purple membrane


Summary: Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)

Top Publications

  1. Muller D, Sass H, Muller S, Buldt G, Engel A. Surface structures of native bacteriorhodopsin depend on the molecular packing arrangement in the membrane. J Mol Biol. 1999;285:1903-9 pubmed
    ..force microscope (AFM) to reveal the most native surface structure of bacteriorhodopsin molecules in the purple membrane. Individual peptide loops were observed with a lateral resolution of between 4.5 A and 5...
  2. Hendler R, Barnett S, Dracheva S, Bose S, Levin I. Purple membrane lipid control of bacteriorhodopsin conformational flexibility and photocycle activity. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:1920-5 pubmed
    Specific lipids of the purple membrane of Halobacteria are required for normal bacteriorhodopsin structure, function, and photocycle kinetics [Hendler, R.W. & Dracheva, S. (2001) Biochemistry (Moscow)66, 1623-1627]...
  3. Lobasso S, Lopalco P, Lattanzio V, Corcelli A. Osmotic shock induces the presence of glycocardiolipin in the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarum. J Lipid Res. 2003;44:2120-6 pubmed
    In the purple membrane (PM) of Halobacterium salinarum is present a phospholipid dimer consisting of sulfo-triglycosyl-diether (S-TGD-1) esterified to the phosphate group of phosphatidic acid (PA), i.e...
  4. Dencher N, Sass H, Buldt G. Water and bacteriorhodopsin: structure, dynamics, and function. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1460:192-203 pubmed
    ..molecules do play an important role in the structure, dynamics, and function of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and purple membrane. Light-induced structural alterations in bR as detected by X-ray and neutron diffraction at low and high ..
  5. Corcelli A, Lobasso S, Saponetti M, Leopold A, Dencher N. Glycocardiolipin modulates the surface interaction of the proton pumped by bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane preparations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1768:2157-63 pubmed
    ..cardiolipin, having an extraordinary affinity for bacteriorhodopsin, the photoactivated proton pump in the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarum...
  6. Buchsteiner A, Lechner R, Hauss T, Dencher N. Relationship between structure, dynamics and function of hydrated purple membrane investigated by neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy. J Mol Biol. 2007;371:914-23 pubmed
    ..For the example of the purple membrane (PM) with its protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR), a light-driven proton pump, complementary information from ..
  7. Cartailler J, Luecke H. X-ray crystallographic analysis of lipid-protein interactions in the bacteriorhodopsin purple membrane. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 2003;32:285-310 pubmed
    ..Concurrently, there has been much progress within our knowledge pertaining to the lipids of the purple membrane, including the discovery of new lipids and the overall effort to localize and identify each lipid within the ..
  8. Berntsen P, Bergman R, Jansson H, Weik M, Swenson J. Dielectric and calorimetric studies of hydrated purple membrane. Biophys J. 2005;89:3120-8 pubmed
    ..For the less hydrated sample the effects are less pronounced and shift to a slightly higher temperature...
  9. Zaccai G. Moist and soft, dry and stiff: a review of neutron experiments on hydration-dynamics-activity relations in the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarum. Biophys Chem. 2000;86:249-57 pubmed
    ..Strong correlations were established between dynamics parameters and the activity of bacteriorhodopsin (the purple membrane protein), as a light driven proton pump supporting the hypothesis that the influence of hydration on activity ..

More Information


  1. Weik M. Low-temperature behavior of water confined by biological macromolecules and its relation to protein dynamics. Eur Phys J E Soft Matter. 2003;12:153-8 pubmed
    ..Protein crystallography and energy-resolved neutron scattering are employed to gain further insight into the coupling of solvent and protein dynamics...
  2. Muller D, Heymann J, Oesterhelt F, Moller C, Gaub H, Buldt G, et al. Atomic force microscopy of native purple membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1460:27-38 pubmed
    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows the observation of surface structures of purple membrane (PM) in buffer solution with subnanometer resolution...
  3. Weik M, Lehnert U, Zaccai G. Liquid-like water confined in stacks of biological membranes at 200 k and its relation to protein dynamics. Biophys J. 2005;89:3639-46 pubmed
  4. Renner C, Kessler B, Oesterhelt D. Lipid composition of integral purple membrane by 1H and 31P NMR. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:1755-64 pubmed
    In the purple membrane (PM) of halobacteria, lipids stabilize the trimeric arrangement of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) molecules and mediate the packing of the trimers in a regular crystalline arrangement...
  5. Rheinstädter M, Schmalzl K, Wood K, Strauch D. Protein-protein interaction in purple membrane. Phys Rev Lett. 2009;103:128104 pubmed
    We present experimental evidence for a long-range protein-protein interaction in purple membrane (PM)...
  6. Lukacs A, Garab G, Papp E. Measurement of the optical parameters of purple membrane and plant light-harvesting complex films with optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy. Biosens Bioelectron. 2006;21:1606-12 pubmed
    b>Purple membrane (bacteriorhodopsin) and plant light-harvesting complexes (LHCII) were dried on the optical waveguide sensor with varying thicknesses in a wide range (from 20 to several hundreds of nanometers) and the optical parameters ..
  7. Shiu P, Ju Y, Chen H, Lee C. Facile isolation of purple membrane from Halobacterium salinarum via aqueous-two-phase system. Protein Expr Purif. 2013;89:219-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Purple membrane (PM) is a part of cytoplasmic membrane in certain extreme halophilic microorganisms belonging to Domain Archaea. It transduces light energy to generate proton gradient for ATP synthesis in the microorganisms...
  8. Li R, Cui X, Hu W, Lu Z, Li C. Fabrication of oriented poly-L-lysine/bacteriorhodopsin-embedded purple membrane multilayer structure for enhanced photoelectric response. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2010;344:150-7 pubmed publisher
    A poly-L-lysine (PLL)/bacteriorhodopsin-embedded purple membrane (bR-PM) multilayer film has been successfully constructed by a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly process to enhance the photoelectric response of bR...
  9. Corcelli A, Colella M, Mascolo G, Fanizzi F, Kates M. A novel glycolipid and phospholipid in the purple membrane. Biochemistry. 2000;39:3318-26 pubmed
    ..quot;delipidated" bacteriorhodopsin fractions BR I and BR II, prepared by Triton X-100 treatment of purple membrane (PM), from a genetically engineered strain (L33) of Halobacterium salinarum, and chromatography on phenyl-..
  10. Corcelli A, Lattanzio V, Mascolo G, Papadia P, Fanizzi F. Lipid-protein stoichiometries in a crystalline biological membrane: NMR quantitative analysis of the lipid extract of the purple membrane. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:132-40 pubmed
    The lipid/protein stoichiometries of a naturally crystalline biological membrane, the purple membrane (PM) of Halobacterium salinarum, have been obtained by a combination of (31)P- and (1)H-NMR analyses of the lipid extract...
  11. Kamihira M, Watts A. Functionally relevant coupled dynamic profile of bacteriorhodopsin and lipids in purple membranes. Biochemistry. 2006;45:4304-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that motions in the 10s micros correlation regime may be functionally important for the photocycle of bR, and protein-lipid interactions are motionally coupled in this dynamic regime...
  12. Horn C, Steinem C. Photocurrents generated by bacteriorhodopsin adsorbed on nano-black lipid membranes. Biophys J. 2005;89:1046-54 pubmed
    ..By adding the proton ionophore carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone the conductivity of the nano-BLMs increases, resulting in a higher stationary current, which proves that proton conductance occurs across the nano-BLMs...
  13. Mishra D, Markus T, Naaman R, Kettner M, Göhler B, Zacharias H, et al. Spin-dependent electron transmission through bacteriorhodopsin embedded in purple membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14872-6 pubmed publisher
    Spin-dependent photoelectron transmission and spin-dependent electrochemical studies were conducted on purple membrane containing bacteriorhodopsin (bR) deposited on gold, aluminum/aluminum-oxide, and nickel substrates...
  14. Mostafa H. Changes in the retinal transition dipole moment in bacteriorhodopsin of the purple membrane of Halobacterium Salinarium at the so-called PH(rev). J Biochem Mol Biol Biophys. 2002;6:59-64 pubmed
    ..There may be a correlation with the process of reversing the direction of the permanent electric dipole moment, due to the reversal of the surface charge asymmetry, of the purple membrane to its opposite side at that pH(rev).
  15. Muller D, Kessler M, Oesterhelt F, Moller C, Oesterhelt D, Gaub H. Stability of bacteriorhodopsin alpha-helices and loops analyzed by single-molecule force spectroscopy. Biophys J. 2002;83:3578-88 pubmed
    ..a recent paper we had used this technique to unfold and extract single bacteriorhodopsins (BRs) from native purple membrane patches...
  16. Jin Y, Friedman N, Sheves M, He T, Cahen D. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) as an electronic conduction medium: current transport through bR-containing monolayers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8601-6 pubmed
    ..The contribution of light-driven proton pumping to the steady-state photocurrents is negligible. Possible implications in view of the suggested early evolutionary origin of halobacteria are noted. ..
  17. Rakovich A, Sukhanova A, Bouchonville N, Lukashev E, Oleinikov V, Artemyev M, et al. Resonance energy transfer improves the biological function of bacteriorhodopsin within a hybrid material built from purple membranes and semiconductor quantum dots. Nano Lett. 2010;10:2640-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Purple membrane (PM) from bacteria Halobacterium salinarum contains a photochromic protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) arranged in a 2D hexagonal nanocrystalline lattice (Figure 1 )...
  18. Baumann R, Schranz M, Hampp N. Bending of purple membranes in dependence on the pH analyzed by AFM and single molecule force spectroscopy. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2010;12:4329-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the strong interaction within the 2-D crystalline lattice of the purple membrane, the geometrical anisotropy of the individual bacteriorhodopsins adds up to a macroscopic change in the ..
  19. Zhong S, Li H, Chen X, Cao E, Jin G, Hu K. Different interactions between the two sides of purple membrane with atomic force microscope tip. Langmuir. 2007;23:4486-93 pubmed
    ..it has failed to distinguish charge density difference between the extracellular and cytoplasmic sides of purple membrane (PM) in previous studies...
  20. Varga K, Aslimovska L, Watts A. Advances towards resonance assignments for uniformly--13C, 15N enriched bacteriorhodopsin at 18.8 T in purple membranes. J Biomol NMR. 2008;41:1-4 pubmed publisher
  21. Rietschel B, Bornemann S, Arrey T, Baeumlisberger D, Karas M, Meyer B. Membrane protein analysis using an improved peptic in-solution digestion protocol. Proteomics. 2009;9:5553-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This work presents an optimization of an existing peptic digest protocol for the analysis of membrane proteins using bacteriorhodopsin from purple membranes as reference. ..
  22. Heymann J, Moller C, Muller D. Sampling effects influence heights measured with atomic force microscopy. J Microsc. 2002;207:43-51 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that to obtain accurate specimen heights, the pixel size must be small enough to resolve submolecular structures and thus ensure representative sampling of the height variation on the surface. ..
  23. Tóth Boconádi R, Keszthelyi L, Stoeckenius W. Late events in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin mutant L93A. Biophys J. 2003;84:3848-56 pubmed
    ..We excited the mutant L93A in purple membrane with single or triple laser flashes and quasicontinuous illumination, (i.e...
  24. Dioumaev A, Lanyi J. Infrared monitoring of interlayer water in stacks of purple membranes. Photochem Photobiol. 2009;85:598-608 pubmed publisher
    ..However, freezing of interbilayer water does block the M to N transition. Unlike the water, the purple membrane lipids do not undergo any IR-detectable phase transition in the 180-280 K range.
  25. Blanchet L, Mezzetti A, Ruckebusch C, Huvenne J, de Juan A. Multivariate curve resolution of rapid-scan FTIR difference spectra of quinone photoreduction in bacterial photosynthetic membranes. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007;387:1863-73 pubmed
  26. Giahi A, El Alaoui Faris M, Bassereau P, Salditt T. Active membranes studied by X-ray scattering. Eur Phys J E Soft Matter. 2007;23:431-7 pubmed
    ..The absence of any observable non-equilibrium effects in the experimental window is discussed in view of the relevant parameters and recent theories. ..
  27. Li R, Gan Y, Song Q, Zhu Z, Shi J, Yang H, et al. Bidirectional mediation of TiO2 nanowires field effect transistor by dipole moment from purple membrane. Nanoscale. 2010;2:1474-9 pubmed publisher
    Bacteriorhodopsin-embedded purple membrane (bR-PM) is one of the most promising biomaterials for various bioelectronics applications...
  28. Zakhidov E, Zakhidova M, Kasymdzhanov M, Kurbanov S, Nematov S, Norris J, et al. The Qy band of bacteriochlorophyll as an indicator of interactions between structural functional elements of the purple bacterium Blastochloris viridis. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2004;398:294-6 pubmed
  29. Masthay M, Sammeth D, Helvenston M, Buckman C, Li W, Cde Baca M, et al. The laser-induced blue state of bacteriorhodopsin: mechanistic and color regulatory roles of protein-protein interactions, protein-lipid interactions, and metal ions. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:3418-30 pubmed
    In this paper we characterize the mechanistic roles of the crystalline purple membrane (PM) lattice, the earliest bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle intermediates, and divalent cations in the conversion of PM to laser-induced blue ..
  30. Takeda K, Sato H, Hino T, Kono M, Fukuda K, Sakurai I, et al. A novel three-dimensional crystal of bacteriorhodopsin obtained by successive fusion of the vesicular assemblies. J Mol Biol. 1998;283:463-74 pubmed publisher
    When the two-dimensional crystal of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), purple membrane, is incubated at high temperature (32 degreesC) with a small amount of the neutral detergent octylthioglucoside in the presence of the precipitant ammonium ..
  31. Nollert P. Lipidic cubic phases as matrices for membrane protein crystallization. Methods. 2004;34:348-53 pubmed
    ..Bacteriorhodopsin-specific, hands-on protocols are given for (i) the preparation of bacteriohordopsin from purple membrane by monomerization in octylglucoside and gel filtration chromatography or by selective extraction after pre-..
  32. Hamanaka T, Nakagawa T, Kito Y, Nishimura S, Uchida I, Mashimo T. Binding of volatile anesthetics to purple membranes studied by X-ray diffraction. Toxicol Lett. 1998;100-101:397-403 pubmed
    Volatile anesthetics, diiodomethane and trifluoroethyl iodide, acted on the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium in two different modes depending on the concentration...
  33. Downing K, McCartney M, Glaeser R. Experimental characterization and mitigation of specimen charging on thin films with one conducting layer. Microsc Microanal. 2004;10:783-9 pubmed
    ..The pattern of buildup and disappearance of the charge pattern has led to several suggestions for how to alleviate the effect. Experiments are described that demonstrate the feasibility of such charge mitigation. ..
  34. Yonebayashi K, Yamaguchi S, Tuzi S, Saito H. Cytoplasmic surface structures of bacteriorhodopsin modified by site-directed mutations and cation binding as revealed by 13C NMR. Eur Biophys J. 2003;32:1-11 pubmed
    ..Further, cytoplasmic surface structures of Na(+)-regenerated purple membrane from the blue membrane were significantly modified by Ca(2+) ions up to 1 mM under relatively low ionic ..
  35. Kienberger F, Stroh C, Kada G, Moser R, Baumgartner W, Pastushenko V, et al. Dynamic force microscopy imaging of native membranes. Ultramicroscopy. 2003;97:229-37 pubmed
    ..These examples show that MACmode AFM is a favorable method in studying the topography of soft and weakly attached biological samples with high resolution under physiological conditions. ..
  36. Shibata M, Yamashita H, Uchihashi T, Kandori H, Ando T. High-speed atomic force microscopy shows dynamic molecular processes in photoactivated bacteriorhodopsin. Nat Nanotechnol. 2010;5:208-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirm that high-resolution visualization is a powerful approach for studying elaborate biomolecular processes under realistic conditions. ..
  37. Doltchinkova V, Stoilova S, Baldjiiska M. Effects of gamma-irradiation on the electrokinetic properties of purple membranes. Radiat Environ Biophys. 1998;37:41-5 pubmed
    ..It was suggested that the effect observed of both types of PM was mainly a structural phenomenon possibly related to the modification of functionally active residues. ..
  38. Oka T, Yagi N, Fujisawa T, Kamikubo H, Tokunaga F, Kataoka M. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction reveals multiple conformations in the M-N transition of the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:14278-82 pubmed
    ..The observed structural change at the F helix will increase access of the Schiff base and D96 to the cytoplasmic surface and facilitate the proton transfer steps that begin with the decay of the M state. ..
  39. Zhivkov A. Abnormal dispersion of refractive index of purple membranes in an aqueous medium. Appl Opt. 2010;49:272-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A region of anomalous dispersion has been found, due to a strong absorption by the retinal residue in bacteriorhodopsin macromolecules. ..
  40. Matsui Y, Sakai K, Murakami M, Shiro Y, Okumura H, Kouyama T. Specific damage induced by X-ray radiation and structural changes in the primary photoreaction of bacteriorhodopsin. J Mol Biol. 2002;324:469-81 pubmed
    Bacteriorhodopsin, the sole membrane protein of the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarum, functions as a light-driven proton pump...
  41. Baymann F, Rappaport F. Electrostatic interactions at the donor side of the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis. Biochemistry. 1998;37:15320-6 pubmed
    ..We estimate an interaction of about 20 mV between c556 and c559 and about 90 mV between c559 and P. Consequently, the operating redox potential of the P+/P couple is 410 mV...
  42. Saab M, Estephan E, Cloitre T, Legros R, Cuisinier F, Zimányi L, et al. Assembly of purple membranes on polyelectrolyte films. Langmuir. 2009;25:5159-67 pubmed publisher
    The membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin in its native membrane bound form (purple membrane) was adsorbed and incorporated into polyelectrolyte multilayered films, and adsorption was in situ monitored by optical waveguide light-mode ..
  43. Singh A, Singh A. Haloarchaea: worth exploring for their biotechnological potential. Biotechnol Lett. 2017;39:1793-1800 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, bacteriorhodopsin or the purple membrane protein present in halophilic archaea has the most recognizable applications in photoelectric devices, ..
  44. Melcher J, Carrasco C, Xu X, Carrascosa J, Gomez Herrero J, José de Pablo P, et al. Origins of phase contrast in the atomic force microscope in liquids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13655-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The theory is used to demonstrate variations in local elasticity of purple membrane and bacteriophage 29 virions in buffer solutions using the phase-contrast images.
  45. Varga K, Aslimovska L, Parrot I, Dauvergne M, Haertlein M, Forsyth V, et al. NMR crystallography: the effect of deuteration on high resolution 13C solid state NMR spectra of a 7-TM protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1768:3029-35 pubmed
    ..1) decoupling comparison of the protonated and deuterated bR imply that deuteration may be advantageous for samples in which low power 1H decoupling is required. ..
  46. Fitter J, Ernst O, Hauss T, Lechner R, Hofmann K, Dencher N. Molecular motions and hydration of purple membranes and disk membranes studied by neutron scattering. Eur Biophys J. 1998;27:638-45 pubmed
    ..From these studies the interaction of solvent molecules with the surface of the protein-lipid complex appears to be qualitatively similar for both types of membranes...
  47. Xiang Y, Yang M, Su T, Chen Y, Bi L, Hu K. Glycolipid biotinylation on purple membrane with maintained bioactivity. J Phys Chem B. 2009;113:7762-6 pubmed publisher
    In this study, labeled purple membrane (PM, Halobacterium salinarium) patches with maintained bioactivity were prepared by biotinylation of the glycolipids on the extracellular (EC) surface of the PM...
  48. Dioumaev A, Lanyi J. Switch from conventional to distributed kinetics in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11125-33 pubmed publisher
  49. Gohon Y, Dahmane T, Ruigrok R, Schuck P, Charvolin D, Rappaport F, et al. Bacteriorhodopsin/amphipol complexes: structural and functional properties. Biophys J. 2008;94:3523-37 pubmed publisher
    ..BR/APol complexes form well defined, globular particles comprising a monomer of BR, a complete set of purple membrane lipids, and, in a peripheral distribution, approximately 2 g APol/g BR, arranged in a compact layer...
  50. Sepulcre F, Proietti M, Benfatto M, Della Longa S, Garcia J, Padrós E. A quantitative XANES analysis of the calcium high-affinity binding site of the purple membrane. Biophys J. 2004;87:513-20 pubmed
    ..Our results provide strong direct evidence of the specific binding site of the metal cation in bacteriorhodopsin...
  51. Rhinow D, Imhof M, Chizhik I, Baumann R, Hampp N. Structural changes in bacteriorhodopsin caused by two-photon-induced photobleaching. J Phys Chem B. 2012;116:7455-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a model for the TPA photoresponse of BR, which also explains the irreversibility of the process in terms of a photochemical reduction of the Schiff base...
  52. Antoranz Contera S, Voitchovsky K, Ryan J. Controlled ionic condensation at the surface of a native extremophile membrane. Nanoscale. 2010;2:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, they present experimental evidence of a natural system that locally controls its interactions with the surrounding medium and challenges our current understanding of biological interfaces...
  53. Klink B, Winter R, Engelhard M, Chizhov I. Pressure dependence of the photocycle kinetics of bacteriorhodopsin. Biophys J. 2002;83:3490-8 pubmed
    ..6 +/- 2.8 mL/mol (P(6)). A model is developed that explains the dependence of DeltaV(o)(LM) on the kinetic state by the electrostriction effect of charges, which are formed and neutralized during the L/M transition...
  54. Yu Y, Gilar M, Gebler J. A complete peptide mapping of membrane proteins: a novel surfactant aiding the enzymatic digestion of bacteriorhodopsin. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18:711-5 pubmed
  55. Nikiforov M, Hohlbauch S, King W, Voitchovsky K, Contera S, Jesse S, et al. Temperature-dependent phase transitions in zeptoliter volumes of a complex biological membrane. Nanotechnology. 2011;22:055709 pubmed publisher
    Phase transitions in purple membrane have been a topic of debate for the past two decades...
  56. Lanyi J, Luecke H. Bacteriorhodopsin. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2001;11:415-9 pubmed
  57. Hu K, Sun Y, Chen D, Zhang Y. The effect of lipid environment in purple membrane on bacteriorhodopsin. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2000;58:163-9 pubmed
    ..efficiency (H+/M412), the ratios of M412 to other intermediates and the rotational correlation time (tauc) in purple membrane (PM) fragments treated by the zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-..
  58. Garczarek F, Wang J, El Sayed M, Gerwert K. The assignment of the different infrared continuum absorbance changes observed in the 3000-1800-cm(-1) region during the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. Biophys J. 2004;87:2676-82 pubmed
    ..A possible structure of the hydrogen-bonded system, giving rise to the observed bleach in the 1900-1800-cm(-1) region and the role of the polarizable proton in the proton transport is discussed...
  59. Casuso I, Scheuring S. Automated setpoint adjustment for biological contact mode atomic force microscopy imaging. Nanotechnology. 2010;21:035104 pubmed publisher
    ..A system that permanently performs this methodology steered the AFM towards high resolution imaging forces and imaged purple membrane at molecular resolution and live cells at high signal-to-noise ratio for hours without an operator.
  60. Zhang Y, Su T, Hu K. Melittin-regenerated purple membrane. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2009;74:1375-81 pubmed
    We have investigated the character of melittin-regenerated purple membrane. Adding melittin to blue membrane causes the color transition and partial regeneration of the photocycle and the proton pump...
  61. Churnside A, King G, Perkins T. Label-free optical imaging of membrane patches for atomic force microscopy. Opt Express. 2010;18:23924-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this label-free imaging efficiently locates sparsely distributed protein assemblies for subsequent AFM study while simultaneously minimizing degradation of the tip and the sample...
  62. Sasaki T, Demura M, Kato N, Mukai Y. Sensitive detection of protein-lipid interaction change on bacteriorhodopsin using dodecyl ?-D-maltoside. Biochemistry. 2011;50:2283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..bR) forms a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice with about 10 archaeal lipids per monomer bR on purple membrane (PM) of Halobacterium salinarum...
  63. Xiao Y, Hutson M, Belenky M, Herzfeld J, Braiman M. Role of arginine-82 in fast proton release during the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle: a time-resolved FT-IR study of purple membranes containing 15N-labeled arginine. Biochemistry. 2004;43:12809-18 pubmed
  64. Heyn M, Borucki B, Otto H. Chromophore reorientation during the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin: experimental methods and functional significance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1460:60-74 pubmed
    ..The kink at C(13) allows the positions of beta-ionone ring and Schiff base nitrogen to remain approximately fixed...
  65. Tuparev N, Petkanchin I, Taneva S. Irreversible temperature-induced changes in purple membranes studied by electrooptics. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2003;257:121-6 pubmed
    ..The results are important for understanding the polarization mechanisms and the origin of slow orienting moments...
  66. Perálvarez Marín A, Bourdelande J, Querol E, Padrós E. The role of proline residues in the dynamics of transmembrane helices: the case of bacteriorhodopsin. Mol Membr Biol. 2006;23:127-35 pubmed
    ..Due to their properties, transmembrane Pro residues may serve as transmission elements of conformational changes during the transport process. We propose that these concepts can be extended to other transmembrane proteins...
  67. Banyal R, Prasad B. High-contrast, all-optical switching in bacteriorhodopsin films. Appl Opt. 2005;44:5497-503 pubmed
    ..The results are presented for commercially available wild-type and D96N variant BR films...
  68. Chu J, Li X, Zhang J, Tang J. Fabrication and photoelectric response of poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/PM thin films by layer-by-layer deposition technique. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;305:116-21 pubmed
    Thin films of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and bacteriorhodopsin (bR) embedded in purple membrane (PM) have been prepared by layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique...
  69. Seitz A, Schneider F, Pasternack R, Fuchsbauer H, Hampp N. Enzymatic cross-linking of purple membranes catalyzed by bacterial transglutaminase. Biomacromolecules. 2001;2:233-8 pubmed
    ..that bacterial transglutaminase (TGase) facilitates selective cross-linking of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) in purple membrane (PM) form under mild conditions...
  70. Yokoyama Y, Sonoyama M, Mitaku S. Structural changes in bacteriorhodopsin in purple membranes induced by irreversible photobleaching with heterogeneous and homogeneous stability. Photochem Photobiol. 2010;86:297-301 pubmed publisher
    Kinetic studies of irreversible photobleaching of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) in purple membrane (PM) at neutral pH have previously indicated the existence of two kinds of species which differ in their structural stability...
  71. Tóth Boconádi R, Keszthelyi L, Stoeckenius W. Photoexcitation of the O-intermediate in bacteriorhodopsin mutant L93A. Biophys J. 2003;84:3857-63 pubmed
    ..Both the OI- and OII-decays are apparently strongly inhibited in the mutant...
  72. Turner G, Reusch R, Winter Vann A, Martinez L, Betlach M. Heterologous gene expression in a membrane-protein-specific system. Protein Expr Purif. 1999;17:312-23 pubmed
    ..The work presented describes initial efforts in the development of a novel heterologous protein expression system, which may have unique advantages for producing multiple milligram quantities of membrane-associated proteins...
  73. Borshchevskiy V, Efremov R, Moiseeva E, Büldt G, Gordeliy V. Overcoming merohedral twinning in crystals of bacteriorhodopsin grown in lipidic mesophase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2010;66:26-32 pubmed publisher
  74. Moreno Herrero F, Colchero J, Gomez Herrero J, Baro A. Atomic force microscopy contact, tapping, and jumping modes for imaging biological samples in liquids. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2004;69:031915 pubmed
    ..Contact, dynamic, and jumping modes have been applied to four different biological systems: DNA, purple membrane, Alzheimer paired helical filaments, and the bacteriophage phi29...
  75. Utschig L, Thurnauer M. Metal ion modulated electron transfer in photosynthetic proteins. Acc Chem Res. 2004;37:439-47 pubmed
    ..Factors involved in the metal ion alteration of RC electron transfer may provide a paradigm for other biological systems involved in electron transfer...
  76. Baumann R, Eussner J, Hampp N. pH-dependent bending in and out of purple membranes comprising BR-D85T. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2011;13:21375-82 pubmed publisher
    The light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR) embedded in a purple membrane (PM) from Halobacterium salinarum undergoes a series of conformational changes while transporting a proton from the cytoplasmic to the extracellular side ..
  77. Rossand I, Zaccai G, Fragneto G. A neutron diffraction study of purple membranes under pressure. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2010;66:1232-6 pubmed publisher
    Neutron diffraction from hydrated stacks of natural two-dimensional crystal patches of purple membrane from Halobacterium salinarum was studied as a function of pressure...
  78. Hwang I, Yang C, Su P, Hwu E, Liao H. Imaging soft matters in water with torsional mode atomic force microscopy. Ultramicroscopy. 2013;135:121-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We have used this mode to image different soft materials in water, including DNA molecules and purple membrane. High-resolution images of purple membrane can be obtained at a relatively low ion concentration under a long-..
  79. Deckert Gaudig T, Böhme R, Freier E, Sebesta A, Merkendorf T, Popp J, et al. Nanoscale distinction of membrane patches--a TERS study of Halobacterium salinarum. J Biophotonics. 2012;5:582-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, purple membrane (PM) patches isolated from Halobacterium salinarum were investigated in a first step using TERS (tip-enhanced ..
  80. Portuondo Campa E, Schenkl S, Dolder M, Chergui M, Landau E, Haacke S. Absorption spectroscopy of three-dimensional bacteriorhodopsin crystals at cryogenic temperatures: effects of altered hydration. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2006;62:368-74 pubmed
    ..on three-dimensional crystals of bacteriorhodopsin extracted from a lipidic cubic phase and on native purple membrane. A modified microspectrophotometer has been designed which yields absorption data with a high signal-to-noise ..
  81. Schätzler B, Dencher N, Tittor J, Oesterhelt D, Yaniv Checover S, Nachliel E, et al. Subsecond proton-hole propagation in bacteriorhodopsin. Biophys J. 2003;84:671-86 pubmed
    The dynamics of proton transfer between the surface of purple membrane and the aqueous bulk have recently been investigated by the Laser Induced Proton Pulse Method...
  82. Perálvarez Marín A, Lorenz Fonfria V, Bourdelande J, Querol E, Kandori H, Padrós E. Inter-helical hydrogen bonds are essential elements for intra-protein signal transduction: the role of Asp115 in bacteriorhodopsin transport function. J Mol Biol. 2007;368:666-76 pubmed
    ..It also supports the idea that intra-helical hydrogen bonding clusters in the buried regions of transmembrane proteins can be potential elements in intra-protein signal transduction...
  83. Lapouge K, Näveke A, Gall A, Ivancich A, Seguin J, Scheer H, et al. Conformation of bacteriochlorophyll molecules in photosynthetic proteins from purple bacteria. Biochemistry. 1999;38:11115-21 pubmed
    ..The molecular conformations of the pigments are very similar in all the antenna complexes investigated...
  84. Schranz M, Noll F, Hampp N. Oriented purple membrane monolayers covalently attached to gold by multiple thiole linkages analyzed by single molecule force spectroscopy. Langmuir. 2007;23:11134-8 pubmed
    Highly oriented monolayers of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) in purple membrane (PM) form are obtained by the reaction of BR-Q3C, where a cysteine was introduced into the N-terminal region, with a gold surface...
  85. Cherepanov D, Junge W, Mulkidjanian A. Proton transfer dynamics at the membrane/water interface: dependence on the fixed and mobile pH buffers, on the size and form of membrane particles, and on the interfacial potential barrier. Biophys J. 2004;86:665-80 pubmed
  86. Miklaszewska M, Targosz M, Sułowicz W, Pietrzyk J, Szymonski M, Rumian R, et al. [New measurement techniques in biology and medicine: atomic force microscopy (part III)]. Przegl Lek. 2004;61:192-8 pubmed
    ..AFM is a proven imaging technique that has recently gained attention in biomaterials due to its ability to analyze surface properties, non-destructively at nanometer-level resolution in ambient air or in fluid environments...