glycocalyx

Summary

Summary: The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)

Top Publications

  1. Rehm M, Bruegger D, Christ F, Conzen P, Thiel M, Jacob M, et al. Shedding of the endothelial glycocalyx in patients undergoing major vascular surgery with global and regional ischemia. Circulation. 2007;116:1896-906 pubmed
    The astonishing thickness of the endothelial glycocalyx, which rivals that of endothelial cells in the microvasculature, was disclosed in the last 15 years...
  2. Chappell D, Dörfler N, Jacob M, Rehm M, Welsch U, Conzen P, et al. Glycocalyx protection reduces leukocyte adhesion after ischemia/reperfusion. Shock. 2010;34:133-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Adhesion molecules are normally harbored within the glycocalyx, clothing every healthy vascular endothelium, but shed by ischemia/reperfusion...
  3. Nieuwdorp M, Meuwese M, Vink H, Hoekstra J, Kastelein J, Stroes E. The endothelial glycocalyx: a potential barrier between health and vascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2005;16:507-11 pubmed
    ..In particular, the endothelial glycocalyx, consisting of proteoglycans, glycoproteins and adsorbed plasma proteins, may play an essential role in ..
  4. Curry F. Microvascular solute and water transport. Microcirculation. 2005;12:17-31 pubmed
    ..1) the regulation of water and solute transport across the endothelial barrier in terms of pore theory and the glycocalyx-junction-break model of capillary permeability; and (2) the mechanisms regulating permeability based on ..
  5. Jacob M, Bruegger D, Rehm M, Stoeckelhuber M, Welsch U, Conzen P, et al. The endothelial glycocalyx affords compatibility of Starling's principle and high cardiac interstitial albumin levels. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;73:575-86 pubmed
    To test the role of an oncotic pressure gradient across the endothelial glycocalyx with respect to extravasation of fluid and colloids and development of tissue edema in a whole organ setting...
  6. Singh A, Ramnath R, Foster R, Wylie E, Fridén V, Dasgupta I, et al. Reactive oxygen species modulate the barrier function of the human glomerular endothelial glycocalyx. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55852 pubmed publisher
    ..Glomerular endothelial cell (GEnC) glycocalyx covers the luminal aspect of the glomerular capillary wall and makes an important contribution to the glomerular ..
  7. Pahakis M, Kosky J, Dull R, Tarbell J. The role of endothelial glycocalyx components in mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;355:228-33 pubmed
    ..of endothelial cells is decorated with a wide variety of membrane-bound macromolecules that constitute the glycocalyx. These include glycoproteins bearing acidic oligosaccharides with terminal sialic acids (SA), and proteoglycans ..
  8. Kenyon W, Esch S, Buller C. The curdlan-type exopolysaccharide produced by Cellulomonas flavigena KU forms part of an extracellular glycocalyx involved in cellulose degradation. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2005;87:143-8 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest two very different approaches towards the complex process of cellulose degradation within the genus Cellulomonas...
  9. Chappell D, Hofmann Kiefer K, Jacob M, Rehm M, Briegel J, Welsch U, et al. TNF-alpha induced shedding of the endothelial glycocalyx is prevented by hydrocortisone and antithrombin. Basic Res Cardiol. 2009;104:78-89 pubmed publisher
    Healthy vascular endothelium is clothed by the endothelial glycocalyx. This structure plays a key role in the regulation of inflammation and vascular permeability and is known to be degraded by ischemic and inflammatory stress...

More Information

Publications98

  1. Thi M, Tarbell J, Weinbaum S, Spray D. The role of the glycocalyx in reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton under fluid shear stress: a "bumper-car" model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16483-8 pubmed
    ..With intact glycocalyx, there was severe disruption of the dense peripheral actin bands (DPABs) and migration of vinculin to cell ..
  2. Becker B, Chappell D, Jacob M. Endothelial glycocalyx and coronary vascular permeability: the fringe benefit. Basic Res Cardiol. 2010;105:687-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have shown that the endothelial glycocalyx, located with a thickness of at least 200 nm on the luminal side of healthy vasculature, plays a vital role in ..
  3. Johansson P, Stensballe J, Rasmussen L, Ostrowski S. A high admission syndecan-1 level, a marker of endothelial glycocalyx degradation, is associated with inflammation, protein C depletion, fibrinolysis, and increased mortality in trauma patients. Ann Surg. 2011;254:194-200 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the association between markers of acute endothelial glycocalyx degradation, inflammation, coagulopathy, and mortality after trauma. Hyperinflammation and acute coagulopathy of trauma predict increased mortality...
  4. Lopez Quintero S, Amaya R, Pahakis M, Tarbell J. The endothelial glycocalyx mediates shear-induced changes in hydraulic conductivity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H1451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Other recent studies have shown that NO induction by shear stress is mediated by the glycocalyx that decorates the surface of endothelial cells...
  5. Salmon A, Satchell S. Endothelial glycocalyx dysfunction in disease: albuminuria and increased microvascular permeability. J Pathol. 2012;226:562-74 pubmed publisher
    ..permeability in systemic and glomerular microcirculations, focusing particularly on the role of the endothelial glycocalyx, and consider the implications for disease processes...
  6. Nieuwdorp M, Meuwese M, Mooij H, Ince C, Broekhuizen L, Kastelein J, et al. Measuring endothelial glycocalyx dimensions in humans: a potential novel tool to monitor vascular vulnerability. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:845-52 pubmed
    The endothelial glycocalyx is increasingly considered as an intravascular compartment that protects the vessel wall against pathogenic insults...
  7. Kurzelewski M, Czarnowska E, Beresewicz A. Superoxide- and nitric oxide-derived species mediate endothelial dysfunction, endothelial glycocalyx disruption, and enhanced neutrophil adhesion in the post-ischemic guinea-pig heart. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;56:163-78 pubmed
    ..superoxide (O(2)(-)) and nitric oxide (NO) mediates, not only endothelial dysfunction, but also endothelium-glycocalyx disruption, and increased neutrophil (PMN) accumulation in the heart subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (IR) ..
  8. Devaraj S, Yun J, Adamson G, Galvez J, Jialal I. C-reactive protein impairs the endothelial glycocalyx resulting in endothelial dysfunction. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84:479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased levels of C-reactive protein are associated with endothelial dysfunction. The glycocalyx decorates the luminal surface and affords critical protection of the endothelium...
  9. Nieuwdorp M, Mooij H, Kroon J, Atasever B, Spaan J, Ince C, et al. Endothelial glycocalyx damage coincides with microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2006;55:1127-32 pubmed
    ..Recently, we observed that acute hyperglycemia results in endothelial glycocalyx damage...
  10. Zeng Y, Ebong E, Fu B, Tarbell J. The structural stability of the endothelial glycocalyx after enzymatic removal of glycosaminoglycans. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43168 pubmed publisher
    ..plasma proteins form an interconnected gel-like structure on the surface of endothelial cells (the endothelial glycocalyx layer-EGL) that is stabilized by the interaction of its components...
  11. Yao Y, Rabodzey A, Dewey C. Glycocalyx modulates the motility and proliferative response of vascular endothelium to fluid shear stress. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H1023-30 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have brought in a new perspective that the glycocalyx, a structure decorating the luminal surface of vascular endothelium, may play an important role in the ..
  12. Mochizuki S, Vink H, Hiramatsu O, Kajita T, Shigeto F, Spaan J, et al. Role of hyaluronic acid glycosaminoglycans in shear-induced endothelium-derived nitric oxide release. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H722-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated a possible role of the endothelial cell glycocalyx as a biomechanical sensor that triggers endothelial NO production by transmitting flow-related shear forces to ..
  13. Lipowsky H, Gao L, Lescanic A. Shedding of the endothelial glycocalyx in arterioles, capillaries, and venules and its effect on capillary hemodynamics during inflammation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H2235-45 pubmed publisher
    The endothelial glycocalyx has been identified as a barrier to transvascular exchange of fluid, macromolecules, and leukocyte-endothelium [endothelial cell (EC)] adhesion during the inflammatory process...
  14. Salmon A, Ferguson J, Burford J, Gevorgyan H, Nakano D, Harper S, et al. Loss of the endothelial glycocalyx links albuminuria and vascular dysfunction. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:1339-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that widespread loss of the endothelial surface layer links albuminuric kidney disease with systemic vascular dysfunction, providing a potential therapeutic target for proteinuric kidney disease. ..
  15. van den Berg B, Vink H, Spaan J. The endothelial glycocalyx protects against myocardial edema. Circ Res. 2003;92:592-4 pubmed
    ..2- to 0.5-microm-thick carbohydrate layer and that its degradation instantly results in notable myocardial tissue edema. ..
  16. Akiyama H, Hamada T, Huh W, Yamasaki O, Oono T, Fujimoto W, et al. Confocal laser scanning microscopic observation of glycocalyx production by Staphylococcus aureus in skin lesions of bullous impetigo, atopic dermatitis and pemphigus foliaceus. Br J Dermatol. 2003;148:526-32 pubmed
    b>Glycocalyx collapses during dehydration to produce electron-dense accretions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) may be used to visualize fully hydrated microbial biofilms.
  17. Ueda A, Shimomura M, Ikeda M, Yamaguchi R, Tanishita K. Effect of glycocalyx on shear-dependent albumin uptake in endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H2287-94 pubmed
    The glycocalyx layer on the surface of an endothelial cell is an interface barrier for uptake of macromolecules, such as low-density lipoprotein and albumin, in the cell...
  18. VanTeeffelen J, Constantinescu A, Brands J, Spaan J, Vink H. Bradykinin- and sodium nitroprusside-induced increases in capillary tube haematocrit in mouse cremaster muscle are associated with impaired glycocalyx barrier properties. J Physiol. 2008;586:3207-18 pubmed publisher
    ..suggested that agonists may increase functionally perfused capillary volume by modulation of blood-excluding glycocalyx volume, but direct evidence for this association is lacking at the moment...
  19. Kozar R, Peng Z, Zhang R, Holcomb J, Pati S, PARK P, et al. Plasma restoration of endothelial glycocalyx in a rodent model of hemorrhagic shock. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:1289-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The endothelial glycocalyx consists of proteoglycans and glycoproteins attached to a syndecan backbone, which together protect the ..
  20. Rubio Gayosso I, Platts S, Duling B. Reactive oxygen species mediate modification of glycocalyx during ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H2247-56 pubmed
    The glycocalyx (Gcx) is a complex and poorly understood structure covering the luminal surface of endothelial cells...
  21. Grundmann S, Fink K, Rabadzhieva L, Bourgeois N, Schwab T, Moser M, et al. Perturbation of the endothelial glycocalyx in post cardiac arrest syndrome. Resuscitation. 2012;83:715-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, the endothelial glycocalyx has been shown to be a key modulator of vascular permeability and inflammation, but its role in PCAS remains ..
  22. Strunden M, Bornscheuer A, Schuster A, Kiefmann R, Goetz A, Heckel K. Glycocalyx degradation causes microvascular perfusion failure in the ex vivo perfused mouse lung: hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 pretreatment attenuates this response. Shock. 2012;38:559-66 pubmed publisher
    The endothelial glycocalyx (GLX) is pivotal to vascular barrier function...
  23. Ostrowski S, Johansson P. Endothelial glycocalyx degradation induces endogenous heparinization in patients with severe injury and early traumatic coagulopathy. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73:60-6 pubmed publisher
    ..trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is mechanistically linked to disruption of the vascular endothelium and its glycocalyx, assessed by thrombomodulin and syndecan 1, respectively...
  24. Curry F, Adamson R. Endothelial glycocalyx: permeability barrier and mechanosensor. Ann Biomed Eng. 2012;40:828-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences between the properties of the whole layer and the inner glycocalyx structures likely reflect dynamic aspects of the endothelial surface layer including tracer binding to specific ..
  25. Platts S, Linden J, Duling B. Rapid modification of the glycocalyx caused by ischemia-reperfusion is inhibited by adenosine A2A receptor activation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;284:H2360-7 pubmed
    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) has been shown to cause microvascular dysfunction and to alter the appearance of the glycocalyx in electron micrographs...
  26. Jeansson M, Haraldsson B. Morphological and functional evidence for an important role of the endothelial cell glycocalyx in the glomerular barrier. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:F111-6 pubmed
    ..study, we pursued the somewhat controversial issue whether the glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the endothelial cell glycocalyx are important for glomerular size and charge selectivity...
  27. LaFrentz B, Lindstrom N, LaPatra S, Call D, Cain K. Electrophoretic and Western blot analyses of the lipopolysaccharide and glycocalyx of Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:770-80 pubmed
    ..with LPS, and we hypothesise that the other carbohydrate-banding pattern is that of the loosely associated glycocalyx of F. psychrophilum. Electron microscopy of F...
  28. Fridén V, Oveland E, Tenstad O, Ebefors K, Nyström J, Nilsson U, et al. The glomerular endothelial cell coat is essential for glomerular filtration. Kidney Int. 2011;79:1322-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The ESL consists of the membrane-bound glycocalyx and the loosely attached endothelial cell coat (ECC)...
  29. Stevens A, Hlady V, Dull R. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy can probe albumin dynamics inside lung endothelial glycocalyx. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;293:L328-35 pubmed
    The endothelial glycocalyx is believed to play a major role in capillary permeability by functioning as a macromolecular barrier overlying the intercellular junction. Little is known about the functional attributes of the glycocalyx (i.e...
  30. Marechal X, Favory R, Joulin O, Montaigne D, Hassoun S, Decoster B, et al. Endothelial glycocalyx damage during endotoxemia coincides with microcirculatory dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress. Shock. 2008;29:572-6 pubmed publisher
    The glycocalyx constitutes the first line of the blood tissue interface and is thus involved in many physiological processes, deregulation of which may lead to microvascular dysfunction...
  31. Phillips A, Brown A, Hicks S, Schuller S, Murch S, Walker Smith J, et al. Acetylated sialic acid residues and blood group antigens localise within the epithelium in microvillous atrophy indicating internal accumulation of the glycocalyx. Gut. 2004;53:1764-71 pubmed
    ..The identity of the PAS positive material is not known, and the aim of this paper was to further investigate its composition...
  32. Zuurbier C, Demirci C, Koeman A, Vink H, Ince C. Short-term hyperglycemia increases endothelial glycocalyx permeability and acutely decreases lineal density of capillaries with flowing red blood cells. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;99:1471-6 pubmed
    ..either on the scale of hours or weeks, alters the barrier function and the volume of the endothelial glycocalyx and decreases functional capillary density and deformability of the red blood cells (RBCs)...
  33. Linnartz B, Neumann H. Microglial activatory (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif)- and inhibitory (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif)-signaling receptors for recognition of the neuronal glycocalyx. Glia. 2013;61:37-46 pubmed publisher
  34. Annecke T, Chappell D, Chen C, Jacob M, Welsch U, Sommerhoff C, et al. Sevoflurane preserves the endothelial glycocalyx against ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Br J Anaesth. 2010;104:414-21 pubmed publisher
    Healthy vascular endothelium is coated by the glycocalyx, important in multiple endothelial functions, but destroyed by ischaemia-reperfusion. The impact of volatile anaesthetics on this fragile structure has not been investigated...
  35. Pelaez J, Long J. Characterizing the glycocalyx of poultry spermatozoa: I. Identification and distribution of carbohydrate residues using flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy. J Androl. 2007;28:342-52 pubmed
    The aim of the present work was to use a battery of lectins to 1) delineate the carbohydrate content of sperm glycocalyx in the turkey and chicken using flow cytometry analysis, and 2) evaluate the distribution of existing sugars over the ..
  36. Weimer P, Price N, Kroukamp O, Joubert L, Wolfaardt G, van Zyl W. Studies of the extracellular glycocalyx of the anaerobic cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:7559-66 pubmed
    ..cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, including production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)...
  37. Duterme C, Mertens Strijthagen J, Tammi M, Flamion B. Two novel functions of hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal2) are formation of the glycocalyx and control of CD44-ERM interactions. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33495-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Functionally, Hyal2 overexpression was linked to loss of the glycocalyx, the HA-rich pericellular coat...
  38. Padilla C, Lobos O, Hubert E, Poblete F, Navarro A, Nunez L. In vitro antibacterial activity of the peptide PsVP-10 against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus with and without glycocalyx. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006;27:212-6 pubmed
    ..One hundred and twenty strains of S. mutans and 120 strains of S. sobrinus with and without glycocalyx were isolated from saliva samples in trypticase-yeast-cysteine-sucrose-bacitracin (TYCSB) agar...
  39. Becker B, Chappell D, Bruegger D, Annecke T, Jacob M. Therapeutic strategies targeting the endothelial glycocalyx: acute deficits, but great potential. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;87:300-10 pubmed publisher
    Damage of the endothelial glycocalyx, which ranges from 200 to 2000 nm in thickness, decreases vascular barrier function and leads to protein extravasation and tissue oedema, loss of nutritional blood flow, and an increase in platelet and ..
  40. Hudak J, Canham S, Bertozzi C. Glycocalyx engineering reveals a Siglec-based mechanism for NK cell immunoevasion. Nat Chem Biol. 2014;10:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We also exploited this finding to protect allogeneic and xenogeneic primary cells from NK-mediated killing, suggesting the potential of Siglecs as therapeutic targets in cell transplant therapy. ..
  41. Tarbell J, Shi Z. Effect of the glycocalyx layer on transmission of interstitial flow shear stress to embedded cells. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2013;12:111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of force from interstitial fluid flow to the surface of a cell covered by a proteoglycan / glycoprotein layer (glycocalyx) and embedded in an extracellular matrix...
  42. Kesimer M, Ehre C, Burns K, Davis C, Sheehan J, Pickles R. Molecular organization of the mucins and glycocalyx underlying mucus transport over mucosal surfaces of the airways. Mucosal Immunol. 2013;6:379-92 pubmed publisher
    ..radii of gyration ~250 nm, however, polymeric mucins should reptate readily into the PCL, so we assessed the glycocalyx for barrier functions...
  43. Noble M, Drake Holland A, Vink H. Hypothesis: arterial glycocalyx dysfunction is the first step in the atherothrombotic process. QJM. 2008;101:513-8 pubmed publisher
    We present evidence that the 0.5 microm thick gel layer, lining the inner wall of healthy blood vessels, the glycocalyx, is the first line of defence against atherothrombotic disease...
  44. van den Berg B, Nieuwdorp M, Stroes E, Vink H. Glycocalyx and endothelial (dys) function: from mice to men. Pharmacol Rep. 2006;58 Suppl:75-80 pubmed
    Located on the luminal surface of vascular endothelial cells, the glycocalyx is composed of a negatively charged mesh of proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins and glycolipids and harbors a wide array of enzymes that contribute ..
  45. Megens R, Reitsma S, Schiffers P, Hilgers R, De Mey J, Slaaf D, et al. Two-photon microscopy of vital murine elastic and muscular arteries. Combined structural and functional imaging with subcellular resolution. J Vasc Res. 2007;44:87-98 pubmed
    ..the viability of arteries and to visualize the structural components elastin, collagen, nuclei, and endothelial glycocalyx (EG). Functionality was determined using diameter changes in response to noradrenaline and acetylcholine...
  46. Martens R, Vink H, van Oostenbrugge R, Staals J. Sublingual microvascular glycocalyx dimensions in lacunar stroke patients. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;35:451-4 pubmed publisher
    Cerebral small vessel disease is thought to result from endothelial dysfunction. The glycocalyx, lining the endothelium, is a major determinant of endothelial function...
  47. Mulivor A, Lipowsky H. Inflammation- and ischemia-induced shedding of venular glycocalyx. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;286:H1672-80 pubmed
    Alterations in the composition of the glycocalyx of venular endothelium in postcapillary venules (rat mesentery) were explored in models of inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury...
  48. Drake Holland A, Noble M. Update on the important new drug target in cardiovascular medicine - the vascular glycocalyx. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2012;12:76-81 pubmed
    We reviewed this subject in 2009, pointing out that, to the process of atherothrombosis, glycocalyx dysfunction and damage must be added to the previous known causitive factors...
  49. Stonebraker J, Wagner D, Lefensty R, Burns K, Gendler S, Bergelson J, et al. Glycocalyx restricts adenoviral vector access to apical receptors expressed on respiratory epithelium in vitro and in vivo: role for tethered mucins as barriers to lumenal infection. J Virol. 2004;78:13755-68 pubmed
    ..at the apical surface did not significantly improve AdV gene transfer efficiency because the lumenal surface glycocalyx limited the access of AdV to apical GPI-CAR...
  50. Hofmann Kiefer K, Kemming G, Chappell D, Flondor M, Kisch Wedel H, Hauser A, et al. Serum heparan sulfate levels are elevated in endotoxemia. Eur J Med Res. 2009;14:526-31 pubmed
    ..However, recently it has become evident that the endothelial glycocalyx is of considerable importance concerning various aspects of vascular physiology, e.g...
  51. Udabage L, Brownlee G, Nilsson S, Brown T. The over-expression of HAS2, Hyal-2 and CD44 is implicated in the invasiveness of breast cancer. Exp Cell Res. 2005;310:205-17 pubmed
    ..There was a correlation between elevated levels of HA synthesis, CD44 expression and cancer cell migration thereby highlighting the pivotal role that HA metabolism plays in the aggressive breast cancer phenotype...
  52. Singh A, Fridén V, Dasgupta I, Foster R, Welsh G, Tooke J, et al. High glucose causes dysfunction of the human glomerular endothelial glycocalyx. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;300:F40-8 pubmed publisher
    The endothelial glycocalyx is a gel-like layer which covers the luminal side of blood vessels...
  53. VanTeeffelen J, Brands J, Janssen B, Vink H. Effect of acute hyaluronidase treatment of the glycocalyx on tracer-based whole body vascular volume estimates in mice. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2013;114:1132-40 pubmed publisher
    The endothelial glycocalyx forms a hyaluronan-containing interface between the flowing blood and the endothelium throughout the body. By comparing the systemic distribution of a small glycocalyx-accessible tracer vs...
  54. Reitsma S, oude Egbrink M, Vink H, van den Berg B, Passos V, Engels W, et al. Endothelial glycocalyx structure in the intact carotid artery: a two-photon laser scanning microscopy study. J Vasc Res. 2011;48:297-306 pubmed publisher
    The endothelial glycocalyx (EG) is the carbohydrate-rich luminal lining of endothelial cells that mediates permeability and blood cell-vessel wall interactions...
  55. Woodcock T, Woodcock T. Revised Starling equation and the glycocalyx model of transvascular fluid exchange: an improved paradigm for prescribing intravenous fluid therapy. Br J Anaesth. 2012;108:384-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The revised Starling equation based on recent research considers the contributions of the endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL), the endothelial basement membrane, and the extracellular matrix...
  56. Bai K, Wang W. Spatio-temporal development of the endothelial glycocalyx layer and its mechanical property in vitro. J R Soc Interface. 2012;9:2290-8 pubmed publisher
    The endothelial glycocalyx is a thin layer of polysaccharide matrix on the luminal surface of endothelial cells (ECs), which contains sulphated proteoglycans and glycoproteins...
  57. Vlahu C, Lemkes B, Struijk D, Koopman M, Krediet R, Vink H. Damage of the endothelial glycocalyx in dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:1900-8 pubmed publisher
    Damage to the endothelial glycocalyx, which helps maintain vascular homeostasis, heightens the sensitivity of the vasculature to atherogenic stimuli...
  58. Jacob M, Rehm M, Loetsch M, Paul J, Bruegger D, Welsch U, et al. The endothelial glycocalyx prefers albumin for evoking shear stress-induced, nitric oxide-mediated coronary dilatation. J Vasc Res. 2007;44:435-43 pubmed
    Shear stress induces coronary dilatation via production of nitric oxide (NO). This should involve the endothelial glycocalyx (EG)...
  59. Tarbell J, Pahakis M. Mechanotransduction and the glycocalyx. J Intern Med. 2006;259:339-50 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on mechanotransduction of shear stress by ECs and considers the evidence in support of the surface glycocalyx acting as a mechanotransducer.
  60. Gupta A, Wang S, Link E, Anderson E, Hofmann C, Lewandowski J, et al. Glycocalyx-mimetic dextran-modified poly(vinyl amine) surfactant coating reduces platelet adhesion on medical-grade polycarbonate surface. Biomaterials. 2006;27:3084-95 pubmed
    ..The results suggest potential application of carbohydrate-modified surfactant polymers as a glycocalyx-mimetic non-thrombogenic interfacial coating for blood-contacting biomaterials.
  61. Bruegger D, Jacob M, Rehm M, Loetsch M, Welsch U, Conzen P, et al. Atrial natriuretic peptide induces shedding of endothelial glycocalyx in coronary vascular bed of guinea pig hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H1993-9 pubmed
    ..the impact of ANP on coronary extravasation of fluids and macromolecules and on the integrity of the endothelial glycocalyx. Isolated guinea pig hearts (n = 6/group) were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer in a Langendorff mode...
  62. Torres Filho I, Torres L, Sondeen J, Polykratis I, Dubick M. In vivo evaluation of venular glycocalyx during hemorrhagic shock in rats using intravital microscopy. Microvasc Res. 2013;85:128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the evidence linking glycocalyx degradation and hemorrhagic shock, there is no direct data obtained in vivo showing glycocalyx thickness ..
  63. Savery M, Jiang J, Park P, Damiano E. The endothelial glycocalyx in syndecan-1 deficient mice. Microvasc Res. 2013;87:83-91 pubmed publisher
    The existence of a hydrodynamically relevant endothelial glycocalyx has been established in capillaries, venules, and arterioles in vivo...
  64. Donati A, Damiani E, Domizi R, Romano R, Adrario E, Pelaia P, et al. Alteration of the sublingual microvascular glycocalyx in critically ill patients. Microvasc Res. 2013;90:86-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Glycocalyx degradation may contribute to microvascular dysfunction and tissue hypoperfusion during systemic inflammation and sepsis...
  65. Chappell D, Westphal M, Jacob M. The impact of the glycocalyx on microcirculatory oxygen distribution in critical illness. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2009;22:155-62 pubmed publisher
    Main problems of critical illness and sepsis are an altered oxygen distribution and microvascular dysfunction linked to tissue oedema. This review seeks to analyse the role of the endothelial glycocalyx in this context.
  66. Dull R, Cluff M, Kingston J, Hill D, Chen H, Hoehne S, et al. Lung heparan sulfates modulate K(fc) during increased vascular pressure: evidence for glycocalyx-mediated mechanotransduction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;302:L816-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Components of the endothelial glycocalyx have been shown to participate in mechanotransduction in vitro and in systemic vessels, but the glycocalyx's ..
  67. van Haaren P, Vanbavel E, Vink H, Spaan J. Localization of the permeability barrier to solutes in isolated arteries by confocal microscopy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H2848-56 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the presence of a thick ESL that contributes to the permeability barrier to solutes. The layer is sensitive to phototoxic stress, and its damage could form an early event in atherosclerosis...
  68. Reilly G, Haut T, Yellowley C, Donahue H, Jacobs C. Fluid flow induced PGE2 release by bone cells is reduced by glycocalyx degradation whereas calcium signals are not. Biorheology. 2003;40:591-603 pubmed
    It has been hypothesized that bone cells have a hyaluronic acid (HA) rich glycocalyx (cell coat or pericellular matrix) and that this contributes to bone cell mechanotransduction via fluid flow...
  69. Nieuwdorp M, van Haeften T, Gouverneur M, Mooij H, van Lieshout M, Levi M, et al. Loss of endothelial glycocalyx during acute hyperglycemia coincides with endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation in vivo. Diabetes. 2006;55:480-6 pubmed
    Hyperglycemia is associated with increased susceptibility to atherothrombotic stimuli. The glycocalyx, a layer of proteoglycans covering the endothelium, is involved in the protective capacity of the vessel wall...
  70. Michel C, Curry F. Glycocalyx volume: a critical review of tracer dilution methods for its measurement. Microcirculation. 2009;16:213-9 pubmed publisher
    A clinical measure of endothelial glycocalyx structure would have great potential importance, because lesions of the glycocalyx may be the first changes to occur in diabetes and in a wide range of vascular diseases...
  71. Chappell D, Jacob M, Hofmann Kiefer K, Rehm M, Welsch U, Conzen P, et al. Antithrombin reduces shedding of the endothelial glycocalyx following ischaemia/reperfusion. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:388-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Healthy vascular endothelium is coated by the endothelial glycocalyx, diminution of which increases capillary permeability, e.g. after ischaemia...
  72. Krähling H, Mally S, Eble J, Noël J, Schwab A, Stock C. The glycocalyx maintains a cell surface pH nanoenvironment crucial for integrin-mediated migration of human melanoma cells. Pflugers Arch. 2009;458:1069-83 pubmed publisher
    The glycocalyx consists of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, associated plasma proteins, and soluble glycosaminoglycans and covers the surface of all eukaryotic cells...
  73. Chappell D, Jacob M, Hofmann Kiefer K, Bruegger D, Rehm M, Conzen P, et al. Hydrocortisone preserves the vascular barrier by protecting the endothelial glycocalyx. Anesthesiology. 2007;107:776-84 pubmed
    ..Healthy vascular endothelium is coated by the endothelial glycocalyx, diminution of which increases capillary permeability, suggesting that the glycocalyx is a target for ..
  74. Eskens B, Zuurbier C, van Haare J, Vink H, Van Teeffelen J. Effects of two weeks of metformin treatment on whole-body glycocalyx barrier properties in db/db mice. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:175 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the endothelial glycocalyx has been indicated to have important vasculoprotective properties and to be vulnerable to degradation by ..
  75. Weinbaum S, Zhang X, Han Y, Vink H, Cowin S. Mechanotransduction and flow across the endothelial glycocalyx. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:7988-95 pubmed
    In this inaugural paper, we shall provide an overview of the endothelial surface layer or glycocalyx in several roles: as a transport barrier, as a porous hydrodynamic interface in the motion of red and white cells in microvessels, and as ..
  76. Constantinescu A, Vink H, Spaan J. Endothelial cell glycocalyx modulates immobilization of leukocytes at the endothelial surface. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:1541-7 pubmed
    A thick endothelial glycocalyx provides the endothelial surface with a nonadherent shield. Oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) degrades the endothelial glycocalyx...
  77. Eskens B, Mooij H, Cleutjens J, Roos J, Cobelens J, Vink H, et al. Rapid insulin-mediated increase in microvascular glycocalyx accessibility in skeletal muscle may contribute to insulin-mediated glucose disposal in rats. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55399 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that insulin rapidly stimulates penetration of red blood cells (RBC) and plasma into the glycocalyx and thereby promotes insulin-mediated glucose uptake by increasing intracapillary blood volume...
  78. Brands J, Spaan J, van den Berg B, Vink H, VanTeeffelen J. Acute attenuation of glycocalyx barrier properties increases coronary blood volume independently of coronary flow reserve. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;298:H515-23 pubmed publisher
    Vascular endothelium is covered with an extensive mesh of glycocalyx constituents, which acts like an effective barrier up to several micrometers thick that shields the luminal surface of the vasculature from direct exposure to flowing ..
  79. Barakat A. Dragging along: the glycocalyx and vascular endothelial cell mechanotransduction. Circ Res. 2008;102:747-8 pubmed publisher
  80. Brower J, Targovnik J, Caplan M, Massia S. High glucose-mediated loss of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan impairs the endothelial shear stress response. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2010;67:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..we tested the hypothesis that high glucose (HG) impairs the endothelial shear stress response by damaging the glycocalyx. 50 mU/mL heparinase III enzyme removes similar proportions of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) ..
  81. Potter D, Jiang J, Damiano E. The recovery time course of the endothelial cell glycocalyx in vivo and its implications in vitro. Circ Res. 2009;104:1318-25 pubmed publisher
    Compelling evidence continues to emerge suggesting that the glycocalyx surface layer on vascular endothelial cells plays a determining role in numerous physiological processes including inflammation, microvascular permeability, and ..
  82. Annecke T, Rehm M, Bruegger D, Kubitz J, Kemming G, Stoeckelhuber M, et al. Ischemia-reperfusion-induced unmeasured anion generation and glycocalyx shedding: sevoflurane versus propofol anesthesia. J Invest Surg. 2012;25:162-8 pubmed publisher
    ..IR) is largely attributed to the destruction of the endothelial barrier and its associated negatively charged glycocalyx. In vitro, sevoflurane attenuates these changes...
  83. Oberleithner H. Two barriers for sodium in vascular endothelium?. Ann Med. 2012;44 Suppl 1:S143-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Surface measurements demonstrated that the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC), an anionic biopolymer, deteriorates when sodium is elevated...
  84. Glasgow B, Gasymov O, Casey R. Exfoliative epitheliopathy of bullous keratopathy with breaches in the MUC16 Glycocalyx. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:4060-4 pubmed publisher
    Expression of cellular adhesion molecules is altered in bullous keratopathy. The hypothesis that epithelial alterations in bullous keratopathy compromise the surface of the cornea and its glycocalyx was tested.
  85. Van Teeffelen J, Brands J, Stroes E, Vink H. Endothelial glycocalyx: sweet shield of blood vessels. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2007;17:101-5 pubmed
    At the time that the term glycocalyx ("sweet husk") was introduced as a description of the extracellular polysaccharide coating on cells (Bennett HS: 1963. Morphological aspects of extracellular polysaccharides...
  86. Gao L, Lipowsky H. Composition of the endothelial glycocalyx and its relation to its thickness and diffusion of small solutes. Microvasc Res. 2010;80:394-401 pubmed publisher
    The endothelial glycocalyx is well endowed with the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan...
  87. Oberleithner H, Peters W, Kusche Vihrog K, Korte S, Schillers H, Kliche K, et al. Salt overload damages the glycocalyx sodium barrier of vascular endothelium. Pflugers Arch. 2011;462:519-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypothesis was tested that the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC), a mesh of anionic biopolymers covering the surface of the endothelium, participates in the stiffening ..
  88. Linnartz B, Kopatz J, Tenner A, Neumann H. Sialic acid on the neuronal glycocalyx prevents complement C1 binding and complement receptor-3-mediated removal by microglia. J Neurosci. 2012;32:946-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the terminal sugar residue sialic acid of the mouse neuronal glycocalyx determines complement C1 binding and microglial-mediated clearance function...
  89. Chappell D, Jacob M, Paul O, Rehm M, Welsch U, Stoeckelhuber M, et al. The glycocalyx of the human umbilical vein endothelial cell: an impressive structure ex vivo but not in culture. Circ Res. 2009;104:1313-7 pubmed publisher
    Potter and Damiano recently assessed the hydrodynamic dimensions of the endothelial glycocalyx in vivo (mouse cremaster muscle venules) and in vitro (human umbilical vein and bovine aorta endothelium cultured in perfused microchannels) ..