkpoint. Chromosoma. 2012;121:509-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The SAC actively prevents chromosome segregation while one or more chromosomes, or more accurately kinetochores, remain unattached to the mitotic spindle...
  2. Samel A, Cuomo A, Bonaldi T, Ehrenhofer Murray A. Methylation of CenH3 arginine 37 regulates kinetochore integrity and chromosome segregation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:9029-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data identify a unique regulatory principle on centromeric chromatin by posttranslational modification of the amino terminus of CenH3. ..
  3. Verdaasdonk J, Gardner R, Stephens A, Yeh E, Bloom K. Tension-dependent nucleosome remodeling at the pericentromere in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2560-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The balance between displacement and insertion of pericentromeric histones provides a mechanism to accommodate spindle-based tension while maintaining proper chromatin packaging during mitosis. ..
  4. Gonen S, Akiyoshi B, Iadanza M, Shi D, Duggan N, Biggins S, et al. The structure of purified kinetochores reveals multiple microtubule-attachment sites. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:925-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Kinetochores are the macromolecular machines that segregate chromosomes by maintaining load-bearing attachments to the ..
  5. Demirel P, Keyes B, Chaterjee M, Remington C, Burke D. A redundant function for the N-terminal tail of Ndc80 in kinetochore-microtubule interaction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2012;192:753-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The tail is essential when cells are limited for Dam1, demonstrating a redundant function for the Ndc80 and Dam1 complexes in vivo. ..
  6. Furth N, Gertman O, Shiber A, Alfassy O, Cohen I, Rosenberg M, et al. Exposure of bipartite hydrophobic signal triggers nuclear quality control of Ndc10 at the endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4726-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings substantiate the ability of the ER quality control system to recognize subtle perturbation(s) in the native structure of a nuclear protein. ..
  7. Roscioli E, Di Francesco L, Bolognesi A, Giubettini M, Orlando S, Harel A, et al. Importin-? negatively regulates multiple aspects of mitosis including RANGAP1 recruitment to kinetochores. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:435-50 pubmed publisher
    ..region (harboring nucleoporin-binding sites) regulates microtubule dynamic functions and interaction with kinetochores. Importin-? interacts through this region with NUP358/RANBP2, which in turn binds SUMO-conjugated RANGAP1 in ..
  8. Porter I, Schleicher K, Porter M, Swedlow J. Bod1 regulates protein phosphatase 2A at mitotic kinetochores. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2677 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of Bod1 changes the balance of phosphorylation at kinetochores, causing defects in kinetochore function...
  9. Yeh T, Kowalska A, Scipioni B, Cheong F, Zheng M, Derewenda U, et al. Dynactin helps target Polo-like kinase 1 to kinetochores via its left-handed beta-helical p27 subunit. EMBO J. 2013;32:1023-35 pubmed publisher
    ..kinase 1 (Cdk1) at a single site, p27 Thr186, to generate an anchoring site for polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) at kinetochores. Removal of p27/p25 from dynactin results in reduced levels of Plk1 and its phosphorylated substrates at ..
  10. Corbett K, Harrison S. Molecular architecture of the yeast monopolin complex. Cell Rep. 2012;1:583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..monopolin complex directs proper chromosome segregation in meiosis I by mediating co-orientation of sister kinetochores on the meiosis I spindle...
  11. Mayr M, Storch M, Howard J, Mayer T. A non-motor microtubule binding site is essential for the high processivity and mitotic function of kinesin-8 Kif18A. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27471 pubmed publisher
    ..This C-proximal tail of Kif18A is essential for its plus-end accumulation and mitotic function. These findings advance our understanding of how Kif18A accumulates at the tips of kt-MTs to fulfill its function in mitosis. ..
  12. Wan J, Subramonian D, Zhang X. SUMOylation in control of accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2012;13:467-81 pubmed
    ..b>Kinetochores are assembled on the specialized chromatin domains called centromeres and serve as the sites for attaching ..
  13. Takeuchi K, Fukagawa T. Molecular architecture of vertebrate kinetochores. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:1367-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Kinetochores form a dynamic interface with the microtubules from the mitotic spindle to achieve accurate chromosome segregation. Multiple proteins are assembled on centromeric DNA to form the kinetochore structure...
  14. Thompson S, Compton D. Chromosome missegregation in human cells arises through specific types of kinetochore-microtubule attachment errors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17974-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromosomes with merotelic kinetochores often manifest as lagging chromosomes in anaphase, suggesting that lagging chromosomes fail to segregate ..
  15. Maia A, García Z, Kabeche L, Barisic M, Maffini S, Macedo Ribeiro S, et al. Cdk1 and Plk1 mediate a CLASP2 phospho-switch that stabilizes kinetochore-microtubule attachments. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:285-301 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Cdk1 and Plk1 mediate a fine CLASP2 "phospho-switch" that temporally regulates KT-MT attachment stability. ..
  16. Foley E, Kapoor T. Microtubule attachment and spindle assembly checkpoint signalling at the kinetochore. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2013;14:25-37 pubmed publisher
    ..SAC), a cell cycle surveillance pathway that delays chromosome segregation in response to unattached kinetochores. Recent studies are shaping current thinking on how each of these kinetochore-centred processes is achieved, ..
  17. Bergmann J, Jakubsche J, Martins N, Kagansky A, Nakano M, Kimura H, et al. Epigenetic engineering: histone H3K9 acetylation is compatible with kinetochore structure and function. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:411-21 pubmed publisher
    Human kinetochores are transcriptionally active, producing very low levels of transcripts of the underlying alpha-satellite DNA...
  18. Petsalaki E, Zachos G. Chk2 prevents mitotic exit when the majority of kinetochores are unattached. J Cell Biol. 2014;205:339-56 pubmed publisher
    ..onset when microtubules are completely depolymerized but not in the presence of relatively few unattached kinetochores. Mitotic exit in Chk2-deficient cells correlates with reduced levels of Mps1 protein and increased Cdk1-..
  19. Ito D, Saito Y, Matsumoto T. Centromere-tethered Mps1 pombe homolog (Mph1) kinase is a sufficient marker for recruitment of the spindle checkpoint protein Bub1, but not Mad1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been shown that unattached kinetochores are the site that emits a signal for activation of the checkpoint...
  20. Liu H, Jia L, Yu H. Phospho-H2A and cohesin specify distinct tension-regulated Sgo1 pools at kinetochores and inner centromeres. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1927-33 pubmed publisher
    ..During mitosis, sister-chromatid cohesion at centromeres enables the biorientation of and tension across sister kinetochores. The complex between shugoshin and protein phosphatase 2A (Sgo1-PP2A) localizes to centromeres in mitosis, ..
  21. Ma N, Titus J, Gable A, Ross J, Wadsworth P. TPX2 regulates the localization and activity of Eg5 in the mammalian mitotic spindle. J Cell Biol. 2011;195:87-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a novel function of TPX2 in regulating the location and activity of the mitotic motor Eg5. ..
  22. Duncan F, Hornick J, Lampson M, Schultz R, Shea L, Woodruff T. Chromosome cohesion decreases in human eggs with advanced maternal age. Aging Cell. 2012;11:1121-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we observed unpaired sister chromatids from females of advanced age. We conclude that loss of cohesion with increasing maternal age likely contributes to the well-documented increased incidence of aneuploidy...
  23. Ohzeki J, Bergmann J, Kouprina N, Noskov V, Nakano M, Kimura H, et al. Breaking the HAC Barrier: histone H3K9 acetyl/methyl balance regulates CENP-A assembly. EMBO J. 2012;31:2391-402 pubmed publisher
    The kinetochore is responsible for accurate chromosome segregation. However, the mechanism by which kinetochores assemble and are maintained remains unclear...
  24. Ramey V, Wong A, Fang J, Howes S, Barnes G, Nogales E. Subunit organization in the Dam1 kinetochore complex and its ring around microtubules. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Integrating this information with previously published data, we generated a structural model for the Dam1 complex assembly that advances our understanding of its function and will direct future experiments. ..
  25. FitzHarris G. Anaphase B precedes anaphase A in the mouse egg. Curr Biol. 2012;22:437-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromosomes attach to kinetochore microtubules (kMTs), which extend from the spindle pole region to kinetochores assembled upon centromeric DNA...
  26. Akiyoshi B, Gull K. Discovery of unconventional kinetochores in kinetoplastids. Cell. 2014;156:1247-1258 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that kinetoplastids build kinetochores using a distinct set of proteins...
  27. Lane S, Yun Y, Jones K. Timing of anaphase-promoting complex activation in mouse oocytes is predicted by microtubule-kinetochore attachment but not by bivalent alignment or tension. Development. 2012;139:1947-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This coincided with the loss of Mad2 from kinetochores and with the start of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-mediated cyclin B1 destruction...
  28. Morin V, Prieto S, Melines S, Hem S, Rossignol M, Lorca T, et al. CDK-dependent potentiation of MPS1 kinase activity is essential to the mitotic checkpoint. Curr Biol. 2012;22:289-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Constitutive phosphorylation of S283 lowers the number of kinetochores required to hold the checkpoint, which suggests that CDK-dependent phosphorylation of MPS1 is essential to ..
  29. van der Waal M, Saurin A, Vromans M, Vleugel M, Wurzenberger C, Gerlich D, et al. Mps1 promotes rapid centromere accumulation of Aurora B. EMBO Rep. 2012;13:847-54 pubmed publisher
  30. Cane S, Ye A, Luks Morgan S, Maresca T. Elevated polar ejection forces stabilize kinetochore-microtubule attachments. J Cell Biol. 2013;200:203-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, kt-MT attachment stability is modulated by PEFs, which can be generated by distinct force-producing interactions between chromosomes and dynamic spindle microtubules...
  31. Bock L, Pagliuca C, Kobayashi N, Grove R, Oku Y, Shrestha K, et al. Cnn1 inhibits the interactions between the KMN complexes of the yeast kinetochore. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:614-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Kinetochores attach the replicated chromosomes to the mitotic spindle and orchestrate their transmission to the daughter cells...
  32. Westermann S, Schleiffer A. Family matters: structural and functional conservation of centromere-associated proteins from yeast to humans. Trends Cell Biol. 2013;23:260-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Kinetochores form the fundamental link between chromosomal domains termed centromeres and spindle microtubules in all eukaryotes...
  33. Caldas G, Deluca K, DeLuca J. KNL1 facilitates phosphorylation of outer kinetochore proteins by promoting Aurora B kinase activity. J Cell Biol. 2013;203:957-69 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the KNL1 N terminus is essential for Aurora B activity at kinetochores. This region of KNL1 is also required for Bub1 kinase activity at kinetochores, suggesting that KNL1 promotes ..
  34. Luconi L, Araki Y, Erlemann S, Schiebel E. The CENP-A chaperone Scm3 becomes enriched at kinetochores in anaphase independently of CENP-A incorporation. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:3369-78 pubmed publisher
    Centromeres are specialized chromatin domains where kinetochores assemble...
  35. Shepperd L, Meadows J, Sochaj A, Lancaster T, Zou J, Buttrick G, et al. Phosphodependent recruitment of Bub1 and Bub3 to Spc7/KNL1 by Mph1 kinase maintains the spindle checkpoint. Curr Biol. 2012;22:891-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Checkpoint proteins are recruited to kinetochores when individual kinetochores are not bound to spindle microtubules or not under tension...
  36. Buttrick G, Meadows J, Lancaster T, Vanoosthuyse V, Shepperd L, Hoe K, et al. Nsk1 ensures accurate chromosome segregation by promoting association of kinetochores to spindle poles during anaphase B. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4486-502 pubmed publisher Clp1 (Cdc14-like) phosphatase and at least one other phosphatase, Nsk1 localizes to the interface between kinetochores and the inner face of the spindle pole body during anaphase...
  37. Serio G, Margaria V, Jensen S, Oldani A, Bartek J, Bussolino F, et al. Small GTPase Rab5 participates in chromosome congression and regulates localization of the centromere-associated protein CENP-F to kinetochores. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17337-42 pubmed publisher
    ..and it correlated with a severe reduction in the localization of the centromere-associated protein CENP-F to kinetochores. CENP-F is a component of the nuclear matrix required for chromosome congression that, at mitotic entry, ..
  38. Natsume T, Müller C, Katou Y, Retkute R, Gierlinski M, Araki H, et al. Kinetochores coordinate pericentromeric cohesion and early DNA replication by Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase recruitment. Mol Cell. 2013;50:661-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the budding yeast Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) accumulates at kinetochores in telophase, facilitated by the Ctf19 kinetochore complex...
  39. Kouprina N, Samoshkin A, Erliandri I, Nakano M, Lee H, Fu H, et al. Organization of synthetic alphoid DNA array in human artificial chromosome (HAC) with a conditional centromere. ACS Synth Biol. 2012;1:590-601 pubmed
    ..The knowledge of the alphoid(tetO)-HAC structure provides a tool to control HAC integrity during different manipulations. Our results also shed light on a mechanism for de novo HAC formation in human cells...
  40. Lawrimore J, Bloom K, Salmon E. Point centromeres contain more than a single centromere-specific Cse4 (CENP-A) nucleosome. J Cell Biol. 2011;195:573-82 pubmed publisher
    Cse4 is the budding yeast homologue of CENP-A, a modified histone H3 that specifies the base of kinetochores in all eukaryotes. Budding yeast is unique in having only one kinetochore microtubule attachment site per centromere...
  41. Silkworth W, Nardi I, Paul R, Mogilner A, Cimini D. Timing of centrosome separation is important for accurate chromosome segregation. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:401-11 pubmed publisher
    ..the nuclear envelope must break down to allow interaction between microtubules of the mitotic spindle and the kinetochores. It was previously shown that nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB) is not coordinated with centrosome separation ..
  42. Nishino T, Takeuchi K, Gascoigne K, Suzuki A, Hori T, Oyama T, et al. CENP-T-W-S-X forms a unique centromeric chromatin structure with a histone-like fold. Cell. 2012;148:487-501 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the CENP-T-W-S-X complex forms a unique nucleosome-like structure to generate contacts with DNA, extending the "histone code" beyond canonical nucleosome proteins...
  43. Drechsler H, McAinsh A. Exotic mitotic mechanisms. Open Biol. 2012;2:120140 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the evidence for a close functional and physical relationship between membranes, nuclear pores and kinetochores in generating the forces necessary for chromosome segregation during mitosis.
  44. Malvezzi F, Litos G, Schleiffer A, Heuck A, Mechtler K, Clausen T, et al. A structural basis for kinetochore recruitment of the Ndc80 complex via two distinct centromere receptors. EMBO J. 2013;32:409-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data provide structural insights into the modular binding mechanism of the Ndc80 complex to its centromere recruiters...
  45. Holt J, Lane S, Jennings P, Garcia Higuera I, Moreno S, Jones K. APC(FZR1) prevents nondisjunction in mouse oocytes by controlling meiotic spindle assembly timing. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3970-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study implicates FZR1 as a major regulator of prometaphase whose activity helps to prevent chromosome nondisjunction...
  46. Meyer R, Kim S, Obeso D, Straight P, Winey M, Dawson D. Mps1 and Ipl1/Aurora B act sequentially to correctly orient chromosomes on the meiotic spindle of budding yeast. Science. 2013;339:1071-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This microtubule release and reattachment cycle could prevent catastrophic chromosome segregation errors in meiosis...
  47. Henikoff S, Furuyama T. The unconventional structure of centromeric nucleosomes. Chromosoma. 2012;121:341-52 pubmed publisher
  48. Raaijmakers J, Tanenbaum M, Medema R. Systematic dissection of dynein regulators in mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:201-15 pubmed publisher
  49. Campbell C, Desai A. Tension sensing by Aurora B kinase is independent of survivin-based centromere localization. Nature. 2013;497:118-21 pubmed publisher
    ..under tension remain close to the inner centromere and are destabilized by Aurora B phosphorylation, whereas kinetochores under tension are pulled away from the influence of Aurora B, stabilizing their microtubule attachments...
  50. Jeyaprakash A, Santamaria A, Jayachandran U, Chan Y, Benda C, Nigg E, et al. Structural and functional organization of the Ska complex, a key component of the kinetochore-microtubule interface. Mol Cell. 2012;46:274-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss how this symmetric architecture might complement and stabilize the Ndc80-microtubule attachments with analogies to the yeast Dam1/DASH complex. ..
  51. Padeganeh A, Ryan J, Boisvert J, Ladouceur A, Dorn J, Maddox P. Octameric CENP-A nucleosomes are present at human centromeres throughout the cell cycle. Curr Biol. 2013;23:764-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings indicate that octameric CENP-A nucleosomes mark the centromeric region to ensure proper epigenetic inheritance and kinetochore assembly...
  52. Zhang G, Kelstrup C, Hu X, Kaas Hansen M, Singleton M, Olsen J, et al. The Ndc80 internal loop is required for recruitment of the Ska complex to establish end-on microtubule attachment to kinetochores. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3243-53 pubmed publisher
    The Ndc80 complex establishes end-on attachment of kinetochores to microtubules, which is essential for chromosome segregation...
  53. Hellwig D, Emmerth S, Ulbricht T, Doring V, Hoischen C, Martin R, et al. Dynamics of CENP-N kinetochore binding during the cell cycle. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3871-83 pubmed publisher
    Accurate chromosome segregation requires the assembly of kinetochores, multiprotein complexes that assemble on the centromere of each sister chromatid...
  54. Bakhoum S, Compton D. Kinetochores and disease: keeping microtubule dynamics in check!. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2012;24:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet the mechanism by which microtubule attachment to chromosomes at kinetochores is regulated has only been recently revealed...
  55. Biggins S. The composition, functions, and regulation of the budding yeast kinetochore. Genetics. 2013;194:817-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Progress in understanding the composition and overall architecture of the kinetochore, as well as its properties in making and regulating microtubule attachments and the spindle checkpoint, is discussed. ..
  56. Lermontova I, Rutten T, Schubert I. Deposition, turnover, and release of CENH3 at Arabidopsis centromeres. Chromosoma. 2011;120:633-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In differentiated endopolyploid nuclei however, the amount of CENH3 at centromeres declines with age...
  57. Moyle M, Kim T, Hattersley N, Espeut J, Cheerambathur D, Oegema K, et al. A Bub1-Mad1 interaction targets the Mad1-Mad2 complex to unattached kinetochores to initiate the spindle checkpoint. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:647-57 pubmed publisher
    Recruitment of Mad1-Mad2 complexes to unattached kinetochores is a central event in spindle checkpoint signaling. Despite its importance, the mechanism that recruits Mad1-Mad2 to kinetochores is unclear...
  58. Eliezer Y, Argaman L, Kornowski M, Roniger M, Goldberg M. Interplay between the DNA damage proteins MDC1 and ATM in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:8182-93 pubmed publisher
    ..MDC1 localizes at mitotic kinetochores following SAC activation in an ATM-dependent manner...
  59. Zhu T, Dou Z, Qin B, Jin C, Wang X, Xu L, et al. Phosphorylation of microtubule-binding protein Hec1 by mitotic kinase Aurora B specifies spindle checkpoint kinase Mps1 signaling at the kinetochore. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:36149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results define a novel role for Aurora B-Hec1-Mps1 signaling axis in governing accurate chromosome segregation in mitosis. ..
  60. Yuen K, Nabeshima K, Oegema K, Desai A. Rapid de novo centromere formation occurs independently of heterochromatin protein 1 in C. elegans embryos. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1800-7 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans embryos in an HP1-independent manner and suggest that, rather than being a prerequisite, HP1-dependent heterochromatin antagonizes de novo centromerization...
  61. Chan Y, Jeyaprakash A, Nigg E, Santamaria A. Aurora B controls kinetochore-microtubule attachments by inhibiting Ska complex-KMN network interaction. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:563-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Aurora B phosphorylation antagonizes the interaction between the Ska complex and the KMN network, thereby controlling Ska recruitment to KTs and stabilization of KT-MT attachments. ..
  62. Tien J, Fong K, Umbreit N, Payen C, Zelter A, Asbury C, et al. Coupling unbiased mutagenesis to high-throughput DNA sequencing uncovers functional domains in the Ndc80 kinetochore protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2013;195:159-70 pubmed publisher
    During mitosis, kinetochores physically link chromosomes to the dynamic ends of spindle microtubules. This linkage depends on the Ndc80 complex, a conserved and essential microtubule-binding component of the kinetochore...
  63. Matson D, Demirel P, Stukenberg P, Burke D. A conserved role for COMA/CENP-H/I/N kinetochore proteins in the spindle checkpoint. Genes Dev. 2012;26:542-7 pubmed publisher
    The COMA/CENP-H/I kinetochore complex regulates microtubule dynamics at kinetochores. The complex is also required to generate spindle checkpoint signals in both yeast and human cells under conditions where Aurora B activity is ..
  64. Wurzenberger C, Held M, Lampson M, Poser I, Hyman A, Gerlich D. Sds22 and Repo-Man stabilize chromosome segregation by counteracting Aurora B on anaphase kinetochores. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..spindle assembly, Aurora B kinase is part of an error correction mechanism that detaches microtubules from kinetochores that are under low mechanical tension...
  65. Thakur J, Sanyal K. A coordinated interdependent protein circuitry stabilizes the kinetochore ensemble to protect CENP-A in the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002661 pubmed publisher
    ..These kinetochores are clustered together throughout the cell cycle. Kinetochore assembly on point centromeres of S...
  66. Nijenhuis W, von Castelmur E, Littler D, De Marco V, Tromer E, Vleugel M, et al. A TPR domain-containing N-terminal module of MPS1 is required for its kinetochore localization by Aurora B. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:217-31 pubmed publisher
    The mitotic checkpoint ensures correct chromosome segregation by delaying cell cycle progression until all kinetochores have attached to the mitotic spindle...
  67. Althoff F, Karess R, Lehner C. Spindle checkpoint-independent inhibition of mitotic chromosome segregation by Drosophila Mps1. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2275-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Although Mps1 overexpression in mad2 mutants no longer causes a metaphase delay, it perturbs anaphase. Sister kinetochores barely move apart toward spindle poles...
  68. Hori T, Fukagawa T. Establishment of the vertebrate kinetochores. Chromosome Res. 2012;20:547-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review recent progress with regard to the molecular architecture of the kinetochore and discuss the future directions for centromere biology...
  69. Lochmann B, Ivanov D. Histone H3 localizes to the centromeric DNA in budding yeast. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002739 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Kinetochores assemble at the centromeric DNA organized by specialized centromeric nucleosomes...
  70. Alushin G, Nogales E. Visualizing kinetochore architecture. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2011;21:661-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Kinetochores are large macromolecular assemblies that link chromosomes to spindle microtubules (MTs) during mitosis...
  71. Sato H, Masuda F, Takayama Y, Takahashi K, Saitoh S. Epigenetic inactivation and subsequent heterochromatinization of a centromere stabilize dicentric chromosomes. Curr Biol. 2012;22:658-67 pubmed publisher
    ..However, some stably maintained non-Robertsonian translocated chromosomes have been reported, suggesting that the excessive centromeres are inactivated by an as yet undetermined mechanism...
  72. Latham J, Chosed R, Wang S, Dent S. Chromatin signaling to kinetochores: transregulation of Dam1 methylation by histone H2B ubiquitination. Cell. 2011;146:709-19 pubmed publisher
    ..that this pathway is indispensable for methylation of the only other known substrate of Set1, K233 in Dam1, at kinetochores. Deletion of RAD6, BRE1, or Paf1 complex members abolishes Dam1 methylation, as does mutation of H2BK123...
  73. Mendiburo M, Padeken J, Fülöp S, Schepers A, Heun P. Drosophila CENH3 is sufficient for centromere formation. Science. 2011;334:686-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CID is both necessary and sufficient to serve as an epigenetic centromere mark and nucleate heritable centromere function...
  74. Sebestova J, Danylevska A, Novakova L, Kubelka M, Anger M. Lack of response to unaligned chromosomes in mammalian female gametes. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:3011-8 pubmed publisher
    ..obviously dependent on the stringency of mechanisms for detecting unattached or repairing incorrectly attached kinetochores. In case of their failure, the newly formed embryo will inherit the impaired set of chromosomes, which will ..
  75. LaFountain J, Cohan C, Oldenbourg R. Pac-man motility of kinetochores unleashed by laser microsurgery. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We used this intriguing behavior to study the motile states that X-Y kinetochores are able to support during anaphase...
  76. London N, Ceto S, Ranish J, Biggins S. Phosphoregulation of Spc105 by Mps1 and PP1 regulates Bub1 localization to kinetochores. Curr Biol. 2012;22:900-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Kinetochores are the macromolecular complexes that interact with microtubules to mediate chromosome segregation. Accurate segregation requires that kinetochores make bioriented attachments to microtubules from opposite poles...
  77. Davydenko O, Schultz R, Lampson M. Increased CDK1 activity determines the timing of kinetochore-microtubule attachments in meiosis I. J Cell Biol. 2013;202:221-9 pubmed publisher
    Chromosome segregation during cell division depends on stable attachment of kinetochores to spindle microtubules...
  78. Brust Mascher I, Scholey J. Mitotic motors and chromosome segregation: the mechanism of anaphase B. Biochem Soc Trans. 2011;39:1149-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We briefly comment on the relationship of this model to anaphase B in other systems...
  79. Stumpff J, Du Y, English C, Maliga Z, Wagenbach M, Asbury C, et al. A tethering mechanism controls the processivity and kinetochore-microtubule plus-end enrichment of the kinesin-8 Kif18A. Mol Cell. 2011;43:764-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The heightened processivity of Kif18A, conferred by its tail domain, thus promotes concentration of Kif18A at K-MT plus ends, where it suppresses their dynamics to control chromosome movements...
  80. Magidson V, O Connell C, Loncarek J, Paul R, Mogilner A, Khodjakov A. The spatial arrangement of chromosomes during prometaphase facilitates spindle assembly. Cell. 2011;146:555-67 pubmed publisher
    Error-free chromosome segregation requires stable attachment of sister kinetochores to the opposite spindle poles (amphitelic attachment). Exactly how amphitelic attachments are achieved during spindle assembly remains elusive...
  81. Foley E, Maldonado M, Kapoor T. Formation of stable attachments between kinetochores and microtubules depends on the B56-PP2A phosphatase. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1265-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this, multiple kinases, including Aurora B and Plk1, are enriched at kinetochores of mal-oriented chromosomes when compared with bi-oriented chromosomes, which have stable attachments...
  82. Guse A, Carroll C, Moree B, Fuller C, Straight A. In vitro centromere and kinetochore assembly on defined chromatin templates. Nature. 2011;477:354-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Kinetochores are assembled on a specialized chromatin domain called the centromere, which is characterized by the ..
  83. Chan F, Marshall O, Saffery R, Kim B, Earle E, Choo K, et al. Active transcription and essential role of RNA polymerase II at the centromere during mitosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1979-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate an essential role of RNAPII in the transcription of ?-satellite DNA, binding of centromere protein C, and the proper functioning of the mitotic kinetochore...
  84. McHedlishvili N, Wieser S, Holtackers R, Mouysset J, Belwal M, Amaro A, et al. Kinetochores accelerate centrosome separation to ensure faithful chromosome segregation. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:906-18 pubmed publisher break down their nuclear envelope, form a bipolar spindle and attach the chromosomes to microtubules via kinetochores. Previous studies have shown that spindle bipolarization can occur either before or after nuclear envelope ..
  85. Heinrich S, Windecker H, Hustedt N, Hauf S. Mph1 kinetochore localization is crucial and upstream in the hierarchy of spindle assembly checkpoint protein recruitment to kinetochores. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:4720-7 pubmed publisher
    ..blocks entry into anaphase until all chromosomes have stably attached to the mitotic spindle through their kinetochores. The checkpoint signal originates from unattached kinetochores, where there is an enrichment of SAC proteins...
  86. Yang F, Huang Y, Dai W. Sumoylated BubR1 plays an important role in chromosome segregation and mitotic timing. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:797-806 pubmed publisher
    ..BubR1 sumoylation was neither required for its activation nor for binding to kinetochores. However, ectopically expressed sumoylation-deficient BubR1 mutants were retained on the kintochores even after ..
  87. Hood E, Kettenbach A, Gerber S, Compton D. Plk1 regulates the kinesin-13 protein Kif2b to promote faithful chromosome segregation. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2264-74 pubmed publisher
    ..k-MT attachment errors form during prometaphase due to stochastic interactions between kinetochores and microtubules...