sex pili

Summary

Summary: Filamentous or elongated proteinaceous structures which extend from the cell surface in gram-negative bacteria that contain certain types of conjugative plasmid. These pili are the organs associated with genetic transfer and have essential roles in conjugation. Normally, only one or a few pili occur on a given donor cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p675) This preferred use of "pili" refers to the sexual appendage, to be distinguished from bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL), also known as common pili, which are usually concerned with adhesion.

Top Publications

  1. Kalkum M, Eisenbrandt R, Lanka E. Protein circlets as sex pilus subunits. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2004;5:417-24 pubmed
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry has been used extensively to unravel the mechanism of the enzyme-substrate interaction of the pilin maturation process. ..
  2. Harris R, Silverman P. Tra proteins characteristic of F-like type IV secretion systems constitute an interaction group by yeast two-hybrid analysis. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:5480-5 pubmed
    ..We propose a model whereby one function of the TraH interaction group is to control F-pilus extension and retraction. ..
  3. Dai X, Li Z, Lai M, Shu S, Du Y, Zhou Z, et al. In situ structures of the genome and genome-delivery apparatus in a single-stranded RNA virus. Nature. 2017;541:112-116 pubmed publisher
  4. Blomfield I, Kulasekara D, Eisenstein B. Integration host factor stimulates both FimB- and FimE-mediated site-specific DNA inversion that controls phase variation of type 1 fimbriae expression in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 1997;23:705-17 pubmed
  5. Winans S, Burns D, Christie P. Adaptation of a conjugal transfer system for the export of pathogenic macromolecules. Trends Microbiol. 1996;4:64-8 pubmed
  6. Lai E, Kado C. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens T pilus composed of cyclic T pilin is highly resilient to extreme environments. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;210:111-4 pubmed
    ..Sodium dodecyl sulfate increased the uptake of uranyl acetate exposing a 2 nm wide lumen running the length of the T pilus filament. ..
  7. Nakano K, Kuboniwa M, Nakagawa I, Yamamura T, Nomura R, Okahashi N, et al. Comparison of inflammatory changes caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis with distinct fimA genotypes in a mouse abscess model. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2004;19:205-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, fimA mutants of type II strains clearly lost their infectious ability. These findings suggest that fimA genotypic variation affects expression of P. gingivalis virulence...
  8. Merz A, Enns C, So M. Type IV pili of pathogenic Neisseriae elicit cortical plaque formation in epithelial cells. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:1316-32 pubmed
    ..The functions of type IV pili and other neisserial adhesins are discussed in the specific context of the mucosal microenvironment, and a multistep model for neisserial colonization of mucosal epithelia is proposed. ..
  9. Zahrl D, Wagner M, Bischof K, Koraimann G. Expression and assembly of a functional type IV secretion system elicit extracytoplasmic and cytoplasmic stress responses in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:6611-21 pubmed
    ..Stimulation of rpoHp(1) was dependent on the presence of CpxR, suggesting a hitherto undocumented link between CpxAR and sigma(32)-regulated stress networks. ..

More Information

Publications74

  1. Mooijman K, Bahar M, Muniesa M, Havelaar A. Optimisation of ISO 10705-1 on enumeration of F-specific bacteriophages. J Virol Methods. 2002;103:129-36 pubmed
  2. Sagulenko E, Sagulenko V, Chen J, Christie P. Role of Agrobacterium VirB11 ATPase in T-pilus assembly and substrate selection. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5813-25 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the contributions of VirB11 to machine assembly and substrate transfer can be uncoupled by mutagenesis. ..
  3. Davila Perez C, Amano A, Alpuche Solis A, Patiño Marín N, Pontigo Loyola A, Hamada S, et al. Distribution of genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontitis in Mexico. J Clin Periodontol. 2007;34:25-30 pubmed
    ..However, in sites affected by periodontitis from T2DM subjects the predominating types were I and III, which are less virulent strains of P. gingivalis. ..
  4. Aho E, Urwin R, Batcheller A, Holmgren A, Havig K, Kulakoski A, et al. Neisserial pilin genes display extensive interspecies diversity. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;249:327-34 pubmed
    ..polysaccharea, N. mucosa, and N. denitrificans. Neisserial pilE genes are highly diverse and display features consistent with a history of horizontal gene transfer...
  5. Ho Y, Lai M, Liu S, Lin C, Naruishi K, Takashiba S, et al. Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae-dependent interleukin-6 autocrine regulation by increase of gp130 in endothelial cells. J Periodontal Res. 2009;44:550-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although interleukin-6 (IL-6) regulates progression of atherosclerosis, little is known about the relationship of P. gingivalis fimbriae-dependent invasion to IL-6 regulation in endothelial cells...
  6. Pouttu R, Westerlund Wikström B, Lang H, Alsti K, Virkola R, Saarela U, et al. matB, a common fimbrillin gene of Escherichia coli, expressed in a genetically conserved, virulent clonal group. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4727-36 pubmed
    ..Reverse transcriptase PCR and complementation assays with mat genes controlled by the inducible trc promoter indicated that regulation of Mat fimbria expression involved both transcriptional and posttranscriptional events...
  7. Nakagawa I, Amano A, Kuboniwa M, Nakamura T, Kawabata S, Hamada S. Functional differences among FimA variants of Porphyromonas gingivalis and their effects on adhesion to and invasion of human epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 2002;70:277-85 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that type II FimA can bind to epithelial cells most efficiently through specific host receptors...
  8. Babic A, Lindner A, Vulic M, Stewart E, Radman M. Direct visualization of horizontal gene transfer. Science. 2008;319:1533-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The incidence of DNA splitting corresponds to about one crossover per cell generation...
  9. Sugano N, Ikeda K, Oshikawa M, Sawamoto Y, Tanaka H, Ito K. Differential cytokine induction by two types of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2004;19:121-3 pubmed
    ..Although other factors may also be involved, the sustained cytokine response induced by type II P. gingivalis may play an important role in enhanced periodontal tissue inflammation and destruction...
  10. Skaar E, Lazio M, Seifert H. Roles of the recJ and recN genes in homologous recombination and DNA repair pathways of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:919-27 pubmed
    ..These results describe the role of recJ and recN in the recombination-dependent processes of the gonococcus and further define the pathways of homologous recombination in this organism...
  11. Liu L, Wen X, He H, Shi J, Ji C. Species-specific DNA probe for the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis from adult Chinese periodontal patients and healthy subjects. J Periodontol. 2003;74:1000-6 pubmed
    ..gingivalis in adult Chinese periodontitis patients as well as to find a rapid and convenient method to detect P. gingivalis in clinical practice...
  12. Amano A. Molecular interaction of Porphyromonas gingivalis with host cells: implication for the microbial pathogenesis of periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2003;74:90-6 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that fimbriae of P. gingivalis, especially type II, are involved in the initiation and progression of human periodontitis...
  13. Collins R, Ford R, Kitmitto A, Olsen R, Tønjum T, Derrick J. Three-dimensional structure of the Neisseria meningitidis secretin PilQ determined from negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2611-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the complex would have to undergo a conformational change in order to accommodate an assembled pilus fiber of diameter 6.5 nm running through the outer membrane...
  14. Yoshimura F, Murakami Y, Nishikawa K, Hasegawa Y, Kawaminami S. Surface components of Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Periodontal Res. 2009;44:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..thetaiotaomicron as major anaerobic, opportunistic pathogens in the medical field. In this minireview, we focused on recent research findings concerning surface components such as outer membrane proteins and fimbriae, of P. gingivalis...
  15. Campbell A, Spyracopoulos L, Irvin R, Sykes B. Backbone dynamics of a bacterially expressed peptide from the receptor binding domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilin strain PAK from heteronuclear 1H-15N NMR spectroscopy. J Biomol NMR. 2000;17:239-55 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa strains...
  16. Hasegawa H, Tanikawa T, Nozawa T, Nakazawa K, Nakagawa Y, Matsuyama T. Distinct function of Pseudomonas aeruginosa type IV pili disclosed in the bacterial pass-through of membrane filter with smaller pore sizes. Microbiol Immunol. 2007;51:429-33 pubmed
    ..22-microm filter pass-through activity. Thus, the distinctive role of P. aeruginosa type IV pili in infiltration into finer reticulate structures was indicated...
  17. Wu S, Wu J, Cheng Y, Kaiser D. The pilH gene encodes an ABC transporter homologue required for type IV pilus biogenesis and social gliding motility in Myxococcus xanthus. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:1249-61 pubmed
    ..The complex may participate in pilus assembly and/or the export of PilA pilin...
  18. Vedantam G, Hecht D. Isolation and characterization of BTF-37: chromosomal DNA captured from Bacteroides fragilis that confers self-transferability and expresses a pilus-like structure in Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:728-38 pubmed
    ..coli broad-host-range plasmids. We conclude that we have captured a new, self-transferable transfer factor from B. fragilis LV23 and that this new factor encodes a tetracycline-inducible Bacteroides sp. conjugation apparatus...
  19. Nakagawa I, Amano A, Ohara Nemoto Y, Endoh N, Morisaki I, Kimura S, et al. Identification of a new variant of fimA gene of Porphyromonas gingivalis and its distribution in adults and disabled populations with periodontitis. J Periodontal Res. 2002;37:425-32 pubmed
    ..91) and mentally disabled populations (OR 4.00). These findings suggest that P. gingivalis with type Ib fimA is closely associated with the progression of periodontitis, similar to organisms with type II and IV fimA...
  20. Kuboniwa M, Amano A, Inaba H, Hashino E, Shizukuishi S. Homotypic biofilm structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis is affected by FimA type variations. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2009;24:260-3 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is unclear if FimA variations have effects on biofilm features. Here, we compare the characteristic structures of homotypic biofilms developed by P. gingivalis strains with different FimA types...
  21. Hill S, Grant C. Recombinational error and deletion formation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a role for RecJ in the production of pilE (L) deletions. Mol Genet Genomics. 2002;266:962-72 pubmed
    ..A model is presented in which the gonococcal RecA and RecJ proteins promote pilE deletions through a recombination event that is templated or stabilised by a pilE/pilS interaction...
  22. Taha M, Giorgini D, Nassif X. The pilA regulatory gene modulates the pilus-mediated adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis by controlling the transcription of pilC1. Mol Microbiol. 1996;19:1073-84 pubmed
    ..Thus, in addition to phase variation, a more co-ordinate and responsive system may allow a fine adaptation of adhesiveness of meningococci to various environmental signals...
  23. Boyd E, Hartl D. Analysis of the type 1 pilin gene cluster fim in Salmonella: its distinct evolutionary histories in the 5' and 3' regions. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1301-8 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that horizontal transmission of all or part of the same gene cluster can occur repeatedly, with the result that different regions of a single gene cluster may have different evolutionary histories...
  24. Schröder G, Lanka E. The mating pair formation system of conjugative plasmids-A versatile secretion machinery for transfer of proteins and DNA. Plasmid. 2005;54:1-25 pubmed
    ..We here present a unified and updated view of the functioning and the molecular architecture of the Mpf/CP machinery...
  25. Wang Y, Shi W, Chen W, Chen C. Type IV pilus gene homologs pilABCD are required for natural transformation in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Gene. 2003;312:249-55 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that pilABCD are required for competence but are apparently not involved in fimbria expression of A. actinomycetemcomitans...
  26. Khlgatian M, Nassar H, Chou H, Gibson F, Genco C. Fimbria-dependent activation of cell adhesion molecule expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected endothelial cells. Infect Immun. 2002;70:257-67 pubmed
    ..gingivalis may play a role in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory diseases associated with this microorganism, including atherosclerosis...
  27. Nakagawa I, Amano A, Kimura R, Nakamura T, Kawabata S, Hamada S. Distribution and molecular characterization of Porphyromonas gingivalis carrying a new type of fimA gene. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1909-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, a new type of fimA gene is now established, and the fimA genotyping could be useful in determining the disease-associated genotypes of P. gingivalis involved in the development of adult periodontitis...
  28. Audette G, Irvin R, Hazes B. Crystallographic analysis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K122-4 monomeric pilin reveals a conserved receptor-binding architecture. Biochemistry. 2004;43:11427-35 pubmed
  29. Collins R, Davidsen L, Derrick J, Ford R, T njum T. Analysis of the PilQ secretin from Neisseria meningitidis by transmission electron microscopy reveals a dodecameric quaternary structure. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3825-32 pubmed publisher
    ..A model of the type IV meningococcal pilus fiber, based on the X-ray crystal structure of the N. gonorrhoeae pilin subunit, fitted neatly into the cavity, demonstrating how PilQ could serve as a channel for the growing pilus fiber...
  30. Helm R, Barnhart M, Seifert H. pilQ Missense mutations have diverse effects on PilQ multimer formation, piliation, and pilus function in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:3198-207 pubmed
    ..The collection of phenotypes expressed by these mutants suggests that PilQ has an active role in pilus expression and function...
  31. Teixeira S, Mattarazo F, Feres M, Figueiredo L, de Faveri M, Simionato M, et al. Quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis and fimA genotypes in smoker chronic periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2009;36:482-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to correlate levels of P. gingivalis fimA genotypes II and IV and probing depth in smoker-chronic periodontitis subjects...
  32. Beikler T, Peters U, Prajaneh S, Prior K, Ehmke B, Flemmig T. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes in Caucasians. Eur J Oral Sci. 2003;111:390-4 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that predominant fimA genotypes in Caucasian periodontitis patients are types I, II, and IV. However, there was no difference in the association of the various fimA genotypes with disease severity...
  33. Yeo H, Yuan Q, Beck M, Baron C, Waksman G. Structural and functional characterization of the VirB5 protein from the type IV secretion system encoded by the conjugative plasmid pKM101. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15947-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis followed by functional studies indicates that VirB5 proteins participate in protein-protein interactions important for pilus assembly and function...
  34. Kopec J, Bergmann A, Fritz G, Grohmann E, Keller W. TraA and its N-terminal relaxase domain of the Gram-positive plasmid pIP501 show specific oriT binding and behave as dimers in solution. Biochem J. 2005;387:401-9 pubmed
    ..Upon DNA binding, an enhanced secondary structure content and increased thermal stability were observed for the TraAN246 protein, suggesting an induced-fit mechanism for the formation of the specific relaxase-oriT complex...
  35. Hamada N, Watanabe K, Arai M, Hiramine H, Umemoto T. Cytokine production induced by a 67-kDa fimbrial protein from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2002;17:197-200 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that P. gingivalis 67-kDa fimbriae may play a part in the inflammatory response during the development of periodontal diseases...
  36. Heuer H, Szczepanowski R, Schneiker S, Puhler A, Top E, Schluter A. The complete sequences of plasmids pB2 and pB3 provide evidence for a recent ancestor of the IncP-1beta group without any accessory genes. Microbiology. 2004;150:3591-9 pubmed
    ..They must occasionally acquire accessory genes by transposition events, resulting in those plasmids that have been found based on selectable phenotypic traits...
  37. Stimson E, Virji M, Barker S, Panico M, Blench I, Saunders J, et al. Discovery of a novel protein modification: alpha-glycerophosphate is a substituent of meningococcal pilin. Biochem J. 1996;316 ( Pt 1):29-33 pubmed
    ..Serine-93 was found to carry a novel modification of alpha-glycerophosphate. This is the first time that alpha-glycerophosphate has been observed as a substituent of a prokaryotic or eukaryotic protein...
  38. Deng L, Perham R. Delineating the site of interaction on the pIII protein of filamentous bacteriophage fd with the F-pilus of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2002;319:603-14 pubmed
    ..These residues were found to cluster on the outer rim of the 3D structure of the D2 domain, unexpectedly identifying this as the F-pilus binding region on the pIII protein...
  39. Arvidson C, So M. The Neisseria transcriptional regulator PilA has a GTPase activity. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:26045-8 pubmed
    ..6 microM at 37 degrees C...
  40. Cabezon E, Sastre J, de la Cruz F. Genetic evidence of a coupling role for the TraG protein family in bacterial conjugation. Mol Gen Genet. 1997;254:400-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore we suggest that the factors that determine the frequencies of transfer of different MOB regions are the differential interactions of TrwB with pilus and relaxosome...
  41. Bullitt E, Makowski L. Bacterial adhesion pili are heterologous assemblies of similar subunits. Biophys J. 1998;74:623-32 pubmed
    ..A wide variety of data are considered in light of the possibility that all pilins are similar in molecular architecture, with specific differences designed to optimize their specialized functions in the pilus assembly...
  42. Donato G, Kawula T. Phenotypic analysis of random hns mutations differentiate DNA-binding activity from properties of fimA promoter inversion modulation and bacterial motility. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:941-8 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in terms of H-NS domain organization and implications for biological activity...
  43. Xie H, Lamont R. Promoter architecture of the Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbrillin gene. Infect Immun. 1999;67:3227-35 pubmed
    ..gingivalis. Thus, our data suggest that the P. gingivalis fimA gene has a transcription complex consisting of -10 and -35 sequences, an UP element, and additional AT-rich upstream regulatory sequences...
  44. Nassif X, Pujol C, Morand P, Eugene E. Interactions of pathogenic Neisseria with host cells. Is it possible to assemble the puzzle?. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:1124-32 pubmed
    ..This manuscript will review the most recent developments concerning the mechanisms mediating cellular interaction of pathogenic Neisseria and will then try to put them into the perspective of pathogenesis and bacterial life cycle...
  45. Wei W, Plovanich Jones A, Deng W, Jin Q, Collmer A, Huang H, et al. The gene coding for the Hrp pilus structural protein is required for type III secretion of Hrp and Avr proteins in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:2247-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define an essential role of the Hrp pilus structural gene in protein secretion and coordinate regulation of the type III secretion system in Pst DC3000...
  46. Sukumaran S, Fu N, Tin C, Wan K, Lee S, Yu V. A soluble form of the pilus protein FimA targets the VDAC-hexokinase complex at mitochondria to suppress host cell apoptosis. Mol Cell. 2010;37:768-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data thus reveal a paradigm of antiapoptosis mechanism undertaken by the enteroinvasive bacteria...
  47. Perez Chaparro P, Rouillon A, Minet J, Lafaurie G, Bonnaure Mallet M. fimA genotypes and PFGE profile patterns in Porphyromonas gingivalis isolates from subjects with periodontitis. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2009;24:423-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare these techniques, we genotyped P. gingivalis clinical isolates as to (i) their fimA type and (ii) their whole genome restriction profile (PFGE analysis)...
  48. Yoshida T, Furuya N, Ishikura M, Isobe T, Haino Fukushima K, Ogawa T, et al. Purification and characterization of thin pili of IncI1 plasmids ColIb-P9 and R64: formation of PilV-specific cell aggregates by type IV pili. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:2842-8 pubmed
    ..These PilV proteins were revealed to comprise a minor component of thin pili. Formation of PilV-specific cell aggregates by ColIb-P9 and R64 thin pili was demonstrated and may play an important role in liquid mating...
  49. Amano A, Kuboniwa M, Nakagawa I, Akiyama S, Morisaki I, Hamada S. Prevalence of specific genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA and periodontal health status. J Dent Res. 2000;79:1664-8 pubmed
    ..gingivalis, and that their infectious traits influencing periodontal health status could be differentiated based on the clonal variation of fimA genes...
  50. Amano A, Kishima T, Akiyama S, Nakagawa I, Hamada S, Morisaki I. Relationship of periodontopathic bacteria with early-onset periodontitis in Down's syndrome. J Periodontol. 2001;72:368-73 pubmed
    ..Down's syndrome (DS) patients often develop severe early-onset marginal periodontitis in early adulthood; however, there is little information available on the microbiology of DS periodontitis...
  51. Kennan R, Dhungyel O, Whittington R, Egerton J, Rood J. The type IV fimbrial subunit gene (fimA) of Dichelobacter nodosus is essential for virulence, protease secretion, and natural competence. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4451-8 pubmed
    ..nodosus virulence gene. These studies represent the first time that molecular genetics has been used to determine the role of virulence genes in this slow growing anaerobic bacterium...
  52. Nassar H, Chou H, Khlgatian M, Gibson F, Van Dyke T, Genco C. Role for fimbriae and lysine-specific cysteine proteinase gingipain K in expression of interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein in Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected endothelial cells. Infect Immun. 2002;70:268-76 pubmed
    ..gingivalis wild-type strain. These results indicate that P. gingivalis can temporally modulate the chemokine response in endothelial cells through both fimbriae and gingipain-mediated mechanisms...
  53. Bidlack J, Silverman P. An active type IV secretion system encoded by the F plasmid sensitizes Escherichia coli to bile salts. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:5202-9 pubmed
  54. Manchak J, Anthony K, Frost L. Mutational analysis of F-pilin reveals domains for pilus assembly, phage infection and DNA transfer. Mol Microbiol. 2002;43:195-205 pubmed
    ..Mutations involving lysines and phenylalanines within residues 45-60 suggest that these residues might participate in transmitting a signal down the length of the pilus that initiates DNA transfer or R17 eclipse...
  55. Kuramitsu H, Kang I, Qi M. Interactions of Porphyromonas gingivalis with host cells: implications for cardiovascular diseases. J Periodontol. 2003;74:85-9 pubmed
    ..Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain such a connection involving general inflammatory responses and/or specific effects of periodontal bacteria on host tissues...
  56. Sakai D, Horiuchi T, Komano T. Atpase activity and multimer formation of Pilq protein are required for thin pilus biogenesis in plasmid R64. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:17968-75 pubmed
    ..PilQ D263N monomer exhibited low ATPase activity, while PilQ D263N multimer did not. These results indicate that ATPase activity of the PilQ multimer is essential for R64 thin pilus biogenesis...
  57. Umemoto T, Hamada N. Characterization of biologically active cell surface components of a periodontal pathogen. The roles of major and minor fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Periodontol. 2003;74:119-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from this study suggest that not only the 41-K fimbrial protein, but also the 67-K fimbrial protein, play important roles in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease...
  58. Anthony K, Klimke W, Manchak J, Frost L. Comparison of proteins involved in pilus synthesis and mating pair stabilization from the related plasmids F and R100-1: insights into the mechanism of conjugation. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5149-59 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the specificity in recipient cell recognition and entry exclusion are mediated by TraN and TraG, respectively, and not by the pilus...
  59. Nudleman E, Wall D, Kaiser D. Polar assembly of the type IV pilus secretin in Myxococcus xanthus. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:16-29 pubmed
    ..We suggest that these proteins are parts of a polar superstructure that holds PilQ monomers in a cluster and ready for Tgl to bring about secretin assembly...
  60. Weiser J, Goldberg J, Pan N, Wilson L, Virji M. The phosphorylcholine epitope undergoes phase variation on a 43-kilodalton protein in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and on pili of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect Immun. 1998;66:4263-7 pubmed
    ..Expression of the ChoP epitope on piliated neisseriae displayed phase variation, both linked to pilus expression and independently of fully piliated bacteria...
  61. Oshikawa M, Sugano N, Koshi R, Ikeda K, Ito K. Differential gene induction in macrophage-like human cells by two types of Porphyromonas gingivalis: a microarray study. J Oral Sci. 2004;46:9-14 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that compared with Pg-I, Pg-II induces a low host response as measured by its weak induction of gene expression...
  62. Gally D, Leathart J, Blomfield I. Interaction of FimB and FimE with the fim switch that controls the phase variation of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Microbiol. 1996;21:725-38 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the different binding affinities of FimB and FimE for the various half-site combinations suggests that the specificity of FimE could arise, in part, from the low affinity of FimE for IRL (off)...
  63. Seifert H. Questions about gonococcal pilus phase- and antigenic variation. Mol Microbiol. 1996;21:433-40 pubmed
    ..However, little is known about the precise molecular mechanisms used to allow high-frequency, non-reciprocal, chromosomal recombination between pilin loci or about what regulates the process of maintaining chromosome fidelity...
  64. Kalkum M, Eisenbrandt R, Lurz R, Lanka E. Tying rings for sex. Trends Microbiol. 2002;10:382-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, we discuss the implications for horizontal gene transfer in bacterial conjugation...
  65. Schwartz E, Henne A, Cramm R, Eitinger T, Friedrich B, Gottschalk G. Complete nucleotide sequence of pHG1: a Ralstonia eutropha H16 megaplasmid encoding key enzymes of H(2)-based ithoautotrophy and anaerobiosis. J Mol Biol. 2003;332:369-83 pubmed
    ..Among the mobile elements is a novel member of the IS5 family, in which the transposase gene is interrupted by a group II intron...