plasmodesmata

Summary

Summary: Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.

Top Publications

  1. Gilbertson R, Sudarshana M, Jiang H, Rojas M, Lucas W. Limitations on geminivirus genome size imposed by plasmodesmata and virus-encoded movement protein: insights into DNA trafficking. Plant Cell. 2003;15:2578-91 pubmed
    ..In plants, plasmodesmata serve as the conduit for this phenomenon, and viruses have evolved to use this pathway for the spread of ..
  2. Tilsner J, Cowan G, Roberts A, Chapman S, Ziegler A, Savenkov E, et al. Plasmodesmal targeting and intercellular movement of potato mop-top pomovirus is mediated by a membrane anchored tyrosine-based motif on the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum and the C-terminal transmembrane domain in the TGB3 movement protei. Virology. 2010;402:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..triple gene block protein (TGB3) of potato mop-top pomovirus and its role in assisted targeting of TGB2 to plasmodesmata (PD)...
  3. Faulkner C, Maule A. Opportunities and successes in the search for plasmodesmal proteins. Protoplasma. 2011;248:27-38 pubmed publisher
    The proteinaceous composition of plasmodesmata (PDs) is a puzzle for which pieces have proven particularly difficult to find...
  4. Haupt S, Cowan G, Ziegler A, Roberts A, Oparka K, Torrance L. Two plant-viral movement proteins traffic in the endocytic recycling pathway. Plant Cell. 2005;17:164-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Both proteins increased the size exclusion limit of plasmodesmata, and TGB3 accumulated at plasmodesmata in the absence of TGB2...
  5. Levy A, Erlanger M, Rosenthal M, Epel B. A plasmodesmata-associated beta-1,3-glucanase in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007;49:669-82 pubmed
    ..A proteomic analysis of an Arabidopsis thaliana plasmodesmata (Pd)-rich fraction identified a beta-1,3-glucanase as present in this fraction...
  6. Taoka K, Ham B, Xoconostle Cazares B, Rojas M, Lucas W. Reciprocal phosphorylation and glycosylation recognition motifs control NCAPP1 interaction with pumpkin phloem proteins and their cell-to-cell movement. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1866-84 pubmed
    ..findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a phosphorylation-glycosylation recognition motif functions to control the binding of a specific subset of phloem NCAPs to NCAPP1 and their subsequent transport through plasmodesmata.
  7. Jo Y, Cho W, Rim Y, Moon J, Chen X, Chu H, et al. Plasmodesmal receptor-like kinases identified through analysis of rice cell wall extracted proteins. Protoplasma. 2011;248:191-203 pubmed publisher
    In plants, plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular channels that function in both metabolite exchange and the transport of proteins and RNAs. Currently, many of the PD structural and regulatory components remain to be elucidated...
  8. Aoki K, Kragler F, Xoconostle Cazares B, Lucas W. A subclass of plant heat shock cognate 70 chaperones carries a motif that facilitates trafficking through plasmodesmata. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16342-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata establish a pathway for the trafficking of non-cell-autonomously acting proteins and ribonucleoprotein complexes...
  9. Sambade A, Brandner K, Hofmann C, Seemanpillai M, Mutterer J, Heinlein M. Transport of TMV movement protein particles associated with the targeting of RNA to plasmodesmata. Traffic. 2008;9:2073-88 pubmed publisher
    The cell-to-cell movement of Tobacco mosaic virus through plasmodesmata (PD) requires virus-encoded movement protein (MP)...
  10. Hofmann J, Youssef Banora M, de Almeida Engler J, Grundler F. The role of callose deposition along plasmodesmata in nematode feeding sites. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010;23:549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present data on the distribution of plasmodesmata in cell walls of syncytia and giant cells induced by cyst and root-knot nematodes...

Detail Information

Publications91

  1. Gilbertson R, Sudarshana M, Jiang H, Rojas M, Lucas W. Limitations on geminivirus genome size imposed by plasmodesmata and virus-encoded movement protein: insights into DNA trafficking. Plant Cell. 2003;15:2578-91 pubmed
    ..In plants, plasmodesmata serve as the conduit for this phenomenon, and viruses have evolved to use this pathway for the spread of ..
  2. Tilsner J, Cowan G, Roberts A, Chapman S, Ziegler A, Savenkov E, et al. Plasmodesmal targeting and intercellular movement of potato mop-top pomovirus is mediated by a membrane anchored tyrosine-based motif on the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum and the C-terminal transmembrane domain in the TGB3 movement protei. Virology. 2010;402:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..triple gene block protein (TGB3) of potato mop-top pomovirus and its role in assisted targeting of TGB2 to plasmodesmata (PD)...
  3. Faulkner C, Maule A. Opportunities and successes in the search for plasmodesmal proteins. Protoplasma. 2011;248:27-38 pubmed publisher
    The proteinaceous composition of plasmodesmata (PDs) is a puzzle for which pieces have proven particularly difficult to find...
  4. Haupt S, Cowan G, Ziegler A, Roberts A, Oparka K, Torrance L. Two plant-viral movement proteins traffic in the endocytic recycling pathway. Plant Cell. 2005;17:164-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Both proteins increased the size exclusion limit of plasmodesmata, and TGB3 accumulated at plasmodesmata in the absence of TGB2...
  5. Levy A, Erlanger M, Rosenthal M, Epel B. A plasmodesmata-associated beta-1,3-glucanase in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007;49:669-82 pubmed
    ..A proteomic analysis of an Arabidopsis thaliana plasmodesmata (Pd)-rich fraction identified a beta-1,3-glucanase as present in this fraction...
  6. Taoka K, Ham B, Xoconostle Cazares B, Rojas M, Lucas W. Reciprocal phosphorylation and glycosylation recognition motifs control NCAPP1 interaction with pumpkin phloem proteins and their cell-to-cell movement. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1866-84 pubmed
    ..findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a phosphorylation-glycosylation recognition motif functions to control the binding of a specific subset of phloem NCAPs to NCAPP1 and their subsequent transport through plasmodesmata.
  7. Jo Y, Cho W, Rim Y, Moon J, Chen X, Chu H, et al. Plasmodesmal receptor-like kinases identified through analysis of rice cell wall extracted proteins. Protoplasma. 2011;248:191-203 pubmed publisher
    In plants, plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular channels that function in both metabolite exchange and the transport of proteins and RNAs. Currently, many of the PD structural and regulatory components remain to be elucidated...
  8. Aoki K, Kragler F, Xoconostle Cazares B, Lucas W. A subclass of plant heat shock cognate 70 chaperones carries a motif that facilitates trafficking through plasmodesmata. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16342-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata establish a pathway for the trafficking of non-cell-autonomously acting proteins and ribonucleoprotein complexes...
  9. Sambade A, Brandner K, Hofmann C, Seemanpillai M, Mutterer J, Heinlein M. Transport of TMV movement protein particles associated with the targeting of RNA to plasmodesmata. Traffic. 2008;9:2073-88 pubmed publisher
    The cell-to-cell movement of Tobacco mosaic virus through plasmodesmata (PD) requires virus-encoded movement protein (MP)...
  10. Hofmann J, Youssef Banora M, de Almeida Engler J, Grundler F. The role of callose deposition along plasmodesmata in nematode feeding sites. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010;23:549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present data on the distribution of plasmodesmata in cell walls of syncytia and giant cells induced by cyst and root-knot nematodes...
  11. Stahl Y, Simon R. Gated communities: apoplastic and symplastic signals converge at plasmodesmata to control cell fates. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:5237-41 pubmed publisher
    ..with each other either by symplastic transport of diverse non-cell autonomous signalling molecules via plasmodesmata (PDs) or by endo- and exocytosis of signalling molecules via the extracellular apoplastic space...
  12. Brunkard J, Runkel A, Zambryski P. Plasmodesmata dynamics are coordinated by intracellular signaling pathways. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2013;16:614-20 pubmed publisher
    Membrane-lined channels called plasmodesmata (PD) connect the cytoplasts of adjacent plant cells across the cell wall, permitting intercellular movement of small molecules, proteins, and RNA...
  13. Pina A, Errea P, Schulz A, Martens H. Cell-to-cell transport through plasmodesmata in tree callus cultures. Tree Physiol. 2009;29:809-18 pubmed publisher
    ..the uncaged fluorescein could be traced as it was spreading cell-to-cell revealing the existence of functional plasmodesmata. This set of experiments was performed within the 'stock' partner in callus fusions ('callus grafts') as well ..
  14. Bell K, Oparka K. Imaging plasmodesmata. Protoplasma. 2011;248:9-25 pubmed publisher
    At only 50 nm in diameter, plasmodesmata (PD) are below the limit of resolution of conventional light microscopy. Consequently, much of our current interpretation of the substructure of PD is derived from transmission electron microscopy...
  15. Burch Smith T, Zambryski P. Loss of INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT (ISE)1 or ISE2 increases the formation of secondary plasmodesmata. Curr Biol. 2010;20:989-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata (PD) transport developmentally important nucleic acids and proteins between plant cells. Primary PD form during cell division and are simple, linear channels...
  16. Burch Smith T, Stonebloom S, Xu M, Zambryski P. Plasmodesmata during development: re-examination of the importance of primary, secondary, and branched plasmodesmata structure versus function. Protoplasma. 2011;248:61-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata (PD) structure and function vary temporally and spatially during all stages of plant development. PD that originate during, or post, cell division are designated as primary or secondary according to classical terminology...
  17. Li W, Zhao Y, Liu C, Yao G, Wu S, Hou C, et al. Callose deposition at plasmodesmata is a critical factor in restricting the cell-to-cell movement of Soybean mosaic virus. Plant Cell Rep. 2012;31:905-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In the incompatible combination, callose deposition at the plasmodesmata (PD) was clearly visible at the sites of inoculation but viral RNA of coat protein (CP-RNA) was not detected ..
  18. Wei T, Zhang C, Hong J, Xiong R, Kasschau K, Zhou X, et al. Formation of complexes at plasmodesmata for potyvirus intercellular movement is mediated by the viral protein P3N-PIPO. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000962 pubmed publisher
    Intercellular transport of viruses through cytoplasmic connections, termed plasmodesmata (PD), is essential for systemic infection in plants by viruses...
  19. Schubert M, Koteyeva N, Wabnitz P, Santos P, Buttner M, Sauer N, et al. Plasmodesmata distribution and sugar partitioning in nitrogen-fixing root nodules of Datisca glomerata. Planta. 2011;233:139-52 pubmed publisher
    ..processes is increased in comparison to roots, specifically in infected cells which develop many secondary plasmodesmata. Invertase activities are dramatically reduced in nodules as compared to roots, indicating that here the main ..
  20. Hyun T, Uddin M, Rim Y, Kim J. Cell-to-cell trafficking of RNA and RNA silencing through plasmodesmata. Protoplasma. 2011;248:101-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata (PD) are plasma membrane-lined cytoplasmic channels that cross the cell wall and establish symplasmic continuity between neighboring cells in plants...
  21. Paape M, Solovyev A, Erokhina T, Minina E, Schepetilnikov M, Lesemann D, et al. At-4/1, an interactor of the Tomato spotted wilt virus movement protein, belongs to a new family of plant proteins capable of directed intra- and intercellular trafficking. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2006;19:874-83 pubmed
    ..encoded NSm movement protein facilitates cell-to-cell spread of the viral genome through structurally modified plasmodesmata. NSm has been utilized as bait in yeast two-hybrid interaction trap screenings...
  22. Rutschow H, Baskin T, Kramer E. Regulation of solute flux through plasmodesmata in the root meristem. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:1817-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata permit solutes to move between cells nonspecifically and without having to cross a membrane. This symplastic connectivity, while straightforward to observe using fluorescent tracers, has proven difficult to quantify...
  23. Amari K, Boutant E, Hofmann C, Schmitt Keichinger C, Fernandez Calvino L, Didier P, et al. A family of plasmodesmal proteins with receptor-like properties for plant viral movement proteins. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001119 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata (PD) are essential but poorly understood structures in plant cell walls that provide symplastic continuity and intercellular communication pathways between adjacent cells and thus play fundamental roles in development and ..
  24. Hofmann C, Sambade A, Heinlein M. Plasmodesmata and intercellular transport of viral RNA. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007;35:142-5 pubmed
    ..of informational protein and RNA macromolecules through cytoplasmic bridges in the plant cell wall known as plasmodesmata. Viruses exploit this route for the spread of infection and are used as a model to study the mechanisms by ..
  25. Stonebloom S, Burch Smith T, Kim I, Meinke D, Mindrinos M, Zambryski P. Loss of the plant DEAD-box protein ISE1 leads to defective mitochondria and increased cell-to-cell transport via plasmodesmata. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17229-34 pubmed publisher
    Plants have intercellular channels, plasmodesmata (PD), that span the cell wall to enable cell-to-cell transport of micro- and macromolecules...
  26. Maule A. Plasmodesmata: structure, function and biogenesis. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2008;11:680-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata remain one of the outstanding mysteries in plant biology. In providing conduits for the exchange of small and large, informational molecules they are central to the growth, development and defence of all higher plants...
  27. Xu X, Jackson D. Lights at the end of the tunnel: new views of plasmodesmal structure and function. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2010;13:684-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata (PDs), tiny channels connecting neighboring plant cells, play big roles in the transport of metabolites, viral movement, cell fate specification and development...
  28. Maule A, Benitez Alfonso Y, Faulkner C. Plasmodesmata - membrane tunnels with attitude. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011;14:683-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata are doors in the rigid cell wall...
  29. Brecknock S, Dibbayawan T, Vesk M, Vesk P, Faulkner C, Barton D, et al. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of plasmodesmata. Planta. 2011;234:749-58 pubmed publisher
    ..occurs between neighbouring plant cells through functionally and structurally dynamic channels called plasmodesmata (PD)...
  30. Zambryski P. Plasmodesmata. Curr Biol. 2008;18:R324-5 pubmed publisher
  31. Howard A, Heppler M, Ju H, Krishnamurthy K, Payton M, Verchot Lubicz J. Potato virus X TGBp1 induces plasmodesmata gating and moves between cells in several host species whereas CP moves only in N. benthamiana leaves. Virology. 2004;328:185-97 pubmed
    ..Microinjection experiments indicated that TGBp1 gates plasmodesmata in Nicotiana tabacum leaves...
  32. Avisar D, Prokhnevsky A, Dolja V. Class VIII myosins are required for plasmodesmatal localization of a closterovirus Hsp70 homolog. J Virol. 2008;82:2836-43 pubmed publisher
    ..yellows virus (BYV) functions in virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement and is autonomously targeted to plasmodesmata in association with the actomyosin motility system (A. I. Prokhnevsky, V. V. Peremyslov, and V. V. Dolja, J...
  33. Bilska A, Sowinski P. Closure of plasmodesmata in maize (Zea mays) at low temperature: a new mechanism for inhibition of photosynthesis. Ann Bot. 2010;106:675-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the slowing of maize photosynthesis at low temperature is related to ultrastructural changes in the plasmodesmata between KM and BS as well as BS and vascular parenchyma (VP) cells.
  34. Kragler F. Plasmodesmata: intercellular tunnels facilitating transport of macromolecules in plants. Cell Tissue Res. 2013;352:49-58 pubmed publisher
    In plants, intercellular structures named plasmodesmata (PD) form a continuous cytoplasmic network between neighboring cells...
  35. Wright K, Wood N, Roberts A, Chapman S, Boevink P, MacKenzie K, et al. Targeting of TMV movement protein to plasmodesmata requires the actin/ER network: evidence from FRAP. Traffic. 2007;8:21-31 pubmed
    ..by which fluorescent-protein-tagged movement protein (MP) of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is targeted to plasmodesmata (PD)...
  36. Terauchi M, Nagasato C, Kajimura N, Mineyuki Y, Okuda K, Katsaros C, et al. Ultrastructural study of plasmodesmata in the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae). Planta. 2012;236:1013-26 pubmed
    b>Plasmodesmata are intercellular bridges that directly connect the cytoplasm of neighboring cells and play a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication and cell development in multicellular plants...
  37. Genoves A, Navarro J, Pallas V. The Intra- and intercellular movement of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) depends on an active secretory pathway. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010;23:263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..ER) at motile Golgi apparatus (GA) stacks that actively tracked the actin microfilaments, and at the plasmodesmata (PD)...
  38. Stonebloom S, Brunkard J, Cheung A, Jiang K, Feldman L, Zambryski P. Redox states of plastids and mitochondria differentially regulate intercellular transport via plasmodesmata. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:190-9 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies suggest that intercellular transport via plasmodesmata (PD) is regulated by cellular redox state...
  39. White R, Barton D. The cytoskeleton in plasmodesmata: a role in intercellular transport?. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:5249-66 pubmed publisher
    Actin and myosin are components of the plant cell cytoskeleton that extend from cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD), but it is unclear how they are organized within the cytoplasmic sleeve or how they might behave as regulatory ..
  40. Koh E, Zhou L, Williams D, Park J, Ding N, Duan Y, et al. Callose deposition in the phloem plasmodesmata and inhibition of phloem transport in citrus leaves infected with "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus". Protoplasma. 2012;249:687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Plasmodesmata pore units (PPUs) connecting companion cells and sieve elements were stained with a callose-specific dye in ..
  41. Lee J, Yoo B, Rojas M, Gomez Ospina N, Staehelin L, Lucas W. Selective trafficking of non-cell-autonomous proteins mediated by NtNCAPP1. Science. 2003;299:392-6 pubmed publisher
    In plants, cell-to-cell communication is mediated by plasmodesmata and involves the trafficking of non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAPs)...
  42. Gorshkova E, Erokhina T, Stroganova T, Yelina N, Zamyatnin A, Kalinina N, et al. Immunodetection and fluorescent microscopy of transgenically expressed hordeivirus TGBp3 movement protein reveals its association with endoplasmic reticulum elements in close proximity to plasmodesmata. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:985-94 pubmed
    ..pairs of opposing discrete structures that co-localized with callose, indicating their association with the plasmodesmata-enriched cell wall fields...
  43. Kankanala P, Czymmek K, Valent B. Roles for rice membrane dynamics and plasmodesmata during biotrophic invasion by the blast fungus. Plant Cell. 2007;19:706-24 pubmed
    ..This and additional evidence strongly suggest that IH co-opt plasmodesmata for cell-to-cell movement...
  44. Raffaele S, Bayer E, Lafarge D, Cluzet S, German Retana S, Boubekeur T, et al. Remorin, a solanaceae protein resident in membrane rafts and plasmodesmata, impairs potato virus X movement. Plant Cell. 2009;21:1541-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We have used imaging and biochemical approaches and in situ labeling to demonstrate that REM clusters at plasmodesmata and in approximately 70-nm membrane domains, similar to lipid rafts, in the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma ..
  45. Liesche J, Schulz A. Quantification of plant cell coupling with three-dimensional photoactivation microscopy. J Microsc. 2012;247:2-9 pubmed publisher
    Plant cells are directly connected by plasmodesmata that form channels through the cell wall and enable the intercellular movement of cytosolic solutes, membrane lipids and signalling molecules...
  46. Lee J, Taoka K, Yoo B, Ben Nissan G, Kim D, Lucas W. Plasmodesmal-associated protein kinase in tobacco and Arabidopsis recognizes a subset of non-cell-autonomous proteins. Plant Cell. 2005;17:2817-31 pubmed
    ..in plants involves the trafficking of macromolecules through specialized intercellular organelles, termed plasmodesmata. This exchange of proteins and RNA is likely regulated, and a role for protein phosphorylation has been ..
  47. Kim I, Zambryski P. Cell-to-cell communication via plasmodesmata during Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2005;8:593-9 pubmed
    ..This pathway utilizes cell-to-cell communication via plasmodesmata. Plasmodesmata span the walls between neighboring plant cells...
  48. Werner D, Gerlitz N, Stadler R. A dual switch in phloem unloading during ovule development in Arabidopsis. Protoplasma. 2011;248:225-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Assimilates are unloaded either symplastically through plasmodesmata or apoplastically by specific transport proteins...
  49. Tilsner J, Amari K, Torrance L. Plasmodesmata viewed as specialised membrane adhesion sites. Protoplasma. 2011;248:39-60 pubmed publisher
    A significant amount of work has been expended to identify the elusive components of plasmodesmata (PD) to help understand their structure, as well as how proteins are targeted to them...
  50. Kronberg K, Vogel F, Rutten T, Hajirezaei M, Sonnewald U, Hofius D. The silver lining of a viral agent: increasing seed yield and harvest index in Arabidopsis by ectopic expression of the potato leaf roll virus movement protein. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:905-18 pubmed
    Ectopic expression of viral movement proteins (MPs) has previously been shown to alter plasmodesmata (PD) function and carbon partitioning in transgenic plants, giving rise to the view of PD being dynamic and highly regulated structures ..
  51. Faulkner C, Akman O, Bell K, Jeffree C, Oparka K. Peeking into pit fields: a multiple twinning model of secondary plasmodesmata formation in tobacco. Plant Cell. 2008;20:1504-18 pubmed publisher
    In higher plants, plasmodesmata (PD) are major conduits for cell-cell communication. Primary PD are laid down at cytokinesis, while secondary PD arise during wall extension...
  52. Guenoune Gelbart D, Elbaum M, Sagi G, Levy A, Epel B. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) replicase and movement protein function synergistically in facilitating TMV spread by lateral diffusion in the plasmodesmal desmotubule of Nicotiana benthamiana. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008;21:335-45 pubmed publisher
    Virus spread through plasmodesmata (Pd) is mediated by virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs) that modify Pd structure and function...
  53. Ruiz Medrano R, Xoconostle Cazares B, Kragler F. The plasmodesmatal transport pathway for homeotic proteins, silencing signals and viruses. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2004;7:641-50 pubmed
    ..b>Plasmodesmata (PD) form a cytoplasmic network throughout the plant body and provide the means of symplasmic cell-to-cell ..
  54. Ueki S, Citovsky V. Identification of an interactor of cadmium ion-induced glycine-rich protein involved in regulation of callose levels in plant vasculature. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12089-94 pubmed
    ..Therefore, GrIP and cdiGRP represent sequentially acting factors in a biochemical pathway that regulates callose accumulation in the plant vasculature...
  55. Bayer E, Thomas C, Maule A. Plasmodesmata in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells. Protoplasma. 2004;223:93-102 pubmed
    A current challenge in plant biology is to identify the structural and functional components of plasmodesmata (PDs)...
  56. Voitsekhovskaja O, Koroleva O, Batashev D, Knop C, Tomos A, Gamalei Y, et al. Phloem loading in two Scrophulariaceae species. What can drive symplastic flow via plasmodesmata?. Plant Physiol. 2006;140:383-95 pubmed
    ..barclaiana, apoplastic phloem loading is an indispensable mechanism and that symplastic entrance of solutes into the phloem may occur by mass flow. The conditions favoring symplastic mass flow into the phloem are discussed...
  57. Cilia M, Jackson D. Plasmodesmata form and function. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:500-6 pubmed
    Intercellular transport via plasmodesmata controls cell fate decisions in plants, and is of fundamental importance in viral movement, disease resistance, and the spread of RNAi signals...
  58. Burch Smith T, Brunkard J, Choi Y, Zambryski P. Organelle-nucleus cross-talk regulates plant intercellular communication via plasmodesmata. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E1451-60 pubmed publisher
    We use Arabidopsis thaliana embryogenesis as a model system for studying intercellular transport via plasmodesmata (PD)...
  59. Epel B. Plant viruses spread by diffusion on ER-associated movement-protein-rafts through plasmodesmata gated by viral induced host beta-1,3-glucanases. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009;20:1074-81 pubmed publisher
    Plant viruses spread cell-to-cell by exploiting and modifying plasmodesmata, coaxial membranous channels that cross cell walls and interlink the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum and plasma-membranes of contiguous cells...
  60. Thomas C, Bayer E, Ritzenthaler C, Fernandez Calvino L, Maule A. Specific targeting of a plasmodesmal protein affecting cell-to-cell communication. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e7 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata provide the cytoplasmic conduits for cell-to-cell communication throughout plant tissues and participate in a diverse set of non-cell-autonomous functions...
  61. Shemyakina E, Erokhina T, Gorshkova E, Schiemann J, Solovyev A, Morozov S. Formation of protein complexes containing plant virus movement protein TGBp3 is necessary for its intracellular trafficking. Biochimie. 2011;93:742-8 pubmed publisher
    ..integral membrane protein essential for intracellular transport of other TGB proteins and viral genomic RNA to plasmodesmata. TGBp3 targeting to plasmodesmata-associated sites is believed to involve an unconventional mechanism which ..
  62. Ham B, Li G, Kang B, Zeng F, Lucas W. Overexpression of Arabidopsis plasmodesmata germin-like proteins disrupts root growth and development. Plant Cell. 2012;24:3630-48 pubmed publisher
    ..of non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAPs), including numerous transcription factors, move cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD)...
  63. Ueki S, Spektor R, Natale D, Citovsky V. ANK, a host cytoplasmic receptor for the Tobacco mosaic virus cell-to-cell movement protein, facilitates intercellular transport through plasmodesmata. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001201 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that ANK represents a host cellular receptor exploited by MP to aid viral movement by gating PD through relaxation of their callose sphincters...
  64. Kobayashi K, Otegui M, Krishnakumar S, Mindrinos M, Zambryski P. INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT 2 encodes a putative DEVH box RNA helicase involved in plasmodesmata function during Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1885-97 pubmed
    ..ise2 embryos contain branched as well as simple plasmodesmata (PD) compared with wild-type embryos, which only contain simple PD...
  65. Bayne E, Rakitina D, Morozov S, Baulcombe D. Cell-to-cell movement of potato potexvirus X is dependent on suppression of RNA silencing. Plant J. 2005;44:471-82 pubmed
    ..It is possible, based on analyses of short interfering RNA accumulation, that P25 suppresses silencing by interfering with either assembly or function of the effector complexes of RNA silencing...
  66. Escobar N, Haupt S, Thow G, Boevink P, Chapman S, Oparka K. High-throughput viral expression of cDNA-green fluorescent protein fusions reveals novel subcellular addresses and identifies unique proteins that interact with plasmodesmata. Plant Cell. 2003;15:1507-23 pubmed
    ..In a subsequent screen of >20,000 infection foci, 12 fusion proteins were identified that localized to plasmodesmata, a subcellular structure for which very few protein components have been identified...
  67. Tian G, Mohanty A, Chary S, Li S, Paap B, Drakakaki G, et al. High-throughput fluorescent tagging of full-length Arabidopsis gene products in planta. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:25-38 pubmed
  68. Xu M, Cho E, Burch Smith T, Zambryski P. Plasmodesmata formation and cell-to-cell transport are reduced in decreased size exclusion limit 1 during embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5098-103 pubmed publisher
    In plants, plasmodesmata (PD) serve as channels for micromolecular and macromolecular cell-to-cell transport. Based on structure, PD in immature tissues are classified into two types, simple and branched (X- and Y-shaped) or twinned...
  69. Taliansky M, Torrance L, Kalinina N. Role of plant virus movement proteins. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;451:33-54 pubmed publisher
    ..the form of virions or nucleic acid protein complexes) moves intracellularly from the sites of replication to plasmodesmata (PD, plant-specific intercellular membranous channels), the virus then transverses the PD to spread ..
  70. Wang X, Sager R, Cui W, Zhang C, Lu H, Lee J. Salicylic acid regulates Plasmodesmata closure during innate immune responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:2315-29 pubmed publisher
    ..of pathogenesis-related genes1-dependent SA pathway in conjunction with the regulator of plasmodesmal gating Plasmodesmata-located protein5...
  71. Christensen N, Faulkner C, Oparka K. Evidence for unidirectional flow through plasmodesmata. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:96-104 pubmed publisher
    ..a unique secretory structure in which the basal trichome cell is connected to the epidermis by numerous plasmodesmata (PD)...
  72. Lucas W, Lee J. Plasmodesmata as a supracellular control network in plants. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2004;5:712-26 pubmed
    ..b>Plasmodesmata, the intercellular organelles of the plant kingdom, establish an effective pathway for local and long-distance ..
  73. Dashevskaya S, Kopito R, Friedman R, Elbaum M, Epel B. Diffusion of anionic and neutral GFP derivatives through plasmodesmata in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana. Protoplasma. 2008;234:13-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata (Pd) are trans-wall membrane channels that permit cell-to-cell transport of metabolites and other small molecules, proteins, RNAs, and signaling molecules...
  74. Lucas W. Plant viral movement proteins: agents for cell-to-cell trafficking of viral genomes. Virology. 2006;344:169-84 pubmed
    ..spread throughout their hosts using a number of pathways, the most common being movement cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD), unique intercellular organelles of the plant kingdom, and between organs by means of the vascular system...
  75. Kozieradzka Kiszkurno M, Bohdanowicz J. Unusual electron-dense dome associates with compound plasmodesmata in the embryo-suspensor of genus Sedum (Crassulaceae). Protoplasma. 2010;247:117-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata ensure the continuity of cytoplasm between plant cells and play an important part in the intercellular communication and signal transduction. During the development of the suspensor of both Sedum acre L...
  76. Schepetilnikov M, Solovyev A, Gorshkova E, Schiemann J, Prokhnevsky A, Dolja V, et al. Intracellular targeting of a hordeiviral membrane-spanning movement protein: sequence requirements and involvement of an unconventional mechanism. J Virol. 2008;82:1284-93 pubmed
    ..TGBp3 is thought to direct other viral MPs and genomic RNA to peripheral bodies located in close proximity to plasmodesmata. We used the ectopic expression of green fluorescent protein-fused TGBp3 in epidermal cells of Nicotiana ..
  77. Liarzi O, Epel B. Development of a quantitative tool for measuring changes in the coefficient of conductivity of plasmodesmata induced by developmental, biotic, and abiotic signals. Protoplasma. 2005;225:67-76 pubmed
    ..In plants, symplasmic cell-to-cell communication is provided by plasmodesmata (Pd), coaxial membranous tunnels that span cell walls interconnecting adjacent cytoplasms...
  78. Kim I, Kobayashi K, Cho E, Zambryski P. Subdomains for transport via plasmodesmata corresponding to the apical-basal axis are established during Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11945-50 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that another pathway, cell-to-cell communication through plasmodesmata (PD), is regulated during apical-basal pattern formation...
  79. Simpson C, Thomas C, Findlay K, Bayer E, Maule A. An Arabidopsis GPI-anchor plasmodesmal neck protein with callose binding activity and potential to regulate cell-to-cell trafficking. Plant Cell. 2009;21:581-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodesmata (Pds) traverse the cell wall to establish a symplastic continuum through most of the plant...
  80. Ehlers K, van Bel A. Dynamics of plasmodesmal connectivity in successive interfaces of the cambial zone. Planta. 2010;231:371-85 pubmed publisher
    Frequency, density and branching of plasmodesmata were counted in successive tangential and transverse walls in the cambial zone of tomato stems in order to examine development of the plasmodesmal network in a chronological order...
  81. Niehl A, Heinlein M. Cellular pathways for viral transport through plasmodesmata. Protoplasma. 2011;248:75-99 pubmed publisher
    Plant viruses use plasmodesmata (PD) to spread infection between cells and systemically...
  82. Zavaliev R, Ueki S, Epel B, Citovsky V. Biology of callose (?-1,3-glucan) turnover at plasmodesmata. Protoplasma. 2011;248:117-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The deposition and degradation of callose at the neck region of plasmodesmata (Pd) is one of the cellular control mechanisms regulating Pd permeability during both abiotic and biotic ..