artificial chromosomes

Summary

Summary: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.

Top Publications

  1. Glover D, Lipps H, Jans D. Towards safe, non-viral therapeutic gene expression in humans. Nat Rev Genet. 2005;6:299-310 pubmed
    ..genomic sites without deleterious consequences and it is possible to maintain transgenes as small episomal plasmids or artificial chromosomes. The application of these approaches to human gene therapy is gradually becoming a reality.
  2. Bachmann J, Tedder A, Laenen B, Steige K, Slotte T. Targeted Long-Read Sequencing of a Locus Under Long-Term Balancing Selection in Capsella. G3 (Bethesda). 2018;8:1327-1333 pubmed publisher
    ..For this purpose, we generated bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) containing the Brassicaceae S-locus, a region under strong negative frequency-dependent ..
  3. Sun Y, Cao A, Yang X, Wang X, Chen P. [Screening hv-S/TPK from TAC library of a Triticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa translocation line]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2008;24:1327-32 pubmed
    ..The result of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that the TAC clone containing Hv-S/TPK was from Haynaldia villosa chromosome. ..
  4. Maurer S, Ludt K, Soppa J. Characterization of Copy Number Control of Two Haloferax volcanii Replication Origins Using Deletion Mutants and Haloarchaeal Artificial Chromosomes. J Bacteriol. 2018;200: pubmed publisher
    ..Two origins, ori1 and ori2, were chosen for an in-depth analysis using deletion mutants and haloarchaeal artificial chromosomes. The analysis was not restricted to the core origin regions; origin-adjacent genes were also included...
  5. Ijiro T, Urakawa H, Yasukochi Y, Takeda M, Fujiwara Y. cDNA cloning, gene structure, and expression of Broad-Complex (BR-C) genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;34:963-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, a small amount of BR-C mRNA was detected in the epidermis before this peak. BR-C mRNA was also expressed in the fat body from day 1 in the fourth instar to day 7 in the fifth instar. ..
  6. Liskovykh M, Lee N, Larionov V, Kouprina N. Moving toward a higher efficiency of microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev. 2016;3:16043 pubmed publisher
    ..technology enables individual mammalian chromosomes, megabase-sized chromosome fragments, or mammalian artificial chromosomes that include human artificial chromosomes (HACs) and mouse artificial chromosomes (MACs) to be transferred ..
  7. Moreira P, Pozueta J, Perez Crespo M, Valdivieso F, Gutierrez Adan A, Montoliu L. Improving the generation of genomic-type transgenic mice by ICSI. Transgenic Res. 2007;16:163-8 pubmed
    Transgenes included in genomic-type constructs, such as yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC), P1-derived artificial chromosomes, or bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC), are normally correctly expressed, according to the endogenous ..
  8. Mohannath G, Pikaard C. Analysis of rRNA Gene Methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana by CHEF-Conventional 2D Gel Electrophoresis. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1455:183-202 pubmed publisher
    ..CHEF has many applications including the physical mapping of chromosomes, artificial chromosomes, and sub-chromosomal DNA fragments, etc...
  9. Schjaerff M, Keller S, Fass J, Froenicke L, Grahn R, Lyons L, et al. Refinement of the canine CD1 locus topology and investigation of antibody binding to recombinant canine CD1 isoforms. Immunogenetics. 2016;68:191-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequencing of three overlapping bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) spanning the entire canine CD1 locus revealed canCD1A8.2 and canCD1A8...

More Information

Publications99

  1. Tsend Ayush E, Grützner F, Yue Y, Grossmann B, Hänsel U, Sudbrak R, et al. Plasticity of human chromosome 3 during primate evolution. Genomics. 2004;83:193-202 pubmed
  2. Weier H, Chu L. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping in genome research and construction of physical maps. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;338:31-57 pubmed
  3. Wyrwa K, Książkiewicz M, Szczepaniak A, Susek K, Podkowinski J, Naganowska B. Integration of Lupinus angustifolius L. (narrow-leafed lupin) genome maps and comparative mapping within legumes. Chromosome Res. 2016;24:355-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies resulted in the precise localization of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) carrying sequence variants for early nodulin 40, nodulin 26, nodulin 45, aspartate aminotransferase ..
  4. Desmeules P, Joubert P, Zhang L, Al Ahmadie H, Fletcher C, Vakiani E, et al. A Subset of Malignant Mesotheliomas in Young Adults Are Associated With Recurrent EWSR1/FUS-ATF1 Fusions. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41:980-988 pubmed publisher
    ..All cases were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosomes probes for EWSR1, FUS, and ATF1 genes. When available, immunohistochemistry for BAP1 was performed...
  5. Schuler M, Ali F, Metzger E, Chambon P, Metzger D. Temporally controlled targeted somatic mutagenesis in skeletal muscles of the mouse. Genesis. 2005;41:165-70 pubmed
    ..HSA-Cre-ER(T2) mice should be of great value to analyze gene function in skeletal muscles, and to establish animal models of human skeletal muscle disorders. ..
  6. Athanasopoulos T, Munye M, Yáñez Muñoz R. Nonintegrating Gene Therapy Vectors. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2017;31:753-770 pubmed publisher
    ..adeno-associated viral, integration-deficient retro-lentiviral, poxviral), and nonviral (plasmid vectors, artificial chromosomes) vectors used for preclinical and clinical cell and gene therapy applications...
  7. Khalique H, López Marco J, Lim F. A haploid HSV-1 genome platform for vector development: testing of the tetracycline-responsive switch shows interference by infected cell protein 0. J Gene Med. 2016;18:302-311 pubmed publisher
    ..1 (HSV-1) has outstanding properties for gene delivery vectors and its genome is available in bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) for mutagenesis studies, one impediment is the presence of approximately 15...
  8. Green E. Strategies for the systematic sequencing of complex genomes. Nat Rev Genet. 2001;2:573-83 pubmed
    ..As well as providing data of fundamental biological significance, these landmark accomplishments have yielded important strategic insights that are guiding current and future genome-sequencing projects. ..
  9. Barsi J, Tu Q, Calestani C, Davidson E. Genome-wide assessment of differential effector gene use in embryogenesis. Development. 2015;142:3892-901 pubmed publisher
    ..according to the regulatory states expressed in these cells, as reported by recombineered bacterial artificial chromosomes producing fluorochromes...
  10. Murrell I, Wilkie G, Davison A, Statkute E, Fielding C, Tomasec P, et al. Genetic Stability of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome-Derived Human Cytomegalovirus during Culture In Vitro. J Virol. 2016;90:3929-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) provide a stable, genetically defined source of viral genome...
  11. Chatterjee P, Briley L. Analysis of a clonal selection event during transposon-mediated nested-deletion formation in rare BAC and PAC clones. Anal Biochem. 2000;285:121-6 pubmed
    Nested deletions from one end of the genomic DNA in bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs) are readily generated by inserting a loxP site-containing Tn10 minitransposon into the recombinant clone and ..
  12. Kouprina N, Noskov V, Larionov V. Selective isolation of large chromosomal regions by transformation-associated recombination cloning for structural and functional analysis of mammalian genomes. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;349:85-101 pubmed
    ..TAR) cloning allows selective isolation of full-size genes and genomic loci as circular yeast artificial chromosomes in yeast...
  13. Clevenger K, Bok J, Ye R, Miley G, Verdan M, Velk T, et al. A scalable platform to identify fungal secondary metabolites and their gene clusters. Nat Chem Biol. 2017;13:895-901 pubmed publisher
    ..Using fungal artificial chromosomes (FACs) and metabolomic scoring (MS), we screened 56 secondary metabolite BGCs from diverse fungal species ..
  14. Zhao R, Miao H, Song W, Chen C, Zhang H. Identification of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) chromosomes using the BAC-FISH system. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..8×. The successive double colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) for sesame was established in this study...
  15. Sima J, Bartlett D, Gordon M, Gilbert D. Bacterial artificial chromosomes establish replication timing and sub-nuclear compartment de novo as extra-chromosomal vectors. Nucleic Acids Res. 2018;46:1810-1820 pubmed publisher
    ..have developed an extra-chromosomal replication system (E-BACs) consisting of ∼200 kb human bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) modified with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) stable segregation elements...
  16. Neuber S, Wagner K, Goldner T, Lischka P, Steinbrueck L, Messerle M, et al. Mutual Interplay between the Human Cytomegalovirus Terminase Subunits pUL51, pUL56, and pUL89 Promotes Terminase Complex Formation. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..For analysis in the viral context, HCMV bacterial artificial chromosomes carrying deletions in the open reading frames encoding the terminase proteins were used...
  17. Hartenbach S, Fussenegger M. A novel synthetic mammalian promoter derived from an internal ribosome entry site. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006;95:547-59 pubmed
    ..Synthetic DNAs, which combine multiple activities in a most compact sequence format may foster advances in therapeutic engineering of mammalian cells. ..
  18. El Naofal M, Kim A, Yon H, Baity M, Ming Z, Bui Griffith J, et al. Role of CDKN2C Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization in the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2017;47:523-528 pubmed
    ..detect loss of CDKN2C and/or CDKN2D We prepared spectrum orange probes using the bacterial artificial chromosomes RP11-779F9 for CDKN2C (p18) and RP11-177J4 for CDKN2D (p19) and prepared spectrum green ..
  19. Oberle V, de Jong G, Drayer J, Hoekstra D. Efficient transfer of chromosome-based DNA constructs into mammalian cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1676:223-30 pubmed
    b>Artificial chromosomes, engineered minichromosomes and other chromosome-based DNA constructs are promising new vectors for use in gene therapy, protein production and transgenics...
  20. Juhas M, Ajioka J. Integrative bacterial artificial chromosomes for DNA integration into the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. J Microbiol Methods. 2016;125:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..coli K12 MG1655 into B. subtilis chromosome. iBAC(cav)-mediated chromosomal integration approach will facilitate rational design of synthetic biology applications in B. subtilis. ..
  21. Fonsêca A, Ferraz M, Pedrosa Harand A. Speeding up chromosome evolution in Phaseolus: multiple rearrangements associated with a one-step descending dysploidy. Chromosoma. 2016;125:413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..were comparatively mapped by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes...
  22. Tran T, Simkova H, Schmidt R, Dolezel J, Schubert I, Fuchs J. Chromosome identification for the carnivorous plant Genlisea margaretae. Chromosoma. 2017;126:389-397 pubmed publisher
    ..pooling and consecutive rounds of multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mcFISH) with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) selected for repeat-free inserts. Fifty-one BACs were assigned to 18 chromosome pairs...
  23. Zhang W, Hubbard A, Baca Parkinson L, Stanislaw S, Vladich F, Robida M, et al. Oligonucleotide PIK3CA/Chromosome 3 Dual in Situ Hybridization Automated Assay with Improved Signals, One-Hour Hybridization, and No Use of Blocking DNA. J Mol Diagn. 2015;17:496-504 pubmed publisher
    ..PIK3CA probes are derived from bacterial artificial chromosomes whereas CHR3 probes are derived mainly from the plasmid pHS05...
  24. Kato T, Sato S, Nakamura Y, Kaneko T, Asamizu E, Tabata S. Structural analysis of a Lotus japonicus genome. V. Sequence features and mapping of sixty-four TAC clones which cover the 6.4 mb regions of the genome. DNA Res. 2003;10:277-85 pubmed
    ..japonicus, MG-20 and Gifu B-129. The sequence data, gene information and mapping information are available through the World Wide Web at http://www.kazusa.or.jp/lotus/. ..
  25. Lufino M, Edser P, Quail M, Rice S, Adams D, Wade Martins R. The infectious BAC genomic DNA expression library: a high capacity vector system for functional genomics. Sci Rep. 2016;6:28644 pubmed publisher
    ..library generated using the high-capacity herpes simplex virus-1 amplicon technology to deliver bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) into cells by viral transduction...
  26. Benedetti S, Uno N, Hoshiya H, Ragazzi M, Ferrari G, Kazuki Y, et al. Reversible immortalisation enables genetic correction of human muscle progenitors and engineering of next-generation human artificial chromosomes for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. EMBO Mol Med. 2018;10:254-275 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of large-capacity vectors, such as human artificial chromosomes (HACs), with stem/progenitor cells may overcome this limitation...
  27. Yamada M, Seandel M. Faithful Artificial Chromosome Propagation Using Spermatogonial Stem Cells. Trends Genet. 2017;33:897-898 pubmed publisher
    b>Artificial chromosomes are useful in making functional vectors for very large genes, studying chromosome physiology, and modeling chromosomal disorders. Shinohara et al...
  28. Hall R, Meers J, Fowler E, Mahony T. Identification of non-essential loci within the Meleagrid herpesvirus 1 genome. Virol J. 2015;12:130 pubmed publisher
    Meleagrid herpesvirus 1 (MeHV-1) infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes (iBACs) are ideal vectors for the development of recombinant vaccines for the poultry industry...
  29. Visalli M, House B, Lahrman F, Visalli R. Intermolecular Complementation between Two Varicella-Zoster Virus pORF30 Terminase Domains Essential for DNA Encapsidation. J Virol. 2015;89:10010-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, VZV bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) were generated with small (Δ30S), medium (Δ30M), and large (Δ30L) ORF30 internal ..
  30. Walter L, Hurt P, Himmelbauer H, Sudbrak R, Günther E. Physical mapping of the major histocompatibility complex class II and class III regions of the rat. Immunogenetics. 2002;54:268-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, the MHC of the rat is now completely mapped in a single contig of BAC/PAC clones derived from a single RT1 haplotype and encompasses about 3.7 Mb...
  31. Heaney J, Bronson S. Artificial chromosome-based transgenes in the study of genome function. Mamm Genome. 2006;17:791-807 pubmed
    The transfer of large DNA fragments to the mouse genome in the form of bacterial, yeast or phage artificial chromosomes is an important process in the definition of transcription units, the modeling of inherited disease states, the ..
  32. Kennard M, Goosney D, Monteith D, Zhang L, Moffat M, Fischer D, et al. The generation of stable, high MAb expressing CHO cell lines based on the artificial chromosome expression (ACE) technology. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;104:540-53 pubmed publisher
    ..To improve this process, the ACE System has been developed based on pre-engineered artificial chromosomes with multiple recombination acceptor sites...
  33. Sgaramella V, Eridani S. From natural to artificial chromosomes: an overview. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;240:1-12 pubmed
  34. Tagawa H, Miura I, Suzuki R, Suzuki H, Hosokawa Y, Seto M. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the breakpoint region at 6q21-22 in T-cell lymphoma/leukemia cell lines. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002;34:175-85 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TCBA1 is a possible target gene for T-cell lineage-specific chromosome aberrations at 6q21...
  35. Birchler J, Yu W, Han F. Plant engineered minichromosomes and artificial chromosome platforms. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2008;120:228-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The uses of engineered minichromosomes are discussed...
  36. Heilig R, Eckenberg R, Petit J, Fonknechten N, Da Silva C, Cattolico L, et al. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 14. Nature. 2003;421:601-7 pubmed
    ..From an analysis of the CpG island occurrences, we estimate that 70% of these annotated genes are complete at their 5' end...
  37. Qin G, Chen P, Liu Y, Fang Y, Liu D. [Screening for resistance gene candidate from a genomic TAC library of Triticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa translocation line 6VS/6AL by pooled PCR]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2002;18:313-7 pubmed
    ..The positive clone was confirmed by Southern hybridization with the NBS fragment as a probe. The results indicate that the pooled PCR method is effective for screening of genomic libraries having large number of clones...
  38. Bauer A, Savelyeva L, Claas A, Praml C, Berthold F, Schwab M. Smallest region of overlapping deletion in 1p36 in human neuroblastoma: a 1 Mbp cosmid and PAC contig. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2001;31:228-39 pubmed
    ..Ten expressed sequence tags were integrated in the contig, of which five are located outside the SRO. The other five from within the SRO may provide an entrance point for the cloning of candidate genes for neuroblastoma...
  39. Krokan H, Prydz H. [Gene transfer--ways of administration, advantages, possible unsuitability and hazards]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001;121:479-82 pubmed
    ..Reports about successful gene therapy are now published after a period of more than ten years of trial and error. The key problem is to get DNA from genes or gene fragments into the target cells to be transcribed...
  40. Iwanaga S, Khan S, Kaneko I, Christodoulou Z, Newbold C, Yuda M, et al. Functional identification of the Plasmodium centromere and generation of a Plasmodium artificial chromosome. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:245-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that L-PAC behaves like a Plasmodium chromosome, which can be exploited as an experimental research tool...
  41. Giraldo P, Montoliu L. Size matters: use of YACs, BACs and PACs in transgenic animals. Transgenic Res. 2001;10:83-103 pubmed
    ..several groups, working independently, reported the successful generation of transgenic mice with yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) using standard techniques...
  42. Yang Q, Zhang D, Li Q, Cheng Z, Xue Y. Heterochromatic and genetic features are consistent with recombination suppression of the self-incompatibility locus in Antirrhinum. Plant J. 2007;51:140-51 pubmed
    ..Possible roles of these features in maintenance of the haplotype specificity involved in both self and non-self recognition are discussed...
  43. Chibana H, Heinecke E, Beckerman J, Magee P. A system of rapid isolation of end-DNA from a small amount of fosmid DNA, with vector-based PCR for chromosome walking. Genome. 2001;44:305-8 pubmed
    ..This system allows rapid physical mapping of genomes, and is adaptable for several other vectors including BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome), PAC (P1-derived artificial chromosome), and YAC (yeast artificial chromosome)...
  44. Goto Y, Feil R. Genomic imprinting and its effects on genes and chromosomes in mammals. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;240:53-75 pubmed
  45. Chaplin D, Brownstein B. Analysis of isolated YAC clones. Curr Protoc Mol Biol. 2001;Chapter 6:Unit6.10 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, preparation of high-molecular-weight YAC DNA is described and a general method for subcloning YAC inserts into cosmid or lambda vectors for higher-resolution analysis is provided...
  46. Schubert I. Alteration of chromosome numbers by generation of minichromosomes -- is there a lower limit of chromosome size for stable segregation?. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;93:175-81 pubmed
  47. Zhao B, Bepler G. Transcript map and complete genomic sequence for the 310 kb region of minimal allele loss on chromosome segment 11p15.5 in non-small-cell lung cancer. Oncogene. 2001;20:8154-64 pubmed
    ..These data provide the basis for the identification of a lung cancer suppressor gene on 11p15.5...
  48. Zhou L, Jiang D, Wu H, Zhuang C, Liu Y, Mei M. [Development of transformation system of rice based on transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) vector]. Yi Chuan Xue Bao. 2005;32:514-8 pubmed
    ..Genetic and PCR analyses of T1 progeny confirmed that the inserted forgein DNA was stably inherited...
  49. Mee P, Shen M, Smith A, Brown W. An unpaired mouse centromere passes consistently through male meiosis and does not significantly compromise spermatogenesis. Chromosoma. 2003;112:183-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the presence of an unpaired centromere is not sufficient to arrest male meiosis, implying that univalents are normally eliminated by a mechanism other than a tension-sensitive spindle checkpoint...
  50. Cyranoski D. Research materials: share and share alike?. Nature. 2002;420:602-4 pubmed
  51. Lahortiga I, De Keersmaecker K, Van Vlierberghe P, Graux C, Cauwelier B, Lambert F, et al. Duplication of the MYB oncogene in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nat Genet. 2007;39:593-5 pubmed
    ..Our results identify duplication of MYB as an oncogenic event and suggest that MYB could be a therapeutic target in human T-ALL...
  52. Scott S, Cohen N, Brandt T, Toruner G, Desnick R, Edelmann L. Detection of low-level mosaicism and placental mosaicism by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. Genet Med. 2010;12:85-92 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the sensitivity of whole-genome oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization for the detection of mosaic cytogenetic abnormalities...
  53. Kennard M, Goosney D, Monteith D, Roe S, Fischer D, Mott J. Auditioning of CHO host cell lines using the artificial chromosome expression (ACE) technology. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;104:526-39 pubmed publisher
    ..To improve cell line generation, the ACE System was developed based on pre-engineered artificial chromosomes with multiple recombination acceptor sites...
  54. Alduina R, Giardina A, Gallo G, Renzone G, Ferraro C, Contino A, et al. Expression in Streptomyces lividans of Nonomuraea genes cloned in an artificial chromosome. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;68:656-62 pubmed
    ..Considered together, these results show that S. lividans expresses Nonomuraea genes from their own promoters and support the idea that S. lividans can be a good host for genetic analysis of Nonomuraea...
  55. Kury S, Devilder M, Avet Loiseau H, Dreno B, Moisan J. Expression pattern, genomic structure and evaluation of the human SLC30A4 gene as a candidate for acrodermatitis enteropathica. Hum Genet. 2001;109:178-85 pubmed
    ..We also report the mutational analysis of human SLC30A4 in ten families with acrodermatitis enteropathica, which enabled us to exclude this gene from any involvement in the disorder of the patients examined...
  56. Goldman S. Genetic chemistry: production of non-native compounds in yeast. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2010;14:390-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will describe recent successes in the use of yeast for both discovery and production of non-native secondary metabolites focused on pharmaceutically relevant compounds...
  57. Kishida T, Asada H, Kubo K, Sato Y, Shin Ya M, Imanishi J, et al. Pleiotrophic functions of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and oriP differentially contribute to the efficiency of transfection/expression of exogenous gene in mammalian cells. J Biotechnol. 2008;133:201-7 pubmed
  58. Harada H, Nagai H, Mine N, Terada Y, Fujiwara H, Mikami I, et al. Molecular cloning, tissue expression, and chromosomal assignment of a novel gene encoding a subunit of the human signal-recognition particle. J Hum Genet. 2001;46:70-5 pubmed
    ..We confirmed the location of this gene at chromosome 17q25.1 by radiation-hybrid mapping and by fluorescence in situ hybridization...
  59. Monteith D, Leung J, Borowski A, Co D, Praznovszky T, Jirik F, et al. Pronuclear microinjection of purified artificial chromosomes for generation of transgenic mice: pick-and-inject technique. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;240:227-42 pubmed
  60. Wu J, Mizuno H, Hayashi Tsugane M, Ito Y, Chiden Y, Fujisawa M, et al. Physical maps and recombination frequency of six rice chromosomes. Plant J. 2003;36:720-30 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis of these regions suggests that either the amount or the organization patterns of repetitive sequences may play a role in the inactivation of recombination...
  61. Wang Z, Engler P, Longacre A, Storb U. An efficient method for high-fidelity BAC/PAC retrofitting with a selectable marker for mammalian cell transfection. Genome Res. 2001;11:137-42 pubmed
    ..Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs) are large genomic clones stably maintained in bacteria ..
  62. Stallings N, Hanley N, Majdic G, Zhao L, Bakke M, Parker K. Development of a transgenic green fluorescent protein lineage marker for steroidogenic factor 1. Endocr Res. 2002;28:497-504 pubmed
    ..The SF-1/eGFP transgene provides a valuable tool to expand our understanding of the actions of SF-1 in endocrine development and function...
  63. Lipps H, Bode J. Exploiting chromosomal and viral strategies: the design of safe and efficient non-viral gene transfer systems. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2001;3:133-41 pubmed
  64. Vasiliou A, Mackenzie A, Morris R, McLaughlin L, Bubb V, Haddley K, et al. Generation of a transgenic model to address regulation and function of the human neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R). Neuropeptides. 2007;41:195-205 pubmed
    ..The majority of these cells were also positive for GFP fluorescence. These transgenic lines may prove a good pre-clinical model as drugs can be addressed against both the human receptor and modulators of its expression in vivo...
  65. Bodmer D, Eleveld M, Kater Baats E, Janssen I, Janssen B, Weterman M, et al. Disruption of a novel MFS transporter gene, DIRC2, by a familial renal cell carcinoma-associated t(2;3)(q35;q21). Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:641-9 pubmed
    ..Based on additional DIRC2 expression and mutation analyses, we propose that the observed gene disruption may result in haplo-insufficiency and, through this mechanism, in the onset of tumor growth...
  66. Baird D, Farr C. The organization and function of chromosomes. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:372-6 pubmed
  67. Monaco Z, Moralli D. Progress in artificial chromosome technology. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006;34:324-7 pubmed
    b>Artificial chromosomes is an exciting technology which has developed rapidly since the late 1990s. HACs (human artificial chromosomes) are autonomous molecules that can function and segregate as normal chromosomes in human cells...
  68. Conese M, Boyd A, Di Gioia S, Auriche C, Ascenzioni F. Genomic context vectors and artificial chromosomes for cystic fibrosis gene therapy. Curr Gene Ther. 2007;7:175-87 pubmed
    ..The major issue which now limits their routine use is delivery inefficiency. Once this issue is resolved, we will be closer to achieving the goal of regulated gene therapy for CF...
  69. Conese M, Auriche C, Ascenzioni F. Gene therapy progress and prospects: episomally maintained self-replicating systems. Gene Ther. 2004;11:1735-41 pubmed
    ..The studies reported validate the use of episomal vectors to obtain stable and prolonged gene expression, although reveal some limitations that necessitate additional work...
  70. Duncan A, Hadlaczky G. Chromosomal engineering. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2007;18:420-4 pubmed
    b>Artificial chromosomes (ACs) are engineered chromosomes with defined genetic contents that can function as non-integrating vectors with large carrying capacity and stability...
  71. Nakamura Y, Kaneko T, Asamizu E, Kato T, Sato S, Tabata S. Structural analysis of a Lotus japonicus genome. II. Sequence features and mapping of sixty-five TAC clones which cover the 6.5-mb regions of the genome. DNA Res. 2002;9:63-70 pubmed
    Sixty-five TAC (transformation-competent artificial chromosomes) clones were selected from a genomic library of Lotus japonicus accession MG-20 based on the sequence information of expressed sequences tags (ESTs), cDNA and gene ..
  72. Karim S, Johnson K, Griffiths I, Vouyiouklis D. A physical map of the genomic region on mouse chromosome 3 containing the hindshaker (hsh) mutation. Genomics. 2004;83:225-30 pubmed
    ..5 Mb, was constructed from a series of overlapping yeast and bacterial artificial chromosomes. A 1.2- to 1...
  73. Okada S, Sone T, Fujisawa M, Nakayama S, Takenaka M, Ishizaki K, et al. The Y chromosome in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has accumulated unique repeat sequences harboring a male-specific gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:9454-9 pubmed
    ..The chromosome-specific repeat sequences possibly contribute to determining the identity of the Y chromosome in M. polymorpha as well as to maintaining genes required for male functions, as in mammals such as human...
  74. Amemiya C, Amores A, Ota T, Mueller G, Garrity D, Postlethwait J, et al. Generation of a P1 artificial chromosome library of the Southern pufferfish. Gene. 2001;272:283-9 pubmed
    ..The library and high-density filters have been made available to the scientific public through genomics distribution companies...
  75. Brouillard P, Olsen B, Vikkula M. High-resolution physical and transcript map of the locus for venous malformations with glomus cells (VMGLOM) on chromosome 1p21-p22. Genomics. 2000;67:96-101 pubmed
    ..These data will enable positional cloning of genes for diseases mapped to this locus, including the VMGLOM gene, likely a currently unknown regulator of vasculogenesis and/or angiogenesis...
  76. Nagaki K, Walling J, Hirsch C, Jiang J, Murata M. Structure and evolution of plant centromeres. Prog Mol Subcell Biol. 2009;48:153-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We will review our understanding of centromeric components, centromere structures, and the evolution of these attributes of centromeres among plants using data mainly from Arabidopsis and Gramineae species...
  77. Ehrhardt A, Haase R, Schepers A, Deutsch M, Lipps H, Baiker A. Episomal vectors for gene therapy. Curr Gene Ther. 2008;8:147-61 pubmed
    ..We will discuss their advantages and disadvantages and their applications in the context of basic research, biotechnology and gene therapy...
  78. Koike M, Kawaura K, Ogihara Y, Torada A. Isolation and characterization of SSR sequences from the genome and TAC clones of common wheat using the PCR technique. Genome. 2006;49:432-44 pubmed
    ..development of unique SSR markers in large genomic DNA libraries such as those composed of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)...
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